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Full text of "1st to 8th Annual Report of the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. (1895-1902)"

PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 18. 



FIRST ANNUAL BEPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 

or THE 

Lyman and Industrial 
Schools 

(Formerly known as Trustees of the State Primary and 
Reform Schools), 

AND THE 

CLOSING REPORT 



State Primary School. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1896. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGB 

Trustees' Report on State Primary School, 

Trustees' Report on Lyman School, 16 

Trustees' Report on State Industrial School, 32 

Report of Treasurer of Trust Funds, 40 

Report of Superintendent of State Primary School, . . . . . . . 47 

Statistics of State Primary School, 49 

Report of Principal of Schools of State Primary School, 56 

Report of Superintendent of Lyman School, . 59 

Statistics of Lyman School, 64 

Report of Principal of Schools of Lyman School, 72 

Report of Instructor in Manual Training, Lyman School, 75 

Report of Instructor of Advanced Manual Training, 77 

Report of the Instructor in Printing, Lyman School, 79 

Report of Instructor of Gymnastics, Lyman School, 81 

Report of Physician, Lyman School 84 

Financial Statement, Lyman School 85 

Report of the Farmer, Lyman School, 97 

Valuation of Property, Lyman School, 101 

Schedule of Salaried Officers, Lyman School, 103 

List of Superintendents, Lyman School, 108 

List of Trustees, Lyman School, .' .109 

Report of Superintendent of Visitation of Lyman School Probationers, . . .111 

Report of Superintendent of State Industrial School, 119 

Statistics of State Industrial School, 121 

Report of Physician of State Industrial School, 134 



A 



TRUSTEES' REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools respect- 
fully present their annual report for the two reform schools 
now under their control, and the closing report for the recently 
abolished State Primary School. 

The State Primary School at Monson. 

The State Primary School was opened Sept. 3, 1866, and 
was closed July 1, 1895. During the twenty -nine years of its 
existence it has apparently received over 6,000 inmates, — 
most of them children of the destitute and neglected classes. 
In closing the history of an institution which has been so im- 
portant among the public charities of the State it seems fitting 
to present some account of the policy which has been pursued 
in its administration, and of the agencies which it is hoped 
will carry on its work. 

The Primary School was founded as a place of maintenance 
and education for boys and girls between the ages of three and 
sixteen who must otherwise have been in the almshouse.* At 



* At first all the Primary School inmates were received by transfer from the alms- 
houses ; but as early as 1870 the Board of State Charities was allowed to send there cer- 
tain little juvenile offenders committed to its custody, because it was judged proper they 
should be classed with dependent children rather than committed to a reform school ; 
and later, in 1882, the State Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity — the official successor 
of the Board of State Charities — was authorized to place in the Primary School children 
committed to its care on account of the criminal neglect of their parents, and others re- 
ceived directly from overseers of the poor, without their first passing through the alms- 
house. These latter classes finally formed the majority of the inmates of the institution. 

In this report the term " Primary School " children is applied indiscriminately to 
inmates of all classes. 



4 TRUSTEES' REPORT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. 

the time of its establishment several hundred children were 
inmates of one or other of the three State almshouses then 
existing, and the provision for removing these unfortunate 
children from association with adult paupers was at least a 
notable improvement upon past conditions. From 1866 to 
1872 the Primary School was simply a department of the Mon- 
son almshouse, both institutions subject to the government of 
three paid inspectors and a resident superintendent appointed 
by the governor : the power to admit and discharge inmates 
was intrusted to the Board of State Charities, and the visita- 
tion of placed-out children to a semi-independent Visiting 
Agency. On May 1, 1872, the Monson almshouse was abol- 
ished and the Primary School became sole occupant of the 
premises. On July 1, 1879, under a general reorganization of 
the State charities, the Primary School and the two State 
reform schools — the Lyman School for Boys and the State 
Industrial School for Girls — were grouped under the govern- 
ment of a newly created board of seven persons, serving without 
pay and known as the trustees of the State Primary and Re- 
form Schools. These trustees or their successors have directed 
the internal administration of the Primary School from that 
day until the day three months ago when its doors were finally 
closed. The power of admission and discharge by an inde- 
pendent board was, however, continued in the State Board of 
Health, Lunacy and Charity, afterwards known as the State 
Board of Lunacy and Charity. In this Board was also vested 
the powers of the former Visiting Agency in regard to placed- 
out children. 

Judged by modern standards, the conditions prevailing in 
the Primary School in its early days must have been very un- 
satisfactory, but with the growth of the more humane sentiment 
of to-day, ameliorations were introduced, till in recent years it 
became as happy and healthy a place as the circumstances of 
the case would admit. There was one circumstance, however, 
that was inexorable, viz., that the Primary School was an 
institution and not a natural household ; and for very many 
years the hopes and plans of the trustees have centred upon 
the practicability of transplanting larger and larger numbers of 
the children to foster homes, where they might be reinstated as 
members of the community. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 5 

Just here a serious complication was encountered, for, while 
the trustees theoretically held the right to place out the chil- 
dren at their discretion (Public Statutes, chapter 89, sections 5, 
6), the whole placing-out machinery was in the hands of the 
State Board of Lunacy and Charity, upon whose co-operation 
the trustees were thus dependent in carrying out their plans. 
This Board, which thus shared with the trustees the care of the 
children, is likewise charged with the duty of inspecting and 
reporting upon the various public institutions of the State, as 
we?l as performing many responsible functions toward the 
insane and toward adult paupers. These varied and exacting 
duties made it impossible for the members of the Board to come 
in contact with the children as the trustees did or to give their 
personal attention to the direction of the children's affairs ; and 
while the Board well agreed as to the desirability of placing 
out the children, the work as actually carried on has lagged far 
behind the desires and plans of the trustees. 

The practice of boarding out Primary School children was 
introduced* in 1882 by the joint action of the trustees and of 
the Board. It was tentatively decided at that time to limit 
payment to children under ten, hoping that it would prove 
unnecessary to pay board beyond that age. This limit worked 
satisfactorily for the more desirable children who were at first 
selected for board, and practically all of these, as they reached 
the age often, were readily established in free homes. f 

This satisfactory achievement was at first somewhat rashly 



* The Hampden County Children's Aid Society has the honor of having, somewhere 
about 1879, first boarded out children (not infants') in this State. To be sure, as long 
ago as 1865 the Board of State Charities had recommended the practice, and by 1870 it 
was authorized to board out "juvenile offenders " committed to its custody, but it seems 
never to have availed itself of the privilege. By 1872 the inspectors of the State Primary 
School were recommending boarding, but still nothing was done. In 1880 the newly 
appointed State Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity and the trustees of the State 
Primary and Reform Schools by their joint action secured the necessary legislation, 
and in 1882 the funds needed to inaugurate the experiment. 

The boarding out of infants had been introduced as long ago as 1867 by the managers 
of the Massachusetts Infant Asylum. In 1870 an act of the Legislature committed 
foundlings and other destitute infants to the Board of State Charities, but they were still 
boarded out and visited by the agents of the Infant Asylum, though also visited by the 
agents of the Board. In 1880 the Board, or rather its official successor, began to board 
out infants through its own agents. 

t Between 1882 and 1892, 200 little boarders reached the age of ten. Of these, 168 
were placed in free homes, 19 were discharged to their own people, and only 13 (for the 
most part hospital cases) were returned to the Primary School. 



6 TRUSTEES' REPORT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. 

assumed to prove that all children over ten could be placed 
free of payment, in spite of the fact that scores of boys and 
girls of ten and older remained in the Primary School. Among 
the inmates it was common to find children who had entered 
the School perhaps at the age of nine, who had not been 
boarded because so near the boarding limit, and who at the 
age of twelve or thirteen were still waiting for suitable places. 
This fact was formally called to the attention of the Board of 
Lunacy and Charity as early as the autumn of 1891, the trus- 
tees then offering the suggestion that board might properly be 
extended to selected children over ten. 

This suggestion did not meet with favor. Instead, the Board 
appointed a special agent who should make an effort to find 
homes without board for a larger number of Primary School 
children. In consequence of this agent's activity the number 
placed out rose within the year 69+ per cent. ; but as the 
number returned from places rose during the same time 100 per 
cent., it gradually became evident that the effort to make these 
young children self-supporting resulted too often in simply 
moving them from the Primary School to places and back 
again to the school and again to other places, and so on, re- 
peatedly. To be thus handed about from one situation to 
another was, of course, demoralizing to a child, whose educa- 
tion was thereby interrupted and who could not but be injured 
by each unsuccessful experiment. 

Later developments have shown that the insistence that 
these children should become self-supporting while so young 
led to a wholesale disregard of the educational laws of the 
State, and to much wrong in individual cases. It cannot be 
claimed that the choice lay between keeping these children 
in an institution with schooling or placing them out without 
schooling, — for by boarding them, the benefits of both family 
life and of education might have been secured. 

Meanwhile the old almshouse buildings which the Primary 
School occupied, were so conspicuously ill adapted to its needs 
that the plan to build cottages where the children could be 
cared for in little groups was always pending, but was post- 
poned from year to year in the hope that so many children 
might be successfully placed out that the need for a large insti- 
tution might be obviated. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

In 1882, when the boarding experiment was inaugurated, 
the average population of the Primary School stood at 448 ; 
by 1886 the experiment was a proved success, yet the average 
population stood at 391 ; by 1891, when the extension of the 
boarding age was suggested by the trustees, there was still an 
average of 329 in the school; and by 1894, after two years 
of increased activity on the part of the Board of Lunacy and 
Charity in its placing-out work, the average of the Primary 
School still stood as high as 219, the number of inmates 
having risen within the year to 293. This slow fall in the 
population was due in some degree to an increase in the num- 
ber of new-comers, which rose from 218 children in 1882 to 
269* in 1894 — an increase in twelve years of 23 -(-per cent. 
But the increase of children returned from unsuccessful plac- 
ings was a far more potent factor, having risen from 86 in 1882 
to 216 in 1894 — an increase of 138 per cent. f Meanwhile, 
among the inmates were always numbers of little ones whom 
it was intended to board out when the agents got round to it, 
and still larger numbers of older boys and girls whose detention 
was contrary to the judgment of the trustees, and whom it was 
always hoped would be withdrawn. And so the day which the 



* The admissions in 1894 were unusually large, owing to the transfer to the Primary 
School of 44 Lyman School boys. 

f The following figures, taken from the reports of the State Primary School, are 
instructive : — 

1882, total number returned to the Primary School, . . . . .86 



1883, 
1884, 
1885, 
1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 



84 

60 

87 

81 

92 

88 

82 

66 

86 

172 

201 

216 



The above figures show that, until the policy of trying to make young children self- 
supporting was adopted in 1892, for ten years past there had been no increase at all in 
the number of returns. In 1890 there were only 66 returns, the smallest figure, with one 
exception, in the whole period under consideration. Within four years from that date 
the number had more than trebled, and the only new factor that appears to have 
entered into the situation was the effort to place young and incapable children without 
board. 



8 TRUSTEES' REPORT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. 

trustees anticipated, when only those should be in the institu- 
tion whom it was proved impossible or inexpedient to care for 
in private families, seemed to recede and recede like a mirage. 

From time to time during recent years the trustees have 
renewed their suggestion that only by an extension of the 
boarding age could the unwholesome numbers in the Primary 
School be reduced. Not until August, 1894, and after consid- 
erable correspondence to and fro, were the first active steps 
in the matter taken and 9 older boys boarded out. These 9 
were mostly defective children who would probably always be 
dependent, whereas the trustees had hoped to try the experi- 
ment first with children who could soon become self-supporting, 
payment of board serving simply to give them a start or tide 
them over a short interval. The boarding out of these few 
defective children did not augur any very radical change in 
the population of the school, and the trustees planned the 
winter's work upon much the usual lines, re-engaging a resi- 
dent physician, a kindergarten teacher, etc. Suddenly, in Sep- 
tember, it was learned incidentally by the trustees that all 
dependent and neglected children of whatever age and condition 
who could not at once be placed free were to be boarded, and 
the institution henceforward given over to the juvenile offenders, 
who already formed the majority of its population. So matters 
stood a year ago when the trustees presented their annual 
report, wherein it was urged that among the juvenile offenders 
in the school were many little fellows who should be likewise 
boarded, that it was an injustice to class these with other of 
the inmates who were proper subjects for a reform school. 
This suggestion the Board of Lunacy and Charity set aside. 
In March, however, an officer of this Board announced at a 
public hearing before the legislative committee on public chari- 
table institutions that the Board had decided to withdraw all 
the inmates of whatever character or status from the Primary 
School by May 1, after which date the institution might be 
closed. 

The proposition to abolish the State Primary School origi- 
nated with the trustees. For many years the conviction had 
been growing in their minds that an institution which gathered 
together in one establishment children of such various histories 
and tendencies as were sheltered in the Primary School was in 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

itself an evil, while the system of dividing the care of the 
children between two boards was one which could never pro- 
duce the best results. 

The management of the Primary School was no simple ques- 
tion of housekeeping. It must concern itself with the moral 
needs of its inmates, and it must pursue that policy which 
would most successfully reinstate them as homogeneous mem- 
bers of the community. In conducting such a school it 
was impossible for thinking people to draw a line in their 
minds and say "up to this point we will concern ourselves, 
what happens beyond is not our business," for on this " beyond " 
depended the whole value of the enterprise. Thus the thoughts 
of the trustees inevitably centred upon the fortunes of their 
little wards as they left the shelter of the institution, and the 
placing-out agency, though directed by another Board, was felt 
to be vitally connected with the work of the Primary School. 

This feeling on the part of the trustees was no new one. 
As long ago as 1879, in their very first annual report, the 
trustees assert a direct responsibility on their part for placed- 
out Primary School children.* Again, two years later, they 
say (report for 1881, page 9) : — 

" . . . The trustees and the superintendent deal with individuals one 
after another. They must call these boys and girls by their names ; 
they must decide upon the time for placing them out, and must 
receive them again when troublesome. If there are weak points in 
the school training, or in the system of placing and visiting, the 
consequences are sure to be felt in the institution, as in a family, 
where the black sheep and the weaklings come back because not 
wanted elsewhere." 

A very striking feature of the placing-out work as carried 
on by the Board of Lunacy and Charity is the lack of any 
such close relation as is described above between the children 
and those who direct the work. This is so from the very 
nature of the case. The members of the Board, occupied with 



* In the annual report of the trustees of the State Primary and Reform Schools for 
the year ending Sept. 30, 1879,'page 8, we read : " As they [the trustees] are held directly 
responsible for the well-being or the ill-treatment of all from the three institutions, the 
trustees are of the opinion that they should have some voice in the matter of the appoint- 
ment of these visitors or guardians." 



10 TRUSTEES' REPORT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. 

the many other important duties assigned them, have little 
opportunity to see and know the children or to observe where 
their methods or their agents may be at fault. The aloofness 
of the Board from its child wards, and its wholesale method 
of dealing with them, is illustrated by the fact that the com- 
mittee of the Board which directs the children's department 
and acts on petitions dealt also, within one year, with the cases 
of over 50,000 adult paupers and criminals. 

Further, since the Board of Lunacy and Charity is itself the 
supervisory board of the State, the children in its care neces- 
sarily escape the safeguard of independent inspection such as 
is provided for all other public charitable work of Massachu- 
setts.* The value of independent inspection with its liability 
to criticism is amply conceded, and is incorporated in the or- 
ganization of the public charities of this and other States ; and 
if such a safeguard is ever appropriate it would seem to be so 
in the case of an army of little children placed out among 
strangers. 

For many years the trustees have felt a growing misgiving 
that this placing-out work was not judiciously directed. The 
agents were active, and were apparently doing their best, but 
they seemed to be hampered by a lack of understanding on the 
part of their superiors of the problems involved in their work. 
The agents themselves were not in a position to offer suggestions 
to their employers, while those in control were so unfamiliar 
with actual conditions that their generalizations were often far 
afield. For instance, the long insistence that all children over 
ten should be self-supporting was like forcing water to run 
up hill. Again, the sharp line on which it was decided to 
board out any kind of a " neglected" child, but never a little 



* The State Board of Lunacy and Charity inspects and makes an annual report upon 
the two State reform schools, the State Almshouse, the State Farm, the Massachusetts 
Hospital for Dipsomaniacs, the Massachusetts School for the Feeble-minded, the Hos- 
pital Cottages for Children, and six State insane asylums. Each of these institutions is 
subject to the government of boards of trustees ; yet the Board of Lunacy and Charity 
has the right in most, if not in all, of these institutions to inspect the books, to talk in 
private with any of the inmates and to visit any part of the institution by day or night. 
This is as it should be. The public should have some means of official information as 
to these matters from parties who can have no interest in whitewashing their conduct of 
affairs. Alone of the charitable work of the State, the care of some 1,600 placed-out 
children and of some 200 boarded-out insane escapes the supervisory inspection of an 
ndependent board. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

"juvenile offender," showed total unacquaintance with the 
children. More and more the trustees felt that the best results 
could not be secured under such a system, but they long kept 
silence, hoping that the Board of Lunacy and Charity might 
recognize the fact and itself inaugurate a change. As time 
went on, it became apparent that such a move would not origi- 
nate with the Board ; and meanwhile the defects in the system 
were bearing fruit. 

Within the last year an inquiry into the schooling of children 
placed out from the Primary School * brought many things to 
light. In the first place it was found that out of 95 cases of 
boys taken at random between the ages of ten and fourteen 
who within three years had been placed without board, only 
7 had received, or were in the way of receiving while in the 
place of which the inquiry was made, the thirty weeks of 
schooling a year required by law (chapter 384 of the Acts of 
1890), while the education of some of the others had been 
shockingly neglected. 

In making this inquiry it was intended to gather information 
only on the question of education, but incidentally a good deal 
else was learned to indicate that in more important matters the 
welfare of the children was too often overlooked. And joined 
to all this was an apparent unconsciousness on the part of the 
Board that anything was anywhere amiss. Manifestly, the 
Board of Lunacy and Charity, preoccupied with the super- 
vision of the work of other boards, omitted to properly ac- 
quaint itself with the details of its own department. 

Now the trustees felt a heavy responsibility for these chil- 
dren. The Primary School had been founded for the care and 
nurture of dependent boys and girls who it was expected 
would pass their entire childhood within its shelter. Here the 
trustees could have secured for them a proper education, and 
have guarded and watched over them to their hearts' content. 
But the trustees felt, and they believe felt rightly, that the best 



* In the records of the meetings of the trustees is recorded, under date of Jan. 18, 1895 : 
" The superintendent of the State Primary School made a statement that a number of 
children within the school age had recently been returned from places to the State 
Primary School who had not received proper schooling while out in places. 

" Voted, That said superintendent be directed to ascertain by personal inquiry whether 
the above-mentioned cases are exceptional, or whether they represent a considerable 
class." 



12 TRUSTEES' REPORT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct, 

of institutions is a poor substitute for a good home, and so 
they abandoned the policy of the founders of the school and 
urged on the work of placing out. They nevertheless felt it 
their right and duty to follow the children out into the world 
with their solicitude ; and when convinced that their best inter- 
ests were endangered, to protest in their behalf. Accordingly 
"An Act concerning the Children in the Care of the State" 
(Senate No. 47) was laid before the last Legislature. This bill 
provided that the trustees of the State Primary and Reform 
Schools should continue in charge of only the Reform School 
children (committed to the Lyman School for Boys and to the 
State Industrial School for Girls) and that the State Primary 
School should be abolished. Children such as had previously 
been received in the Primary School, together with destitute 
infants in the State's care, the bill provided should be confided 
to a newly created State Children's Bureau, this Bureau to be 
directed by an unpaid board of trustees similar to those in con- 
trol of the various State institutions, and, like these other 
boards, subject to the inspection of the State Board of Lunacy 
and Charity. The bill provided further that the trustees of the 
Bureau should establish one or more receiving houses where 
children might temporarily lodge, and whence they would be 
placed out as soon as might be, thus providing for the float- 
ing population of the Primary School ; while the sick, the un- 
derwitted and the vicious, who used to make up a more or less 
permanent State Primary School population, should be provided 
for in hospitals, the School for the Feeble-Minded or a reform 
school. 

Thus the proposed system would have replaced the old hete- 
rogeneous congregation of, the Primary School by intelligent 
classification ; it would have cured the evil of a divided respon- 
sibility ; it would have secured for the children the whole 
attention of the board having them in charge, enlisting in their 
behalf the services of a larger number of unpaid charitable 
workers ; and it would have provided the safeguard of indepen- 
dent inspection for the most important and the most delicate 
department of public charitable work. 

The bill expressly provided that the agents and visitors em- 
ployed by the Board of Lunacy and Charity in looking after 
the children should pass to the employ of the bureau, thus 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

retaining the benefit of trained service and disturbing established 
customs as little as possible. Careful estimates showed that 
should the bill pass, no increase of expense would be demanded, 
since the only new machinery involved would be the creation 
of unpaid trustees, and further, that the money saved by abolish- 
ing the Primary School would allow better care for placed-out 
children without any increase in the total appropriations. 

At the hearings where the bill was discussed, the above argu- 
ments and many others were presented by witnesses whose 
experience in charitable work entitled their opinion to weight 
and who had nothing to gain or lose by the proposed change, 
while really no arguments that could be called such were 
brought forward in opposition. 

As, however, the matter was one which had previously 
excited little public attention, it was scarcely to have been 
expected that the bill would pass the first time it was recom- 
mended. Certain of its clauses relative to Lyman School and 
Industrial School children, the nature of which is explained 
in the reports on those institutions (page 22), were, however, 
enacted ; and the suggestion that the Primary School might be 
dispensed with was seized upon. 

A substitute bill, chapter 428 of the Acts of 1895, became law 
on May 29, and by its provisions the State Primary School was 
closed on July 1. This has thrown the children of the classes 
formerly received in that institution wholly into the hands of 
the supervisory board, and has thus emphasized the underlying 
defect of the old system. While every charitable institution 
of the State is open to the public and to inspection by the Board 
of Lunacy and Charity besides, no citizen of Massachusetts is 
entitled by law to know how the Board of Lunacy and Charity 
takes care of its child wards, — not even where they are. 

The Primary School opened the year with 127 inmates ; 55 
new-comers were admitted and 124 children were returned from 
places, making an aggregate of 286 dealt with from Sept. 30, 
1894, to July 1, 1895. The average number of inmates was 
87. The various classes to which the new-comers belonged, 
and the disposition made of the whole number, are given in the 
tables on page 49. 

When it was announced in March that the institution would 
forthwith be vacated, it contained 87 inmates, most of them 



U TRUSTEES' REPORT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. 

juvenile offenders ; 8 others were afterwards newly admitted 
and 15 were returned from places, giving a total of 110 to be 
disposed of somehow by July 1. The 87 in the institution 
included many hard cases left over after all the more available 
ones had been picked out ; and the new-comers and returned 
boys can onlv have been placed in the school in its closing 
weeks by sheer necessity. The disposition of these 110 chil- 
dren was as follows : — 



Placed out. 

Boarded, 

Sent to their homes. 

Transferred to the Lyman School. . 

Transferred to State almshouse, 

Placed in House of the Angel Guardian, 

Placed in children's hospital for treatment, 

Placed in House at Arlington.* 



25 
35 
27 
12 

6 
3 

1 
1 



Among those who went home were several very hard charac- 
ters whom the trustees thought it rash to let loose in the 
community. One of these has since been arrested and sen- 
tenced to the Lyman School. Of the 6 who were placed in 
the State almshouse, 5 were lawless boys who needed re- 
formatory treatment if any boys in Massachusetts do. One 
of them it is known immediately ran away. To resort to the 
almshouse for such cases seems a reversion to methods long 
since superseded by the spirit of reform. Of the 12 who 
were transferred to the Lyman School, all but 2 had been 
originally committed to that institution, and passed again into 
the hands of the trustees by the terms of the bill. Most of 
those boarded out were well over ten, and one was as old as 
fifteen. Some dozen of these boarded boys are understood to 
have been placed together in a farmer's family at an expense 
of S4 a week, exclusive of schooling. 

The question irresistibly arises, " what provision is now being 
made for the children corresponding to the 286 who were last 
year in the Primary School for a greater or less time ? " On 
this point the trustees sought information from the Board of 
Lunacy and Charity, desiring in especial to know how far little 



* This is a small institution recently opened by the State Board of Lunacy and Charity 
and under its control. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

juvenile offenders were being boarded and with what success, 
and how far they were being placed in other institutions.* All 
information on the matter was withheld from the trustees. It 
may be looked for in the annual report of the Board, to be 
published some months hence. 

The current expenses and salaries of the Primary School 
during its last nine months were $24,012.92 ; this gives a per 
capita cost of $7.06, — an enormous rate due wholly to the sudden 
and unforeseen changes in the school. For instance, a resident 
physician, engaged when it was supposed there would be num- 
bers of little children and of invalids in the school, had to be 
retained for many months, practically without occupation ; the 
hospital was renovated, — to be presently vacated. A depart- 
ment for girls must be maintained, though for weeks there 
were only half a dozen girls in the institution. As numbers 
declined, quantities of milk were thrown on the superintendent's 
hands, which he could not dispose of profitably because the 
future was so uncertain. Finally, when the institution was 
closed, there were, according to the appraiser's estimate, 
$8,653.52 worth of supplies on hand, — farm produce, gro- 
ceries, fuel and children's clothing. The cost of all these 
things, so far as purchased within the current year, is divided 
among the average number of inmates. 

The new barn, begun a year ago last August to replace one 
destroyed by fire, was completed in December for the sum of 
$9,607.44. It was built by day labor under the direction of 
the superintendent, and is a truly admirable piece of work. 

With the closing of the State Primary School the official 
connection of the trustees with its former inmates is severed, 
and they are relieved of the onerous duty of recommending 
further legislation on their behalf. As their last word in lay- 
ing down the charge committed to their Board sixteen years 
ago, they would commend the children's cause to the thought- 
ful consideration of the Legislature. 



* It is evident that a number of juvenile offenders, such as were formerly cared for at 
Monson, are now sent to the Lyman School. How many are otherwise disposed of is 
what cannot be ascertained. 



16 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct, 



LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS. 

WESTBOROUGH. 



The Lyman School is the State Reform School for boys. 
This school is in the forty-ninth year of its existence. 

It is the earnest purpose and endeavor of those who are in 
charge of this institution to carefully consider the needs of the 
community which render the reform school a necessity, and to 
so shape the school as to meet those needs in as radical a man- 
ner as possible. The popular conception of a reform school 
simply as a place to keep bad boys for a time is far from an 
adequate conception of a useful institution ; and the Lyman 
School, following the lead of its clear-sighted founder, has for 
years been growing away from such an ideal. The popular 
ideal simply recognizes the fact of the inconvenience to the 
community caused by a disturbing class of boys, and of the de- 
sirability of freeing the community from this inconvenience by 
shutting up such boys for a time. There is also included in 
this ideal a vague notion that commitment to the reform school 
is a merited punishment, and that the improvement of the boy 
committed is to be brought about by punishing him. Under 
this conception the requirements for a reform school were suffi- 
ciently well met by a prison-like institution, in which boys of 
all ages, histories, habits, tendencies and abilities were herded, 
with but little thought save that of ridding the community of 
them, and of punishing them for past offences. Of such a 
reform school it has been said that a boy was likely to come 
out worse than he went in. 

The modern ideal of a boys' reform school has been con- 
ceived with a little deeper thought as to the causes of the 
disturbing element and a little broader and a more radical 
view of the remedy which is called for. The reform school 
of to-day does not set before itself as its chief duties the tern- 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

porary protection of the community from the boy committed, 
and the punishment of the lad, but it tries to get at the root 
of the difficulty and to apply a remedy which shall, if possible, 
prevent the recurrence of the trouble in the future. It en- 
deavors to discover at the very outset of a boy's commitment 
what causes have resulted in his exclusion from the community, 
and how these causes can best be remedied. It recognizes that 
there is some defect either in the lad or in his surroundings which 
has resulted in his commitment, and, further, that this defect 
calls for appropriate treatment rather than for indiscriminate 
punishment. It recognizes also that it is important that this 
boy should be returned to the community to shoulder his right- 
ful responsibilities and privileges as soon as possible, and con- 
sequently that whatever remedy is applied must be as vigorous 
and as directly to the point as possible. 

If the trouble with the boy committed, so far as can be seen, 
is chiefly the lack of good home influences, that defect, as will 
be explained, is remedied at once by placing him in a good 
home elsewhere and properly caring for him. But if, as ap- 
pears to be the case in the majority of instances, hereditary 
faults or a long-neglected childhood have resulted in an abnor- 
mally developed or defective boy, such a boy is detained at 
the school for a time, and the best means that experience and 
ingenuity can suggest are applied to stimulate and to foster 
his development into a sufficiently normal boy. 

He is usually an utterly heedless boy, slow to take impres- 
sions and to appreciate the results of his acts. He is inaccu- 
rate and inexact in both physical and mental action. He has 
no idea of the fundamental value of truth as a basis for all the 
relations and operations of life. Now, it is not a simple pun- 
ishment that he needs. It cannot be reasonably expected that 
he can be punished into an interest in good things to the ex- 
clusion of bad. Punishment alone is but a poor means of 
teaching him how to control his body or to apply his mind. 

It is the endeavor of the Lyman School first and foremost to 
stir, to awaken, and to develop in him those normal powers 
of control of mind and body which must be depended upon in 
his future liberty to give him a clearer conception of the right 
and which will help him to hold to it. The means employed at 
the Lyman School to accomplish this end are various. The 



18 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

new-comer is taken at once into the family life of one of the 
households of the school, and as a matter of course he is held 
strictly to the cleanly habits and the regular life of the family. 
He takes his share of the household duties : cleaning floors, 
making beds, washing, ironing, cooking, etc. He has his share 
in the farm work : ploughing, planting, cultivating, weeding, 
harvesting ; or about the barn in milking, tending the cows 
and horses ; or in the general improvements about the institu- 
tion in clearing rough land, building roads, etc. He, perhaps, 
assists in the general bakery or in the sewing- rooms. All this 
is the necessary work of the institution, and must be done by 
the boys for economy's sake. It also serves a purpose in drill- 
ing the boys in regular habits, and in familiarizing them with 
good housekeeping both in-doors and out. But it is work 
which is not specially designed nor fitted to remedy the de- 
fects of development in the boys, which it is the aim of the 
school to make good as directly and as rapidly as possible. 
In this, the fundamental work of the school, at present the physi- 
cal and the manual training classes are largely depended upon. 
The dull, heedless, slouching boy is taken in hand by the 
physical training. He may be too dull and apparently stupid 
even to understand what he is told to do ; at all events, his 
mental processes are too slow to start his action in unison with 
boys of normal alertness. He is put into a game class, and 
the attempt is made to wake him up, — to make him run and 
jump, to successfully elude or to catch his opponent in the 
game. When he is thoroughly waked up he is ready to profit 
by the regular work of the physical drill. He responds more 
and more readily to the quick word of command, and becomes 
better and better able to control his body in easy or in extreme 
exertion. It is certainly within bounds to say that the sys- 
tematic course of physical drill is seen to be helpful not only 
in developing sound, strong and well-formed bodies, but more 
particularly in developing the power of quickly comprehending 
commands and as quickly obeying. Thus, besides the physical 
development, which is perhaps the most obvious feature of this 
drill, there is combined that which is of perhaps greater con- 
sequence, — a mental and moral development as well, in the 
power and habit of attention and quick comprehension, and of 
prompt and accurate obedience in action. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

The manual training work is helpful toward the same ends. 
In this work the boy learns not merely to handle tools and to 
become familiar with simple forms of woodwork, but, what is 
of much more importance, he is under a constant mental and 
moral discipline as well. It is an attractive and easily under- 
stood means of teaching directly in a concrete form exactly the 
principles and habits which the reform school boy needs to 
be taught. Heedless, careless, slipshod ways invariably and 
necessarily bear immediate concrete fruit in poor or spoiled 
work, which he can readily see. He soon learns to be careful 
with his tools, under the spur of his desire to do good work, 
for all want to do well in the shop. As this progressive series 
of exercises is planned and taught, it is a logical and appro- 
priate continuation of the methods of the kindergarten. As 
the simple kindergarten exercises enable little children to get 
a better control of clumsy and refractory little fingers, so the 
more advanced work of the Sloyd shop gives the boys a power 
and mastery over themselves and a familiarity with the common 
laws of nature in an exceedingly direct and forcible manner. 

To help a heedless, wrong-headed boy at odds with himself 
as well as with the world to gain a full control of himself and 
to learn to co-operate with nature's common laws are long steps 
toward bringing him into harmony with all right laws. 

The carefully planned system of Sloyd work leads progres- 
sively and rapidly to exercises requiring a degree of mental 
grasp and of hand control quite beyond the reach of the be- 
ginner. 

For those who have a decided mechanical bent, the turn- 
ing and metal working shops afford more advanced training. 
There is usually opportunity also for the ablest boys to help 
in the construction and repair of the buildings of the institu- 
tion. During the present year they are doing a considerable 
share of the building of the new barn. They have also built 
in large part two underground storerooms for the wintering of 
vegetables. The well-conducted printing office of the school 
offers an opportunity to a limited number of boys for a techni- 
cal training in the printer's trade. 

The schoolroom work is planned with a full acquaintance 
with the best modern methods of reaching school-boys such 
as these. Many of the teachers have succeeded admirably in 



20 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

arousing the interest of the boys in history, in geography and 
especially in nature studies, which include of course drawing 
and the use of colors. The superintendent's efforts, however, 
to make a really efficient school which shall properly supple- 
ment the physical and manual training are at present seriously 
hampered because of the arrangement of the schoolrooms. 
Each of the family houses has, as at present arranged, its 
own schoolroom, in charge of its own teacher. Thus in the 
institution there are eight separate and independent schools, 
within calling distance from each other. Now, the mainten- 
ance of eight ungraded schools in an outside community having 
a school population of two hundred and fifty children, all living 
within a quarter of a mile circuit, would be considered the 
height of folly from the point of view of economy and effi- 
ciency. At the time the school was reorganized and estab- 
lished in its present quarters, it was considered inadvisable to 
bring the boys together in a graded school, it being then 
thought that it would be best to strictly isolate each house- 
hold. It has proved, however, that, although the family sys- 
tem is unquestionably of the greatest value to the institution, 
no harm whatever results from general exercises in which all 
come together under supervision. 

The advantages of a single graded school over a number of 
independent ungraded schools are too widely recognized and 
too obvious to require extended mention. On the score of 
economy they include the possibility of one teacher's conduct- 
ing large or combined classes in certain subjects. On the score 
of efficiency they include the specialization of teaching, each 
teacher taking the whole school in those subjects in which she 
is best fitted. 

In the ungraded school, on the other hand, each teacher is 
obliged to lead her class in all subjects, for some of which she 
has no liking and therefore no success, while her own small 
class is all that is benefited by her best teaching. 

At the Lyman School the superintendent would be enabled 
in a graded school building to see all the boys every day, and 
to establish such personal relations with them as he cannot do 
at present. 

The trustees would urge this year as the greatest need of the 
Lyman School a suitable general school building, which should 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 21 

include small and large class rooms and a hall large enough to 
accommodate comfortably and healthfully all the boys and school 
officers. There should also be included a suitably furnished 
basement for a general drill hall, in order that the physical 
drill master, by taking larger classes, may economize his 
time. The present schoolrooms, which would be vacated by 
the establishment of a graded school, would by no means be 
thrown out of use. On the contrary, they are very much 
needed in each of the family houses as social rooms for the 
boys. At present they have a rough play-room in the base- 
ment of each house, but they have no proper room where 
they can go to read or to play quiet games. The civilizing 
influences of quiet and profitable amusements in a pleasant 
room are aids to the main work of the school which it is felt 
we cannot afford longer to be without. 

There is also another serious need which could be prop- 
erly met by a small addition to a school building such as is 
proposed. The necessity of occasionally isolating a boy for 
a time is obvious to any one at all familiar with successful ways 
of dealing with refractory boyhood. It is very desirable that 
a boy who must be kept away from his associates for a time 
should be supplied with all necessary food and clothing, and 
that he should be kept in healthful quarters with p]enty of air 
and light, and most important of all, that he should be supplied 
with some vigorous physical work to do to keep his mind and 
body fully occupied. A few small rooms in connection with 
the school building could well be made to answer every re- 
quirement for this exceedingly important use. 

All commitments to the Lyman School are for the term of 
minority, but the length of detention depends upon conduct. 
After having earned his release a boy is sent out on probation, 
being placed on trial with his own people if their home is a 
good one ; but if, as too often happens, it is a poor one, work 
is usually found for him in a farmer's family. And here, in 
the period of probation, the real battle begins. The contrast 
between the strict discipline of the school and the comparative 
freedom of life outside is a sharp one. In the school each 
hour has its appointed duties, and all is arranged with a view 
to the welfare of the inmates ; outside, the work assigned is 
to be accomplished as a matter of business and economy, and 



22 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

the boy finds his own affairs quite a secondary consideration in 
the household. There he must work out his own salvation 
with what occasional help he may get from those about him. 
The school training would indeed be of little avail if it should 
bear no relation to the demands of a life of self-support, and 
it was in order to connect the one with the other, in order to 
render the work of the school a continuous and effective influ- 
ence upon these young lives, that the trustees two years ago 
asked to employ a visitor to look after the boys on probation. 
This petition was refused by the finance committee because 
there was no statute authorizing such expenditure. 

Meanwhile, the opinions of two attorney-generals established 
the claim of the trustees to their right and duty to "exercise a 
general oversight and supervision of all children committed to 
these schools [the Lyman School for Boys and the State Indus- 
trial School for Girls] during minority, or until their discharge 
in some manner provided by law," and " as a Board" to visit 
them. Last spring, by the enactment on May 29 of chapter 
428 of the Acts of 1895, legislation was obtained authorizing 
the trustees to employ visitors, and more explicitly defining 
their relation toward probationers (see Appendix) ; and with- 
out delay the services of Mr. Walter A. Wheeler were secured 
as superintendent of visitation, and of Mr. Asa F. Howe as 
assistant. Mr. Wheeler was chosen because of his experience 
and fitness for the place. For nearly twenty years he had been 
a high-school teacher, for ten years of that time on the school 
committee, most of the time as its chairman, and doing the work 
of a superintendent of schools. In 1890 he represented the Third 
Worcester District in the General Court, and there served on 
the committee on education. For the past three years he had 
proved himself an able superintendent of the State Primary 
School at Monson, where the trustees had had opportunity to 
observe his peculiar tact in dealing with young people, and his 
unstinted devotion to their interests. Mr. Howe was chosen 
because he had proved himself exceptionally capable and sym- 
pathetic with boys during more than ten years of service as 
house master at the Lyman School. 

It is as yet too early to report results of the work of these 
two visitors, but the trustees are more than ever convinced 
of the efficacy of this new and most reasonable arrangement 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

for continuing their care over the boys, for so placing them 
that they need not be exposed to needless temptations, for fit- 
ting the place to the boy and the boy to the place. This was 
well-nigh impossible when the duty of finding places was 
intrusted to agents of the State Board of Lunacy and Charity, 
as these agents, when they first placed a boy, had the most 
meagre acquaintance with him, and worked independently of 
and often at variance with the policy of the school. 

Not for a moment would the trustees undervalue the friendly 
treatment of the Lyman School boys by all the agents of the 
State Board of Lunacy and Charity during the many years 
when they were the boys' only visitors, nor the good accom- 
plished by them in very many cases ; but there can be no 
question that those who are held responsible for the boy's 
reformation, who are in a position to study his weak points and 
his better nature, can best choose and direct the kind of over- 
sight he shall receive outside the school. One boy may be so 
placed that two or three visits in a year may suffice ; another 
may prove so restless that much changing of places may be 
needed ; another may have formed a plan for tramping which 
a timely visit may prevent ; while another, of a self-reliant 
character, may perhaps as he grows older be left very much 
alone. 

Mr. Wheeler now has a desk at the Lyman School, and every 
facility for making acquaintance with the boys. Mr. Howe has 
his headquarters at the school, where his wife still acts as 
matron. 

The trustees, when considering petitions, hold their commit- 
tee meetings at the school, and call into conference the superin- 
tendent and perhaps the house master who has the boy in charge, 
as well as the two visitors, one of whom will have investigated 
the boy's home and perhaps also the places which offer, and 
thus knows what opportunities are open to him. If it appears 
in these conferences that the boy has some peculiar needs, the 
visitor will make it his business to follow him up with special 
care. Acting upon petitions under these circumstances be- 
comes an intelligent function, instead of being, as before, a 
leap in the dark. 

The report of the superintendent of visitation on page 111 
gives many interesting details of the work for boys outside the 



24 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

school. A beginning has been made in finding work for the 
boys in the line of their peculiar aptitudes. The co-operation 
of some dozen intelligent local visitors, men, too busy to give 
much time but willing to befriend the boys somewhat and to 
give information about them and about places to the official 
visitor, has already been secured, among them a superintendent 
of schools, a lawyer, two clergymen, two physicians, a cashier 
of a bank and several business men. 

While the legislation of last spring is thus an incalculable 
benefit to the Lyman School boys, there is this imperfection in 
the law, that it failed to repeal an old statute requiring the 
Board of Lunacy and Charity to investigate and report upon 
each and every home before a boy can be placed therein, and 
to visit all placed-out boys at least once a year. Now that the 
Legislature has specificially authorized the trustees to employ 
agents for investigating places and for visiting boys, it seems 
a foolish waste to require the agents of the Lunacy and Charity 
Board to do the same thing. Further, the necessity of always 
waiting for the agents of the Board to report upon a place 
before it can be filled often causes serious inconvenience and 
delay. It happens that a place which has been carefully 
investigated by a visitor of the Lyman School must stand 
vacant for several weeks till it has been investigated over 
again by the Board's agent, who throws no new light upon the 
situation. 

Let us not be misunderstood. We distinctly affirm the 
propriety of inspection on the part of the Board of Lunacy and 
Charity of the work of the trustees and their agents, whether 
inside or outside the institution ; but the direct responsibility 
for the conduct of the work should rest upon the trustees, while 
the Board of Lunacy and Charity should be guided by its own 
experience and judgment as to the manner and the degree in 
which it should exercise its supervisory function. Clearly that 
Board could judge as well whether the trustees were wise in 
their selection of places by visiting these places after instead 
of before the boy is placed. Clearly it could decide whether 
the agents of the trustees were efficient by some less expen- 
sive process than by visiting each one of the probationers every 
year until he is twenty-one. The quality of an agent's work 
is easily sampled ; and if a question of its thoroughness is 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 25 

raised, a more extended inspection could follow. Supervision 
of this sort would be welcomed by the trustees as a safeguard 
for their work. It would seem that the requirements of the 
present law must be inconvenient and onerous to all con- 
cerned, and the trustees are considering the propriety of 
presenting a bill to the Legislature so modifying the statute 
as to release them from the necessity of awaiting a report 
from the supervisory board before children may be placed, 
and to make the frequency of the visitation of these children 
by the Board of Lunacy and Charity a matter within its own 
discretion. 

Until recently few boys under twelve or thirteen years 
old have been committed to the Lyman School ; but within 
the last few months there has been a sudden change in this 
respect, and a number of little fellows of from eight to twelve 
years have been received from the courts, apparently because 
the State Primary School at Monson, where many children 
of this age and class were formerly cared for, has been 
closed. 

The overcrowding resulting from this sudden access of num- 
bers to the school, already more than full, and the tender age of 
so many of the new-comers, created an emergency so serious that 
the trustees dared not defer action until the Legislature should 
meet. Accordingly last August the matter was laid before the 
Governor, and with his sanction the trustees decided to pro- 
vide relief by the use of the Lyman fund, trusting that the 
Legislature when it should meet would reimburse the fund. 
A farm was found with substantial buildings, the house large 
enough to accommodate some twenty-five boys with the nec- 
essary officers. This farm is situated in the town of Berlin 
some seven or eight miles from the West borough premises, 
but the railroad facilities are such that it can be readily man- 
aged as an outlying cottage of the Lyman School. The farm 
contains about one hundred acres of fertile land. This Berlin 
estate was bought for $5,250, and on October 1 the trustees 
enter upon possession. A few weeks will suffice for the nec- 
essary alterations and repairs, and early in November it will be 
ready for occupation. The whole cost, with the furnishing, 
will probably be between $8,000 and $10,000. 

To this farmhouse the trustees plan to transfer the younger 



26 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

boys immediately on their arrival at Westborough, thus saving 
them from the least associations of a reform school. If it is 
found on closer acquaintance that some of these little fellows 
are so unmanageable or so vicious that a long period of re- 
straint is necessary, these may be transferred back to the 
main institution. But most of them, it is hoped, will prove 
amenable to milder influences, and may soon be placed out 
in carefully selected families. The Berlin farmhouse will in 
every sense of the word be supplementary to the school at 
TTestborough. In the latter a course of education and dis- 
cipline is planned for the reformation of boys who need such 
before they can be trusted outside. In the former everything 
will be arranged for boys who may at any moment be placed 
out, home influences being substituted for institution training. 
The trustees have long contended that this was practicable, 
and would prove advantageous for many among the younger 
juvenile offenders ; but till now they have had no chance to 
carry out their views. 

Like many another valuable experiment, this of boarding 
little juvenile offenders has been made possible from the income 
of the Lyman fund ; and whereas boys of this class used to be 
kept two years or more at the Primary School at Monson, or if 
placed out failed to get the schooling required by law and too 
often ran away,* the trustees have already boarded a number 
of these children at less cost than they were maintained in the 
Primary School, and they are getting their full quota of school- 
ing and also the training in responsibility that the farmer's 
children get. 

One applicant for a little boarder, who had brought up six 
sons of his own, said, " We want a # boy young enough to mould 
into our ways, and if we like him we shall want to keep him 
and do by him as if he were our own." " Yes," the wife said, 
" but we can't afford to take all the care of such a little boy 
and send him to school, and he too small to be of use for two 
or three years to come, especially if he is going to be a naughty 
boy too." The agreement was made that after the outfit shall 



* In a tabulated statement compiled by the State Board of Lunacy and Charity con- 
cerning the schooling of 101 placed-out boys, " tramping and running away " is alleged 
of 22 of them, or over one-fifth of the whole number, as a reason for their insufficient 
gchooling. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 27 

be made complete by overcoat and thick boots for winter, the 
two dollars per week shall suffice, and the boy be clothed with- 
out further expense to the school ; and the orphan boy is well 
placed and happy. 

Another applicant said, . " Our two little girls want a 
brother ; " and the gentle, docile boy whose father had been 
arrested for beating his wife, walks to school every day with 
the twins, feeds the hens and can drive the horse and wagon. 
He decidedly approves of his new home and the district school. 

" Our daughters are going out to teach and our son is study- 
ing for college ; but we keep no hired man, and my husband 
says he will take two boys to board, and let them help about 
the place, out of school hours." So the naughty little boys, 
well disposed but lawless, help do the chores, feed hens and 
chickens, and swing off the same barn loft from which the sons 
and daughters used to swing before them. Once, in confiden- 
tial mood, one of them confided to his caretaker that his grand- 
mother used to sell rum to his father, " only for medicine." 
The report of the farmer reads, " These boys are quite a trial 
many times, but no worse, perhaps, than the average boy." 

On two occasions Tommy and George had preferred the 
brook to the schoolroom ; but they decided not to repeat the 
experiment, and when next visited were found at their desks, 
side by side with the children of the neighborhood. 

Edward says with satisfaction, " I know all the boys [in the 
district school] now." 

Jimmy's only anxiety seemed to be lest the visitor should be 
planning to take him away. 

Willie has been visited twice. The home, it must be con- 
fessed, is untidy, but the farmer and his wife are kind, and the 
child is regular at school, and out of school hours he drives 
the cow and feeds the hens and pig and helps the market gar- 
dener, sometimes getting a ride on his cart. 

Johnnie has been helpful to his caretaker, who is lame. He has 
contrived a hen-coop and made it all himself in the tool house. 

This real responsibility for small duties is exactly what these 
little fellows need. If they later develop special talents, they 
can be given opportunities for their exercise, for they will 
already have learned the need of exertion to obtain the necessi- 
ties of life, the need of economy to make the most of what 
their labor has secured. They will have discovered some of 



28 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

the inexorable laws of nature, which appeal to them as men's 
arbitrary laws never have ; they will have learned to bear 
small hardships as their betters have borne them, and through 
these to become self-reliant. 

Of the eighteen placed at board since August 1, one, an ab- 
normal, unhealthy boy, with thievish habits, has been recalled 
to the school, and another is likely to be recalled. The rest 
are apparently established for the winter when their outfit will 
be completed by overcoat and boots, and in most cases cloth- 
ing supplied from time to time from the school. 

Frequent visiting is essential to the success of this experi- 
ment, and will be continued until the relation between the boy 
and his caretaker is satisfactory established. 

The Lyman School opened the year with 234 inmates and 
closed with 264. The largest number was 273, the 30th day of 
Jul} r . The aggregate number in the school within the year was 
436, and the average population was 240. The number of new 
commitments was 167, the increase falling wholly within the 
last few months. One hundred and eighty-eight boys were 
placed out on probation, of whom 72 went to their own people 
and 116 to others, 18 of these latter being boarded; 12 were 
transferred to the Massachusetts Reformatory at Concord ; 59 
others were recalled to the school from their probation. 

Besides the 264 boys in the school at the close of the year 
there were 635 others who had left the school either on proba- 
tion or by transfer to other institutions, and who, being under 
twenty-one years, are still in the custody of the school. The 
condition of these 635, so far as it can be ascertained, is : — 

Condition of All Boys now under Twenty-one icho have been released on 
Probation or transferred to Other Institutions. 

Subject to control of the school : — 

Doing well 414 or 65-[- per cent. 

Not doing well, 26 or 4-f- < " 

440 or 69-f- per cent. 

Still legally in custody, but beyond practical control : — 

Transferred or committed to penal institutions, *111 or 17-f- per cent. 
Whereabouts and condition unknown, . . 84 or 13-f- " 



195 or 30— f- per cent. 



Only 30 of these were still in prison on Sept. 30, 1895. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 29 

The 65 -f per cent, given above as doing well, including, as it 
does, those who, having been recently released from the school, 
have had small chance to go wrong, is somewhat misleading. 
The following tables show how many do well for a while who 
later go astray : — 



Condition of Boys who left the School within Two Years. 

Doing well, 205 or 77— f- per cent. 

Not doing well, 9 or 3-f- " 

Transferred or committed to penal institutions, . 25 or 9-\- " 

Whereabouts and condition unknown, . . . 27 or 10+ " 



Condition of Boys now under Twenty-one ivho left the School a Year 

ago or more. 

Doing well, 312 or 61-)- per cent. 

Not doing well, 25 or 4-}- " 

Transferred or committed to penal institutions, . 100 or 19-f- " 
Whereabouts and condition unknown, ... 70 or 13— (— " 



The striking points in the above tables are the small per cent, 
doing badly and the large per cent, who have passed into penal 
institutions. The one of these facts in part explains the other, 
it being the policy of the trustees to transfer the more incorri- 
gible boys to the Massachusetts Reformatory. The number of 
these and of those whose whereabouts and condition are un- 
known is discouragingly large, but with the more active and 
discriminating work now possible for probationers, it is confi- 
dently expected that better results will ensue. Hereafter, 
with the visiting in their own control, the trustees will have a 
fuller knowledge of their probationers. 

The appropriation for the Lyman School was : for salaries, 
$25,000; and for current expenses, $36,160; a total of 
$61,160. The expenditures from Oct. 1, 1894, to Sept. 30, 
1895, were $57,237.58; the gross per capita was $4.46; 
as $1,265 39 was turned into the treasury, the net per capita 
was $4.36. For the expenses of visitation $2,500 was 
granted for a half-year. On pages 64-71 and 85-96 will be 
found fuller statistics relative to the boys and the finances of 
the institution. 



30 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The new barn, for which an appropriation of $10,000 was 
given last year, is well under way. The cellar was wholly 
excavated by boys' labor, and two of the masters, with the 
more skilful boys to help, are doing most of the work of con- 
struction. 

For the coming year besides the appropriation for the running 
expenses of the school the trustees will ask appropriations for 
the school-house mentioned above, for the purchase by the 
State of the farm at Berlin, for continuing the services of the 
visitors, and for carrying on the boarding experiment. The 
trustees are confident that the expenditure called for will be a 
judicious outlay of public money. 

Appendix. 

The text of chapter 428 of the Acts of 1895, the bill re- 
ferred to in the foregoing reports as so vitally affecting both 
State Primary School and Reform School children, is here 
appended : — 

An Act relative to children in the care of the state. 
Be it enacted, etc. , as follows : 

Section 1. The state primary school at Monson shall on the first 
Monday in July in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-five cease 
to exist. 

Section 2. The trustees of the state primary and reform schools 
shall hereafter be known as the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial 
Schools, and shall retain all their present trusts, rights, powers and 
duties, except so far as the same may be affected by the state primary 
school ceasing to exist. 

Section 3. The trustees of the Lyman and industrial schools shall 
have the power to release on probation, and, with or without indent- 
ure to place any of the children in their custody in their usual homes, 
or in any situation or family which has been investigated and approved 
in a manner satisfactory to said trustees and in accordance with 
existing laws ; and said trustees may employ agents for investigating 
places and for visiting children, and immediately on placing such 
children shall furnish the state board of lunacy and charity with the 
name of each child so placed, and the name and residence of the 
person to whose care such child is intrusted. 

Section 4. The custody of all children committed to the Lyman 
school for boys, or to the state industrial school for girls, shall be 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 31 

and remain with said trustees ; and said trustees may at any time, 
until the expiration of the commitment, resume the personal care and 
possession of children released on probation or previously transferred 
to the state primary school, and may recall them to the school to 
which they were originally committed ; and all children committed to 
either the Lyman or the state industrial schools shall be committed 
until they attain respectively the age of twenty-one years. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect on the first Monday in July 
in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-five. [Approved May 29, 
1895. 



32 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOE GIRLS. 

LANCASTER. 



The past twelve months have been marked, at the State 
Industrial School, by tranquil but steady progress in well- 
organized lines of work, all of which have been greatly helped 
by the opening of the new house. Classification according to 
character and the separate life and work of each group of girls, 
not too many in number to be kept well in hand by the matron, 
are essential to the success of the school as at present organ- 
ized. The superintendent of such a school must indeed be a 
keen student of human nature, hopeful and enterprising, not 
readily deceived but possessed of infinite patience to await the 
slow development in the girls of any latent capacity for good. 
No one acquainted with the Lancaster School can fail to recog- 
nize the unity of purpose that exists among those who take 
part in its management. The superintendent must necessarily 
carry some anxieties and work out some problems alone ; she 
must frequently seek out individual girls, especially the new- 
comers, and give them her personal attention ; but so far as is 
possible she shares her responsibilities with her carefully chosen 
assistants, consults with them, and through them reaches the 
girls under their immediate care, giving to each officer full 
credit for results attained. To this unity of purpose, expressed 
in acts rather than in words, the girls respond in greater or less 
degree ; exceptionally good conduct is rewarded by an extra 
half-hour after the usual bed-time, for games or other recreation, 
and this half-hour is given not grudgingly nor of necessity but 
cheerfully by their teacher, out of her own time for resting 
from a busy day's work. Finding that their good conduct is a 
matter of real concern to those about them, the girls them- 
selves begin to care for its advancement ; and from avoiding 
bad marks in order to get their names entered upon the roll of 
honor and to enjoy the corresponding privileges, they generally 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 33 

become interested in good and thorough work for its own sake, 
whether the achievement be a well-polished floor, good ironing 
or a light and well-baked loaf of bread. 

The anniversary of Dr. Holmes' birthday was devoted to a 
sketch of his life by one of the girls ; recitations of his poems, 
both grave and gay, by others, with singing of the "Hymn 
of the Republic." The teachers read or recited the more dra- 
matic poems with excellent effect, enlivened by a tableau, a 
friend of Dr. Holmes adding personal reminiscences. These 
simple entertainments give the girls something to plan and 
work for and something fresh to talk about. Our farmer, Miss 
Morse, observes that the girls at their out-door work talk 
together of the entertainment that has been or is to be given, 
instead of talking of their own or some other girl's misdoings. 
Certainly they are unusually free from morbid hysterical excite- 
ment, such as one often hears mentioned as unavoidable in 
institution life. 

Now that the new house furnishes a basement for the purpose, 
a trained teacher is to give lessons in the simpler Ling gymnas- 
tics, such as are given in the Boston and in other public schools. 

The constant demand for the services of the girls in families, 
where they receive from $1.50 to $2.50 per week, besides 
receiving the special oversight required of those who employ 
them, shows that the school prepares them to meet a real de- 
mand for something better than unskilled labor. Within the 
year over $1,700 has been deposited in the savings bank to the 
credit of these outside girls, this sum in the main representing 
the quarter reserved from their wages to be put on interest until 
paid over to each girl upon her coming of age or upon mar- 
riage, or at any other time by vote of the trustees. In three 
instances girls have stolen from their employers and have thus 
forfeited their deposits, which the trustees forthwith voted for 
part payment. Out of the 190 on probation a year ago, 
twenty-two have run away from their places and are not yet 
recovered ; eleven girls are earning not only maintenance but 
also education at public school or academy ; one is learning 
the dressmaker's trade in the family where she is at work ; 
another is earning $3 per week as a housekeeper, her employer 
considering her a real treasure, and letting her make out the 
list of kitchen furnishings, giving her hours for study and op- 



34 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

portunity to go to the academy to recite. One, now twenty- 
one, who is a hospital nurse, when invited to take a summer 
vacation with a friend, refused to leave her post of duty, add- 
ing, " I have given my word, and that is all I have to give." 

Of the sixty who have this year passed out of the care of the 
school, fifteen had behaved badly, but of these fifteen three were 
decidedly defective in intellect and one proved to be insane. 
Of ten who had been married only one was misconducting, 
the rest good wives and happy when last heard from, as nearly 
all of them have been within the year. An examination of 
the records of the broken or otherwise unhappy homes from 
which many of these young girls came as contrasted with the 
good conduct of almost three-quarters of those who have this 
year attained their majority or are otherwise off the school's 
custody, tends to show that their bad conduct at an excitable 
period of their lives did not always reach the core. In this 
fact lies the hope of a real reformation and the reason for the 
existence of this school. 

The superintendent, in her brief report on page 119, calls 
attention to the great need of rescuing a girl in season from 
unnecessary experience of evil. The magistrate who thinks 
he is doing a kindness by continuing the case, and leaving in 
her home a girl who is in danger of unchaste conduct, can 
hardly foresee the life-long disgrace which such delay may 
bring upon her. 

Among the seventy-two committed this year seventeen were 
of American parentage, eight were orphans ; all except eight 
had been taught to read and write. More than half were com- 
mitted upon the charge of " stubbornness," * which signifies that 
the complaint was made or sustained by parent or guardian 
having a legal right to claim obedience. These facts show that 
neither orphanage nor extreme poverty nor ignorance could be 
alleged as a valid excuse for the wayward or wrong conduct of 
these young girls, and that either the parents or the community 
were greatly to blame ; while such is the condition of public 
and private morals, it is well that this school has continued to 
open to them a place of shelter and reformation. 

* The offence of stubbornness (disobedience to the lawful commands of parents or 
guardian) is a flexible one, and facts brought out on the trial often embrace misde- 
meanors which range from bad associations to positive infractions of the laws respecting 
chastity. 



1895.] r PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 35 

All girls committed to the State Industrial School remain in its 
custody and care until twenty-one years of age, unless sooner 
discharged by vote of the trustees. After having acquired in the 
school a knowledge of housework and more or less stability of 
character, they are placed out in private families on probation, 
as described above. If ill or in need of a short vacation or wait- 
ing for change of place, they are allowed to come back to the 
school for a while. If guilty of very bad conduct, the trustees 
may recall them to the school and ask the commissioners to 
transfer them to the Reformatory Prison for Women at Sher- 
born. Others are recalled for conduct which is simply unsatis- 
factory and are again placed out, generally with good results. 
By the courtesy of the State Board of Lunacy and Charity these 
probationers are visited by the volunteer women visitors ap- 
pointed by that Board. These local auxiliaries care for the girls 
in their various districts, and their generous and highly valued 
services are systematized and made effective through the patience 
and perseverance of the salaried officers, Miss Jacobs and Miss 
Beale, the whole time of the latter being given to this department. 
Twice a year the Stato Board of Lunacy and Charity invites 
the visitors to meet at the State House, and once a year the 
trustees invite them to the school at Lancaster. On these 
occasions a full and free discussion is encouraged, as to the 
best ways of carrying the girls through their minority. 

The recent commitment to the school of a larger number of 
girls from eight to eleven years of age, probably on account 
of the closing of the State Primary School, leads the trustees 
to ask for an appropriation of $800 for placing some of the 
youngest at board in private families, where schooling can be 
secured as well as maintenance. 

Sept. 30. 
1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 

In custody of Industrial School (in the school and 

on probation), .272 283 311 353 367 

These girls were distributed as follows : — 

I. — Supported by the State. 

Remaining in the school, 91 82 112 124 111 

Transferred to Reformatory Prison for Women — 

In former years 3 4 1 4 2 

This year, 4 1 4 7 10 

Transferred to institutions not penal 1 4 8 10 6 

99 91 125 145 129 



36 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Sept. 30. 
II. — NO LONGER SUPPORTED BY THE STATE. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Under twenty-one years, still in custody, . . .173 192 188 208 238 
Subtracting those who had left their places, 14 15 17 18 21 

Total honestly self-supporting, . . . .159 177 171 190 217 

Distributed as follows : — 

With relatives on probation, 26 30 31 36 47 

At work in other families 96 118 102 111 120 

At work elsewhere, 1 - - 1 

At academy or other school, self-supporting, . - 7 11 11 

Married, but subject to recall, .... 36 29 31 31 39 

159 177 171 190 217 

Summary of Commitments and Discharges. 

1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Total in custody at beginning of year, . . 272 283 313 353 367 

New commitments, 50 77 78 72 

Attained majority, 36 44 36 53 

Discharged by trustees, .... 1 3 2 5 

Died, 2 

Total who passed out of custody, . ... — 39 — 47 — 38 — 58 

Net increase, 11 30 40 14 

A girl may be recalled by the trustees to the school whether 
on account of misconduct or illness or change of place. The 
figures in the following table will show how often this policy 
has secured, even for a restless or troublesome girl, a satisfac- 
tory place at last : — 





1893. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


Recalled to the school during the year : — 










For bad conduct, 


8 


16 


10 


17 


For no serious fault, .... 


49 


48 


60 


48 


For unsatisfactory conduct, again 
placed out, 


6 


19 


13 


16 


For unsatisfactory conduct, not yet 
placed again, 


- 


2 


9 


4 


For illness or change of place not im- 
plying misconduct, .... 


32 


17 


31 


24 


Having left places, but found with re- 
spectable relatives or at work, . 


10 


5 


- 


3 


To prepare wedding outfit, . . . 


- 


3 


1 


- 


Feeble-minded, unfit for placing, . 


- 


2 


- 


- 


From State almshouse hospital, 


- 


- 


4 


1 




57 


64 


70 


65 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



37 



SUMMARY OF CONDUCT 

Of Girls who have been in Care of the State One Year or More. 





Sept. 30, 
1892. 


Sept 30, 
1893. 


Sept. 30, 
1894. 


Sept. 30. 
1895. 


A. -HONESTLY SELF-SUPPORTING. 

I. No LONGER IN CARE OF THE STATE : — 

Attained majority, conduct good, 

Died, conduct good, , 

Discharged, conduct good, 


25 
2 


29 

1 


28 


39 
2 


II. In Care of the State, but no longer main- 
tained at Public Expense: — 
Married, conduct good at last accounts, 

On probation with friends 

At work in other families, 

At work elsewhere, 

Attending school at academy or elsewhere and 
paying their way by housework, 


27 

26 

27 

117 

1 


30 

31 

28 
102 

7 


28 

25 

36 

111 

1 

11 


41 

39 

35 

120 

10 


Total honestly self-supporting, .... 

B. — CONDUCT BAD OR DOUBTFUL. 
I. Had attained Majority: — 

Married, 

Unmarried, 

II. Still in Care of the State, being under 
Twenty-one Years of Age: — 

In Reformatory Prison, 

In almshouse, conduct had been bad, . 

Married, conduct doubtful, 

With friends, conduct bad, 

Recalled and remaining in State Industrial School, 


171 
198 

5 
2 

7 

3 


168 
195 

5 
4 
3 

17 


184 
212 

3 

1 

11 
4 
5 

11 


204 
245 

1 

5 

7 

10 

3 

7 
6 


Total, conduct bad or doubtful, .... 

C- CONDUCT NOT KNOWN. 
I. Had attained Majority, married, . 
II. Had attained Majority, unmarried, 
III. At Large, not yet Twenty-one, 


24 

4 

14 


35 

1 

7 
17 


35 

4 

18 


39 


6 

20 


D. — REMAINDER. 
I. In State Industrial School through year, 
II. Recalled for illness or change of place, . 

III. For transfer, ill or feeble-minded, or insane, . 

IV. Discharged as unfit subject, 


18 

23 
8 
1 


25 

15 
3 
3 


22 

36 
3 
4 
1 


26 

31 
7 
3 
2 


Total remainder, . 

Grand total, 


32 

272 


21 

283 


44 
313 


43 
353 



Conduct of 58 girls who passed out of care of the State 
within the year : — 



38 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Sept. 30, 1892. Sept. 30, 1893. Sept. 30, 1894. Sept. 30, 1895. 

Married, good at last accounts, . 16 13 12 9 

Unmarried, good at last accounts, .9 - 13 30 
Died, good at last accounts, 2 

Discharged, good at last accounts, . - 1 1 2* 

Total, conduct good at last ac- 
counts, 27 or 72 * 30 or 63 * 26 or 68 jf 41 or 71* 

Had been bad, now living respectably, - - - 3 or 8f, - 

Runaways, conduct unknown, . 4 or 10$ 8 or 17 * 4 or 11* 6 or 10* 

Bad, . 7 or 18* 5 or 11* 4 or 11* 6forl0* 

Discharged, unfit subject, . . . 1 - 2 or 4* 1 or 2* 1 or .02* 

Feeble-minded, - - - - - - 3 or .05* 

Insane, - - - - - - 1 or .02* 

Caring for illegitimate child, . .- - 2 or 4* 

39 47 38 58 

Mention was made last year of the urgent need of a much 
larger water supply for domestic use, as well as for fire pro- 
tection, the matter being then under consideration of a com- 
mittee. The committee recommended the construction of a 
reservoir about one mile distant from the buildings, which re- 
port was adopted by the trustees. An appropriation of $7,500 
was granted. The necessary land was purchased, a right to lay 
water pipe over private property secured, a substantial dam 
constructed, the bed of the proposed storage basin thoroughly 
cleaned, all stumps and vegetable deposit removed, and con- 
nection made with the old system of water supply at a point 
near the new cottage, a six-inch first quality iron pipe being 
used and all done without exceeding the appropriation. The 
trustees are confident that the supply of water will be ample 
for all requirements, as their storage basin will hold nearly four 
million gallons, and the natural flow of the stream was sixty- 
three thousand gallons daily at times of greatest drought. It 
will require a further outlay of not a large sum of money to 
extend the six-inch pipe and replace some old two-inch pipe 
with four-inch, and also to purchase a few hundred feet of 
hose, in order to make most available our water supply for 
fire protection ; which sum we may seek by a special appropri- 
ation. Also a small appropriation will probably be asked for 
a piggery. 

The new house, which bears the name of one of the school's 

* Both discharged for good conduct. 

t Four of these have been in Reformatory Prison for Women, present conduct un- 
known. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 39 

best friends, Mrs. Anne B. Richardson, was first occupied on 
June 14. It is a thoroughly built and convenient structure. 
In arrangement of rooms, system of ventilation and facility 
for escape in case of fire it is much superior to the other 
houses. The furnishings are both tasteful and substantial, 
and the trustees believe that they are justified in feeling that 
the Commonwealth has received good value for the outlay of 
the $15,000 granted for the building. A special appropriation 
of $1,275 was this year granted for grading and concreting the 
walks and cellar and for ventilation, etc. ; $2,229 was expended 
for furnishings, and the furnaces were put in at a cost of $550. 
The total cost of the house and its furnishings is thus $19,054. 

The farm has been increased by the purchase of a tract of 
twelve acres, making total acreage one hundred and eighty-eight. 
It is being improved by the cultivation of portions of the wild 
land on the river bottom. It is expected that the new water 
supply will be so ample that it may be available for irrigation, 
increasing the productiveness of the light soil which forms a 
large portion of the farm. The family and farm buildings are 
in good condition, with the exception of the old Stewart barn, 
which is hardly worth repairing, but will be useful for a while 
for storage purposes. 

The average number of girls in the school was 116. 

The appropriation for salaries and current expenses was 
$27,750. The total expenditure from Sept. 30, 1894, to Sept. 
30, 1895, has been $28,801.73, making a gross per capita cost 
of $4.77. Deducting $937.36, which was paid into the State 
treasury, the net per capita was $4.62. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. H. WALKER, Westborough, Chairman. 
ELIZABETH G. EVANS, Boston, Secretary. 
H. C. GREELEY, Clinton, Treasurer. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston. 
CHARLES P. WORCESTER, Newton, 
SAMUEL W. McDANIEL, Cambridge. 
MICHAEL J. SULLIVAN, Chicopee. . 



40 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



TRUST FUNDS OF LYMAN SCHOOL. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

State Reform School, Lyman Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Lyman Fund. 

1894. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance former account, . 

Dividend Citizens 1 National Bank, 
Dec. 31. Dividend Boston & Albany R.R., 

State tax refunded, . 

1895. 

Jan. 15. Dividend Fitchburg R.R., . 
Mar. 30. Dividend Boston & Albany R.R., 
Apr. 3. Dividend Citizens' National Bank, 
June 29. Dividend Boston & Albany R.R., 
July 15. Dividend Fitchburg R.R., . 
Aug. 30. Interest on Old Colony R.R. bond, 

Interest on Worcester Street R.R. bonds, 

Dividend Boston & Albany R.R., 

|2,892 23 

1894. CR. 

Oct. 6. J. D. Littlefield, .... ... $66 67 

Alliston Greene, . . . . . . . . 66 67 

Nov. 12. Asa F. Howe, 66 50 

B. S. Sturtevant & Co., 160 00 

E. O. Knight, 407 48 

Geo. H. Woodsum & Co., 48 61 

15. Boston & Albany R.R. Co., . . . . . 15 52 

Dec 6. T. F. Chapin, board of boys, . . . . . 92 23 

21. John H. Cuinmings, . . . . * . . . 39 35 

Christmas, 50 00 

1895. 

Jan. 9. Asa F. Howe, 126 21 

T. F. Chapin, board of boy, ..... 8 86 

John H. Cumraings, . . . . . . . 28 87 

John H. Cummings, 50 00 

Amount carried forward, $1,226 97 



$800 18 


120 00 


286 00 


80 05 


184 00 


286 00 


120 00 


286 00 


184 00 


60 00 


200 00 


286 00 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



41 



Amount brought forward, $1,226 97 



1895. 

Feb. 5. 



Mar. 6. 



Apr. 18. 



13 

13 

4 

9 

Aug. 17, 

Sept 



May 
June 
July 



6. 



T. F. Chapin, board 
Asa F. Howe, 
John H. Cummings, 
T. F. Chapin, board 
Asa F. Howe, 
Asa F. Howe, 
T. F. Chapin, board 
T. F. Chapin, board 
T. F. Chapin, board 
Independence Day, 
T. F. Chapin, board 
T. F. Chapin, board 
T. F. Chapin, board 
Balance forward, 



of boy, 



of boy, 



of boy, 
of boy, 
of boy, 

of boy, 
of boy, 
of boy, 



Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



8 86 


95 


05 


31 


38 


8 


00 


85 


36 


88 


32 


8 87 


29 


71 


26 


58 


50 


00 


8 57 


8 


86 


3 


71 


1,211 


99 



|2,892 23 



State Reform School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 

Dr. 
Balance former account, . . 
Dividend Boston & Albany R R., . . • . 



1894. 

Oct. 1. 
Dec. 31. 



1895. 

Mar. 30. 
June 29. 
Sept. 30. 



Dividend Boston & Albany R.R., 
Dividend Boston & Albany R.R., 
Dividend Boston & Albany R.R., 



Cr. 



Balance forward, 



$243 93 


12 


00 


12 


00 


12 


00 


12 00 


$291 


93 


$291 93 



Sept 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 

Industrial School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 

1894. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance former account, . . . . . . $125 63 

1895. 

Jan. 5. State tax refunded, 15 15 

Mar. 30. Dividend Boston National Bank, .... 26 00 



$166 78 



42 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



1894. CR. 

Nov. 5. Mrs. L. L. Brackett, . 

1895. 

July 6. Mrs. L. L. Brackett, . 
Balance forward, 



Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 
C. P. Worcester. 



$25 00 

8 77 
133 01 

$166 78 



Industrial School, Fay Fund. 
Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Fay Fund. 



1894. I)K. 

Dec. 3. Interest Chelsea Savings Bank, 

1894. CB. 

Dec. 3. Mrs. L. L. Brackett for best girls, 

Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
C. P. Worcester. 



$40 40 
$40 40 



Inventory of Lyman School Investments. 



Lyman Fund. 

143 shares Boston & Albany R.R. stock, 

92 shares Fitch burg R.R. stock, . 

40 shares Citizens' .National Bank, 
1 $1,000 Old Colony R.R. bond, 
4 SI, 000 Worcester Street Railway bonds, . 
Deposit Mod son Savings Bank, 
Deposit Ware Savings Bank, . . 
Deposit Palmer Savings Bank, 
Deposit Hampden Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Springfield Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Springfield Institution for Savings, . 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, . 
Deposit Worcester County Institution for Savings 
Deposit Westborougb Savings Bank, 
Deposit Amherst Savings Bank, 
Deposit Worcester Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Franklin Savings Institution, . 
Deposit Worcester North Savings Institution, 
Deposit Fall River Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Clinton Savings Bank, 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, 

Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



Par Value. 

$14,300 00 
9,200 00 
4,000 00 
1,000 00 
4,000 00 
1,206 98 
1,247 54 
1,223 41 
1,218 94 
1,218 94 
1,104 08 

1.205 03 
1,198 93 

1.206 98 
1,196 38 
1,193 22 

520 20 

520 20 

516 98 

1,040 40 

1,211 99 



Market Value. 

$28,600 00 
6,900 00 
4,800 00 
1,050 00 
4,000 00 
1,206 98 
1,247 54 
1,223 41 
1,218 94 
1,218 94 
1,104 08 

1.205 03 
1,198 93 

1.206 98 
1,196 38 
1,193 22 

520 20 

520 20 

516 98 

1,040 40 

1,211 99 



$49,530 20 $62,380 20 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 43 



Mary Lamb Fund. 



6 shares Boston & Albany R.R. stock, . 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 



Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



Par Value. 


Market Value. 


$600 00 


$1,200 00 


599 08 


599 08 


291 93 


291 93 



$1,491 01 $2,091 01 



Inventory of Industrial School Investments. 
Mary Lamb Fund. 

Par Value. Market Value. 

13 shares Boston National Bank stock, . . . $1,300 00 $1,300 00 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, ... 133 01 133 01 



$1,433 01 $1,433 01 



Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



Fay Fund. 
Deposit in Chelsea Savings Bank, .... $1,02000 $1,02000 

Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
C. P. Worcester. 

Rogers Fund. 
One State of Maine 6 per cent, bond in custody of 

State Treasurer, $1,000 00 $1,000 00 

Sept. 30, 1895. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 
C. P. Worcester. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE PRIMARY SCHOOL 



MONSON, 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OP 

THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE 

PRIMARY SCHOOL. 



To the Trustees. 

Stability is in the etymology of the term institution, and it seldom 
falls to the lot of a superintendent to write the valedictory of his 
institution at the same time with his own. 

The work of the State Primary School for the year 1895 covers only 
nine months, viz., to July 1, when by law it ceased to exist. Begin- 
ning with October 1, the whole time has been one of uncertainty. 
Rumors as to the future from one source or another and varying rad- 
ically as to the policy likely to be pursued have filled the ears of 
officers and children, making the latter restless and the work of the 
former correspondingly difficult. From the beginning of the session 
of the Legislature it became evident that radical changes would be 
made, but it was not till the last of the session that the bill to abolish 
the State Primary School became a law. Under such conditions it 
has been impossible to work according to any definite plan, the only 
method of procedure practicable being to grapple with each problem 
and condition as it arose. 

The usual and various tables of statistics follow this report. One 
item likely to attract immediate attention is the large per capita 
cost, a little over seven dollars per week. For this I offer no 
apology. The fire which destroyed the barn consumed about seventy- 
five tons of hay, which had to be replaced, and the reservoirs had 
to be completed, connected and covered. The nursery department 
had to be kept open as long as there were babies and little children 
to care for. The girls' department, with the necessary officers to 
care for them day and night and a special ward in the hospital, had 
to be in active operation as long as the girls remained, — and a few 
remained to the last months. The hospital, with its physician and 
nurses, must be in the same readiness to receive the sick of fifty chil- 
dren as of five hundred ; and as there were both boys and girls in 
the hospital till nearly the end, two nurses had to be retained. The 
steam and water plants must both be cared for, and in general an 



48 SUPT.'S REPORT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. 

institution with buildings to accommodate five hundred children was 
run to care for an average of eighty-seven. 

The new barn was finished in December. It is thoroughly and 
substantially built of the best materials, and cost about $9,600. It 
is a matter of congratulation that tbe cost was below the estimate. 

In the schools the teachers labored faithfully to the last, and too 
much credit can hardly be given those loyal teachers and officers who 
saw the end of what they had hoped to be their life work. Many of 
them will carry with them the memories of long and successful labors 
and the sense of duty well done. 

Officers were discharged as fast as they could be spared, until we 
were actually without the service usually expected in a well-ordered 
institution. 

The institution is no more. In its time it has not only sheltered 
the homeless and wayward, but in many cases it has been the only 
home the children ever knew ; and let us subscribe a wish that the lot 
of these little wards of the State may never be cast among those who 
shall seek less earnestly their welfare nor love them less. It is my 
pride and shall be my lasting satisfaction to have contributed in any 
way to the comfort and instruction of these little children, and to 
have associated for these three years with the self-sacrificing band of 
men and women who have had the interest of the State Primary 
School on their minds and hearts. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WALTER A. WHEELER, 

Superintendent. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



49 



Statement A. — Summary of Admissions and Discharges. 



Boys. 



Girls. Women. 



Totals. 



Present Sept. 30, 1894, ..... 
Received from Superintendent of In-door Poor, 

as juvenile offenders 

Received from Superintendent of In-door Poor, 

as neglected children, . 
Received from Superintendent of In-door Poor, 

as dependent children, ..... 
Returned, placed in previous years, . 
Returned, having been placed out since Sept. 

30, 1894, . . . . . 

Total, . . . . . 

Discharged by Board of Lunacy and Charity, . 

Placed out on trial, 

Placed on probation with relatives, . 

Boarded out in families, 

Removed to State Almshouse at Tewksbury, . 

Removed to Lyman School for Boys at West- 
borough, 

Removed to Industrial School for Girls at 
Lancaster, 

Transferred to Department of Out-door Poor, . 

Transferred to Massachusetts School for Fee- 
ble-minded, ....... 

Transferred to Temporary Home at Arlington, 

Transferred to House of Angel Guardian at 
Boston, 

Removed to hospitals in Boston, for treatment, 

Died, 



Remaining June 30, 1895, 



99 
23 
17 

1 

70 

21 



231 

5 
94 
32 
76 



12 



231 



22 



14 



11 



49 

3 
13 

2 
23 

1 



2 

49 



127 
23 
31 

1 

81 

23 



286 

12 

108 

34 

99 

8 

12 

2 

1 

1 

1 

3 
3 
2 



286 



Statement B. — Nativity of Inmates. 

The nativity of the 55 inmates received during the year (not including 
those returned from places) is as follows : — 



Native born, 44 

Foreign born, 7 

Unknown, 4 



50 STATISTICS PKIMAEY SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Statement C. — Current Expenditures in Detail. 

Salaries and wages of officers and employees, .... $10,129 15 

Wages of persons temporarily employed, ..... 313 08 

Fruit and vegetables, 87 43 

Meat and fish, .......... 1,346 53 

Flour, 32 00 

Grain, feed and meal for stock, 1,924 84 

Tea, coffee and chocolate, 197 81 

Sugar and molasses, 403 11 

Butter, eggs and cheese, ........ 1,005 70 

Other groceries and provisions, ....... 409 63 

Clothing, boots and shoes, 2,215 02 

Furniture, beds, bedding, soap, kitchen and table ware, , . 254 05 

Hospital supplies, . 267 77 

Fuel and lights, 1,088 73 

Books and school supplies, „ 274 95 

Blacksmithing and repairs of tools, wagons and harness, . . 180 52 

Repairs, ordinary, . ...... 2,075 44 

Express, freight and passenger fares, 463 24 

Stationery, postage, newspapers, etc., 289 63 

Expense of Sunday services, 205 00 

Seeds, plants, fertilizers and agricultural implements, . . 294 29 

Pasturage, • . . . . . 141 20 

Expense of inventory (for two different years),. . . . 116 00 

Extra medical attendance and nursing, ..... 104 00 

Veterinary, ........... 57 CO 

Miscellaneous, 136 20 

|24,012 92 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



51 



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Engineer, . 
Physician, . . 

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Supervisor, .... 
Supervisor and physical culture, 
Expressman,. 

Matron, 

Assistant matron, . 
Assistant matron, . 
Assistant matron and music, 
Housekeeper, 
School principal, . 
Teacher (and music), . 
Teacher, .... 
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Nurse, 

Nurse, 

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Walter A. Wheeler, . 
W. G. Cameron, 
Sara J. Williams, M.D , 
James J. Prentiss, 
Frank Duffy, 
Mrs J. A. Buss,. 
Elon G Buss, 
E G Ward, 
F. U. Wetmore, . 
J. M Sisk, . 
Mrs. M. A. Wheeler, . 
Miss Mabel G Moore, 
Miss Minnie E. Moore, 
Mrs. S. E. Prentiss, . 
Mrs. Mary A. Royce, . 
Miss E. M. FuUington, 
Mrs. S. E. Prentiss, . 
Miss F. J. Dyer, 
Miss Sigrid Cederroth, 
Mrs. S. A. E. Gessford, 
Mrs. Margaret Bunkall, 
Mrs. S. E. Ward, 
Miss J. M. Rogers, . 


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52 



STATISTICS PRIMARY SCHOOL. 



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Miss J. D. Leonard, . 
Miss H. La Selle, 
Miss L. E Preston, . 
Miss Mary P. Boyce, . 
Miss Sadie F. Price, . 
Miss H. La Selle, 
Miss Bridget Russell, 
Miss Martha Farrell, . 
Miss Louisa Sharp, . 
Miss Johanna Russell 
Miss S. A. Luther, 
Miss Hallie La Selle, . 
S. C. Rogers, 
Edw. E. Walker, 
Chas. S. Laue, . 
Geo. H. Miller, . 
Samuel A. Sumner, . 
Chas. S. Lane, . 
Wm. H. Gilbert, 
Wendell P. Mason, . 
S S. Nichols, . 
W r m. H. Gilbert, 
Harrison B Ware, 
Nelson Kempton, 


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1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



53 



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54 STATISTICS PKIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Statement E. — Work done in Sewing-room. 

Number of articles made, ........ 570 

Number of articles repaired, 6,181 

Total, 6,751 

Statement F. 

Walter A. Wheeler, Superintendent and Disbursing Officer of the State 

Primary School, in Account with State Treasurer. 

Dr. 

Cash on hand Oct. 6, 1894, f 100 00 

received from appropriation for current expenses for 1894, 11,750 95 

received from appropriation for current expenses for 1895, 12,161 97 

received for building new barn, ...... 8,283 93 

$32,296 85 
Cash received from sales, 802 13 

$33,098 98 
Cr. 

Disbursements for three months, ending Dec. 31, 1894, . . f 15,822 79 
Disbursements for six months, ending June 30, 1895, . . 16,474 06 

$32,296 85 
Payments to State treasurer, 802 13 

$33,098 98 

Statement G. — Recapitulation of Inventory. 
Taken by J. B. Shaw and W. A. Breckenridge of Palmer, Mass., as of June 

26, 1895. 

Land . $23,013 00 

Buildings, 91,935 00 

Live stock, 3,442 70 

Farm products, . . . 2,009 00 

Carriages and agricultural implements, ..... 2,508 87 

Machinery and mechanical fixtures, . . . ... 10,282 30 

Beds and bedding (inmates'), . . . . . . . 3,636 58 

Other furniture (inmates'), . . . . . ... 4,082 44 

Clothing and shoes, 3,643 21 

Superintendent's department, 5,332 95 

Dry goods, 1,206 89 

Groceries and provisions, . 1,019 42 

Drugs and medicines, 485 00 

Library and school supplies, 945 87 

Heating, water and gas (with fixtures), . . . . . 22,700 00 

Fuel, 290 00 

Miscellaneous, 1,018 37 

$177,551 60 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



55 



/ 
$4,382 00 



Statement H. — Summary of Farm Account. 
Dr. 
To live stock, as per inventory, Sept. 30, 1894, 

wagons and agricultural implements, as per inventory- 
Sept 30, 1894, . 
farm products on hand Sept. 30, 1894, . 
paid carpenter, painter, etc., for repairs 
wages of farm help, 
board of farm help, 
labor of children, . 
grain, feed, etc., 
hardware, farm tools, etc., 
blacksmithing and repairs, 
lumber, .... 
seeds, fertilizers, etc., . 
rent of pasture, 
sundries, 



Cr. 

By labor clone for the school, 

cost of keeping horses used for the school, 

sale of live stock, etc., 

beef, 

veal, 

pork, 

eggs, 

poultry, 

milk, 

fruit and vegetables, 

ice, . . * 



$5,276 28 
live stock, as per inventory, June 26, 1895, .... 3,167 70 
wagons and agricultural implements, as per inventory, 

June 26, 1895, . 1,358 02 

farm products, as per inventory, June 26, 1895, . . . 1,537 00 



1,534 24 


3,640 33 


71 


00 


1,278 


13 


727 


07 


107 


00 


1,881 


31 


241 


82 


71 


2,5 


33 


01 


119 74 


141 


20 


65 29 


$14,293 39 


|297 57 


182 


26 


714 32 


455 


84 


45 


78 


342 


25 


132 06 


66 


30 


2,390 


20 


124 70 


525 00 



Balance, 



111,339 00 
2,954 39 



#14,293 39 



56 PEINCIPAL'S REFT PRIMARY SCHOOL. [Oct. '95. 



PEINCIPAL'S EEPOET. 



To the Superintendent of the State Primary School. 

At the beginning of the school year 107 pupils were enrolled. Of 
this number, 22 have been in the school until its close. A sufficient 
number of boys returned from places during the nine months, with a 
few new-comers, to make the entire number at closing 41. 

The average age of the children was twelve years. The average 
attendance was 79. 

The children have made commendable progress in their studies, 
despite the unsettled condition of the school. 

My associate teachers with myself wish to express our deepest 
gratitude to you for your unfailing kindness and support during the 
years of service together. 

Respectfully submitted, 

EUGENIA M. FULLINGTON, 

Principal. 
Monson, July 1, 1895. 



APPENDIX. 



Teachers. Grade. 

Miss Eugenia M. Fullington, . . . . Fifth, Fourth and Third. 

Miss Floea J. Dyee, . . . . . . Second and First. 

Miss Sigeid Cedeeeoth, Sloyd. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS 



WESTBOROUGH 



1894-95. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

The following statistics are interesting, and contain their own com- 
mentary. During the year, from Oct. 1, 1894, to Oct. 1, 1895, the 
school has had an average attendance of 246.73, an increase of 8 per 
cent, over last year's average. The highest number present was 273, 
July 30 ; the lowest was 232, on five days in January. The year began 
with 234 and ended with 264 inmates. The number of commitments 
has been 167, an increase of more than 17 per cent, over those of the 
preceding year. The number placed out at the pupil's own home or 
elsewhere was 188, representing 170 individuals. These placings 
are exclusive of elopers, those transferred to other institutions or 
discharged outright, 28 in all. Out of about 450 boys on the lists of 
the Lyman School visitors, 50 were returned to the school during the 
year from their homes on farms or with their parents. Out of the 
50 thus returned, 24 were given another trial in approved homes, 7 
were sent to Concord and 19 were retained for further discipline at 
the Lyman School. Only by vigilant attention to placing out on 
probation has the number present in the school been kept within the 
limits indicated by the statistics given, 

Since July 1, 18 boys under twelve years of age have been placed 
at board in approved families. Most of these had been less than 
three months in the institution. 

Of the 167 commitments, 31 were of boys under twelve years. 
This is three or four times the number of that age usually received 
within a year. The average age of commitment is five months less 
this year than last. The average time spent in the institution by 
those released the past year has been 21.17 months. 

The health of the school has been good, the spirit and temper of 
the boys as a rule excellent. My corps of officers was never more 
efficient and loyal. In point of character, ability, training and en- 
thusiasm for their work, they are far above the average engaged in 
similar work throughout the country. The work done in the school- 
room, manual training and physical training classes, in the work- 



60 SUPT.'S KEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

shops and on the farm has never been so uniform and satisfactory 
in any preceding year of the present administration. Leaving the 
several subjoined special reports of officers to convey a more ade- 
quate idea of what has been attempted and accomplished, I will refer 
particularly to those features only which are comparatively new. 

On the farm, the poultry industry has been undertaken by Mr. 
Swift, the master of Chauncy Hall. The boys have taken genuine 
interest in it, and financially it has been very successful, having paid 
a net profit in the seven months since begun of $213.29. The 
structures for the accommodation of the fowl have been such only as 
the master and his boys could construct out of refuse boards and 
timbers. The boys of Oak Cottage, under charge and with the help 
of Mr. Mason, master of Oak Cottage, in addition to a large amount 
of road building, have built two stone vegetable cellars, laying the 
stone in cement. These are detached structures, built where the 
ground is sloping, largely under ground, and are very creditable 
pieces of stone work. 

The manual training has not been confined to the regular classes. 
Mr. Meserve of Bowlder Cottage during the last winter taught a 
considerable class to work in wood, making several dozen sleds, also 
doing carpenter work which if procured through the ordinary chan- 
nels would have cost three or four hundred dollars at least. From 
those who have had the course in woodwork eight boys have been 
selected who are now engaged in building the new hay and cow 
barn, with the help and direction of the masters, Messrs. Meserve 
and Wilcox, all under the able leadership of our engineer, Mr. 
Clark, as master builder. It is proposed thus to do the entire wood- 
work of the building, the foundations of which are already laid. 

No small part of the life and interest so evident in all departments 
of the school is due to our manual training classes. In so saying I 
do not in any way minimize the importance of the regular school 
work or the physical drill. Every boy is by instinct almost more or 
less of a builder, and in giving him manual training directed to the 
making of something useful we are only co-operating with nature 
along one of her most obvious lines in boy-education. 

It is too early to make any generalization upon the effects of the 
Lyman School visiting agency under the new law. The work as yet 
is of promise more than fulfilment. Much earnest and necessary 
preliminary work has been done, and not a little most satisfactory 
visitation. Some work for cases difficult to fit to an ordinary en- 
vironment has been set afoot which comes nearer to ideal work than 
anything which has come under my observation since my connection 
with Lyman School. Lyman School is exceptionally fortunate in 
having for its superintendent of visitation and his assistant two men 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 61 

who fully understand the plans and purposes of the school and are 
in hearty accord with them. There is therefore abundant reason to 
expect, under their wise and sympathetic efforts, the most beneficent 
results from the new law. 

The purchase of the new farm in Berlin for the care of the small 
boys will undoubtedly be a great boon to the school in separating 
those who may do well without the restraints of an institution and 
preparing them for speedy membership in well-regulated New England 
homes. 

I wish to call attention most earnestly to the imperative need of 
the central school building asked for last year. The reform school 
has as yet fulfilled only in part the hopes of its clear-thinking, far. 
sighted projector and founder. It does not seem to be questioned 
that this school has even from the first justified by its results its 
existence ; but it is the fate of all work undertaken by government, 
if there is not an alert and intelligent public sentiment to turn on the 
light and criticise, to tend toward officialism and routine, to move 
along the lines of least resistance, to do those things superlatively 
well which can be seen and therefore appreciated by the most super- 
ficial observer, and to give indifferent care to the less apparent. 

The term schoolkeeper has become an anachronism. Why does 
keeper applied to a reform school official strike discordantly on so 
few ears? To keep from running away, clothe and feed cheaply and 
well, keep in an apparently cheerful frame of mind, keep all the para- 
phernalia well dusted and polished, this constitutes pretty nearly the 
gamut of virtues demanded by public sentiment of a successful reform 
school worker. 

The endeavor of the past seven years has been to get the work of 
this school on to a broader basis, — if possible, the true one; to 
catch, if it might be, the ideal which floated before the mind of 
Theodore Lyman when he wrote in his last will, " I declare it to be 
the whole and sole object of these two donations ... to establish 
in the town of Westborough an institution ... on the most approved 
plan for the proper discipline, instruction, employment and reforma- 
tion of juvenile offenders," and to give to this ideal an actuality more 
pronounced and real than it has ever before possessed. Doubtless it 
will be freely admitted that progress has been made in this direction ; 
but with the greatly increased number of pupils the want of a central 
school building makes the handling of the educational work extremely 
difficult. The strength and time of the supervisory assistance are 
largely frittered away in running from one to another of the widely 
scattered schoolrooms. Any special adaptability of temperament or 
education of a teacher to instruct in a given department is rendered 
valueless, so far as the school in general is concerned, for the same 



$2 SUPT.'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

reason. The daily use of any general exercise, instruction or lecture 
by which the school as a whole might profit is also rendered impracti- 
cable. It is a matter of experience with those reform schools which 
have succeeded in maintaining good graded schools that the central 
school building is a necessity. Other reform school educators having 
only the cottage schoolrooms have given up any attempt at keeping 
up the grades, declaring it impracticable. 

In addition to these and other cogent reasons, the present school- 
rooms are sadly needed by the boys in the several cottages for social 
purposes. It is not possible to combat effectively the degrading 
social instincts of the hoodlum in a rough-and-tumble playroom only. 
Josiah Flynt, in a late number of the " Century," makes the grave 
charge that reform schools are one of the five sources from which the 
army of tramps in the United States is recruited. Having devoted 
much time to the tramp, taking to the road himself for the purpose 
and living the life of a tramp among them, he affirms : " One of the 
greatest defects that I have found in reform schools is the apparent 
inability to hinder the inmates from using a criminal slang and from 
attempting to pose as penitentiary birds. . . . Many times I have 
seen boys between thirteen and fifteen years of age enter a school 
innocent of everything except homelessness and enforced vagrancy, 
who, when they had been four weeks in contact with those who were 
well acquainted with all the ' ins and outs ' of the institution, knew 
nearly as much of tramp lingo as any youngster on the road to-day." 
The danger referred to in a pungent paragraph of much greater length 
than the above quotation is a real and not an apparent one. The 
only way to meet and effectively counteract it is to supply a healthy 
and homelike social atmosphere. A large and pleasant recreation 
room in each cottage under the genial influence of the cottage officers 
would serve this purpose. This want the present schoolrooms, could 
they be given up, would adequately supply. 

No money that has ever been expended for this school will pay 
better returns than that which may be expended in erecting this cen- 
tral school building. A desirable adjunct to this central school build- 
ing would be a set of separate individual workrooms for disciplinary 
purposes. Segregation is often an almost necessary discipline in a 
reform school ; but seclusion without employment is, in the majority 
of cases, very objectionable if extended beyond a few hours. No 
provision answering such a purpose exists at present. Its deterrent 
effect upon any who are inclined to be of the "tough" class would 
be decided, and it would probably render transfers to the Massachu- 
setts Reformatory of much rarer occurrence than at present. The 
cost of such a central school building, with the workrooms adjunct, if 
built substantially, would be not far from $25,000. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 63 

The gross weekly per capita pro rata is $4.46; the net, $4.36. 
Wipe out the strictly educational features of the school and it might 
be about $3.50. 

I would gratefully acknowledge the continued and unfailing con- 
sideration and co-operation extended to me by the trustees in the 
labors undertaken for the school, nor would I forget the Divine favor 
which has rested so richly upon the institution in all of its departments. 

Respectfully submitted, 

T. F. CHAPIN. 



64 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



234 



Table No. 1. 

Showing the Number received and discharged, and the General Con- 
dition of the School for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1895. 

Boys in school Sept. 30, 1894, 

Received. — Since committed, 167 

Returned from places, 59 

Returned from the State Primary School, . .10 
Returned from the Massachusetts General Hos- 
pital, .1 

Returned " boarded-out" boys, .... 1 

Elopers recaptured, 8 

246 



Whole number in the school during the year, 



480 



Released. — On probation to parents, 72 

On probation to others, 98 

Boarded out, 18 

To Massachusetts Reformatory, . . . .12 

Returned to court (over age), 12 

Returned to the Rhode Island Reform School, . 1 
Discharged to the State Board of Lunacy and 

Charity, 

Discharged to go to Ireland, ..... 

Discharged as unfit subject, 

To the Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, . 

To the Massachusetts General Hospital, . 

By elopement, 8 



621 



Remaining in the school Sept. 30, 1895, 



264 



Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number discharged, and Average Number 

for Each Month. 



MONTHS. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average No. 


October, . 
November, 
December, 


1894. 


28 
17 
10 


17 
23 
12 


240.71 
239.00 
238.64 



* This number represents 436 individuals. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 65 

Table No. 2 — Concluded. 



MONTHS. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average No. 


1895. 








January, . 


10 


14 


235.09 


February, 














14 


9 


235.39 


March, . 














22 


12 


242.84 


April, 














23 


31 


245.33 


May, 














21 


16 


245.51 


June, 














34 


19 


250.93 


July, 














25 


13 


262.80 


August, . 














20 


28 


263.64 


September, 














22 


22 


261.00 


Totals, 














246 


216 


246.73 



Table No. 3. 

JSJwtving the Condition of Boys under Twenty-one during the Year 

1894-95. 

With parents, . 253 

With others, 138 

For themselves, 26 

Released to go out of State, 14 

Out of the State, 11 

In United States navy, .......... 3 

In United States army, . . 1 

Boarded out, 17 

Died (this year, 6 ; previously, 10), 16 

Massachusetts Reformatory (sent last year and in former years), . 97 

Other institutions, penal, ...,...,. 19 

Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, 4 

Discharged as unfit subjects, 9 

Returned to court, 7 

State Board of Lunacy and Charity, ....... 3 

Lost sight of : — 

This year, . . ,52 

Previously, 31 



In school Sept. 30, 1895, 



701 
264 



965 



66 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 4. 

Showing the Commitments from the Several Counties the Past Tear 

and previously. 



COUNTIES. 



Past Year. 



Previously. 



Totals. 



Barnstable, 

Berkshire, 

Bristol, 

Dukes, 

Essex, 

Franklin, . 

Hampden, 

Hampshire, 

Middlesex, 

Nantucket, 

Norfolk, . 

Plymouth, 

Suffolk, . 

Worcester, 

Totals, 



1 

4 

17 

17 

17 



11 

5 
50 
15 



1G7 



54 
238 

609 

16 

1,073 

55 

418 

86 

1,239 

17 

450 

130 

1,418 

769 



6,572 



55 

212 

626 

16 

1,090 

55 

435 

86 

1,269 

17 

461 

135 

1,468 

784 



6,739 



Table No. 5. 

Showing Nativity of Parents of Boys committed during the Year. 

Fathers born in United States, 18 

Mothers born in United States, 11 

Fathers foreign born, 7 

Mothers foreign born, 25 

Both parents born in United States, . . . . . . . 31 

Both parents foreign born, . . . 61 

Unknown, 34 

One parent unknown, 25 

Showing Nativity of Boys committed during the Year. 

Born in United States, 130 

Foreign born (12 in Canada), 53 

Unknown, 2 

Total, 167 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



67 



Table No. 6. 

Showing by ivhat Authority the Commitments have been made the 

Past Year. 



COMMITMENTS, 



Past Year. 



By district court, 

municipal court, 

police court, 

superior court, 

trial justices, 

State Board of Lunacy and Charity, . 

Total, 



63 

39 

47 

5 

8 

5 



167 



Table No. 7. 
Showing the Age of Boys when committed. 



AGE. 



Past Year. 



Previously. 



Totals. 



Six, .... 

Seven, 

Eight, . 

Nine, 

Ten,. 

Eleven, . 

Twelve, . 

Thirteen, . 

Fourteen, 

Fifteen, . 

Sixteen, . 

Seventeen, 

Eighteen and over, . 

Unknown, 

Totals, 



10 
18 
26 
43 



167 



5 
25 

117 

235 

449 

654 

900 

1,179 

1,287 

951 

528 

181 

17 

44 



6,572 



5 
25 

120 

235 

459 

672 

926 

1,222 

1,349 

956 

528 

181 

17 

44 



6,739 



Average age of boys committed, 13.44. 



QS 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 8. 

Showing the Domestic Condition of Boys who have been committed 
to the School during the Year. 

Had parents, 96 

no parents, 10 

father, 27 

mother, ............ 36 

step-father, 11 

step-mother, 7 

intemperate father, 61 

intemperate mother, 2 

both parents intemperate, 14 

parents separated, .......... 10 

attended church, . . , . . ... . . . 167 

never attended church, - 

never attended school, . . . . - 

not attended school within one year, 18 

not attended school within two years, ...... 6 

not attended school within three years, ..... 5 

been arrested before, ......... 106 

been inmates of other institutions, 33 

used intoxicating liquor, 10 

used tobacco (mostly cigarettes), 141 

Were employed in the mill or otherwise when arrested, . . . 22 

idle, 91 

attending school,. 51 

Could not read or write, 

Parents owning residence, . . . 23 

Members of the family had been arrested, 58 



Table No. 9. 

Showing the Length of Time the Boys who have left the Past Year 
have spent in the School since Commitment. 



3 months or 


less, 


. 24 


8 months, . 


. 2 


4 months, . 


, . 


. 9 


9 


. 2 


5 


. 


. 2 


10 


. 1 


6 


• . 


. 


11 


. 2 


7 


• 


. 2 


1 year, 


. . 1 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 

Table No. 9 — Concluded. 



69 



lye 


ar 


1 month, 

2 months, 






1 

5 


2 years 8 months, « 
2 " 9 






1 

5 




« 


3 


« 






4 


2 " 10 " 






7 




; 


4 


' 






5 


2 " 11 






4 




' 


5 


t 






7 


3 " 






5 




it 


6 


( 






14 


3 " 1 month, 






3 




;c 


7 
8 
9 


« 






12 
2 
9 


3 " 2 months, 
3 " 3 
3 " 4 






2 

1 




a 


10 
11 


( 






, 9 
13 


3 " 5 
3 " 6 






- 


2 years 

2 " 


1 month, 






13 

6 


3 " 7 " 
3 " 8 " 






, 1 
2 


2 " 


2 months, 






2 


3 " 9 " 






. 1 


2 " 


3 






, 7 


3 " 10 






- 


2 " 


4 






. 6 


3 " 11 






1 


2 " 

2 « 


5 
6 






. 5 
. 3 


4 years and more, 






. 3 


2 


it 


7 


It 






. 4 


Total, . 






. 208 



Average time spent in the institution, 21.17 months. 



Table No. 10. 

Comparative Table, showing Average Numbers, New Commitments, 
etc., for a Period of Ten Years. 





Average 
Number. 


New Com- 
mitments. 


Returned 

for 
Any Cause. 


Placed on 
Probation. 


Discharged 
Otherwise. 


1885-86, . 


92.82 


59 


44 


90 


18 


1886-87, 










104.32 


93 


31 


80 


16 


1887-88, 










127.24 


99 


38 


91 


22 


1888-89, 










168.23 


124 


39 


93 


19 


1889-90, 










186.46 


92 


18 


89 


16 


1890-91, 










183.96 


109 


21 


99 


16 


1891-92, 










203.88 


125 


30 


120 


16 


1892-93, 










226.05 


146 


49 


122 


31 


1893-94, 










228.00 


142 


53 


124 


75 


1894-95, 










246.73 


167 


79 


188 


28 


Average 


fort 


en yc 


?ars, 


176.76 


115.6 


42.2 


109.6 


25.7 



70 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 11. 

Showing Commitments by Months for Ten Years. 





1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


.1895 


October, . 


11 


17 


4 


16 


- 


8 


13 


17 


18 


18 


November, 


6 


8 


7 


13 


4 


5 


5 


12 


11 


9 


December, 


1 


2 


14 


15 


15 


2 


4 


13 


9 


7 


January, . 


4 


7 


3 


13 


5 


4 


13 


6 


16 


5 


February, 


3 


4 


7 


4 


3 


6 


7 


5 


8 


10 


March, . 


4 


4 


5 


10 


8 


6 


10 


13 


16 


14 


April, 


3 


8 


2 


3 


8 


17 


5 


6 


9 


18 


May, 


4 


7 


11 


12 


10 


10 


12 


14 


15 


12 


June, 


8 


5 


13 


8 


7 


12 


15 


6 


13 


22 


July, 


6 


6 


9 


8 


5 


15 


17 


10 


4 


20 


August, . 


5 


15 


8 


13 


9 


14 


16 


17 


12 


16 


September, 


5 
60 


10 
93 


15 
99 


16 

124 


9 
92 


12 

109 


10 
125 


8 


27 


16 


Totals, . 


146 


142 


167 



Table No. 12. 

Offences with which Boys committed the Past Year have been charged. 

Assault, 7 

Breaking-, entering and larceny, 45 

Drunkenness, 1 

Larceny, 66 

Malicious mischief, 2 

Stubbornness, 37 

Taking team, 3 

Unlawful appropriation, . . . . 2 

Vagrauey, 3 

Setting fires, 1 

4 

167 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



71 



Report of the Sewing-room for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1895. 



Articles Made. 


Articles Repaired. 


Aprons, 84 


Aprons, 30 


Bedticks, . 








127 


Awning, . 








1 


Blue jackets, 








84 


Blankets, 








10 


Coats, 








3 


Braces, . 








81 


Coverings, 








8 


Coats, 








50 


Dish cloths, 








128 


Caps, 








49 


Dish towels, 








90 


Curtains, . 








3 


Holders, . 








13 


Floor mat, 








1 


Large curtain, 






1 


Horse blankets 


5, 






2 


Mattress covers, 






8 


Jackets, . 








25 


Napkins, . 






182 


Mittens, . 








6 


Pantaloons, 






742 


Mattress, . 








1 


Pillow slips, . 






652 


Napkins,. 








72 


Pillow ticks, . 






63 


Pantaloons, 








446 


Rugs, 






20 


Pillow slips, 








80 


Roller towels, . 






20 


Robes, 








2 


Sheets, . 






447 


Sheets, . 








. 102 


Shirts, 






1,333 


Shirts, 








. 397 


Strips for labels, 






36 


Spreads, . 








3 


Spreads, . 






18 


Table-cloths, 








17 


Table-cloths, . 






3 


Towels, . 








82 


Towels, . 






452 


Vest, 








1 


White aprons, . 
White jacket, . 






5 
1 


1,461 










4,520 













Average number of boys employed, 6^ 

Number of different boys employed, 14 

Laundry Work for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1895. 

Number of pieces washed, 241,770 

Number of pieces ironed, 184,125 

Number of pieces starched, 13,141 

Average number of boys employed, 31.8 

Number of different boys employed, . 98 



72 PRINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



PRINCIPAL'S REPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

During the year ending Sept. 30, 1895, instruction was given in 
our school to 436 boys, of which number 167 entered within that 
time. This fact considerably increased the labors of our efficient 
corps of teachers ; but they were equal to the emergency, and I con- 
sider much credit their due because of the cheerful, earnest, faithful 
manner in which they performed all their duties. 

As two p.m. each day draws near, we almost forget that we are 
in any way connected with an institution, for we see groups of happy 
boys going from the various cottages to others for their school work. 
This plan for keeping the school well graded thus far has proved 
a decided success. 

Though our number has been quite in excess of any previous year 
since we have held our present position, yet the order in the schools 
has been remarkably good and the discipline has been maintained 
witli comparative ease, though not by holding the rod suspended over 
the boys' heads. We have acted upon the principle so often used 
with success in cases of insanity, — that of taking one's thoughts 
from self and fastening them upon other objects. We have aimed to 
interest the boys in subjects that are really worthy of attention, to 
stimulate earnest thought, to cultivate habits of close observation 
and correct expression, and to arouse ambition to build up a noble 
character. With boys dull and backward we have tried to be 
patient, have given them personal attention, commending their best 
efforts; and in some instances they have surprised us after a few 
weeks by " waking up," manifesting a lively interest in their studies 
and making unexpected improvement. No line of study has so 
quickly gained the attention and aroused the interest of such boys as 
drawing. An essential element of education is the training of both 
hand and eye, and we have made an effort to introduce this more 
and more into the various exercises of the school, thus laying the 
foundation for the more complicated work of the manual training 
departments. This use of the hand and the eye imperceptibly cre- 
ates a taste for thought and study; and, as another says, "As he 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 73 

draws, invents and colors, he is led to the useful and the beautiful, 
and a feeling of real satisfaction that he is able to do takes posses- 
sion of his soul." Four additional weeks' work in drawing has been 
laid out, making a* course of thirty-six weeks, which gives one hun- 
dred and eighty lessons to those present during that time. These 
lessons include clay modelling, paper cutting, mechanical and free- 
hand drawing, dictation exercises, original designing and color work. 
The amount of work (at a low estimate, more than thirty thousand 
papers in drawing were inspected by me during the year) far 
exceeded that of any previous year, yet the quality was even better 
than before. As usual, many extra pieces, which were very credit- 
able, were done in recreation hours. A large case of such work has 
been sent to the Atlanta Exposition. Two books, together contain- 
ing two hundred and ninety-nine sheets of drawing and color work, 
and one filled with written work in various lines, were also sent. 

The study of insects, commenced near the close of the preceding 
year, has been continued. Our teachers have become enthusiastic in 
objective teaching in this line, and as a result the spirit of close ob- 
servation and investigation pervades the entire school. These lessons 
when properly conducted are of inestimable value. When skilfully 
guided, our boys observe even more closely than adults and they 
can express quite clearly on paper the result of these observations. 
Though their work is crudely done at first, by daily practice in rep- 
resenting the parts of the insects, then the whole in various positions, 
power is acquired to present fairly correct pictorial drawings. Their 
use of the language also improves greatly, as the boys write de- 
scriptions of the beautiful winged creatures, their wonderful structures 
and transformations, their peculiar habits, etc. But of still greater 
value than all this do I esteem the development of the moral part 
of the boy which results from the study of these living beauties of 
nature's own forming and coloring. During the year the boys of 
each class were eager to collect as many different specimens of insects 
as possible, and by one school alone nearly two hundred varieties were 
found and mounted. Neat cases in which to place their specimens 
were made by boys in one of the manual training rooms and furnished 
the different schools. The boys have been even more intensely 
interested in observing the cycle of changes through which varieties 
of insects move than in the fully developed butterfly or moth itself. 
Cocoon, chrysalis, caterpillar and larva have been kept in the school- 
room and daily observed, and many of the specimens mounted there 
emerged from their winding sheets, impressing upon the minds of the 
pupils the beautiful lesson of the resurrection. 

In penmanship we follow the principles as given in the Spencerian 
system, but carry out a course of exercises which our own experience 



74 PRINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

and observation have suggested. For a number of weeks the first of 
the year such exercises were taken as would tend to give freedom of 
movement to the muscles of the whole arm. This plan was not ap- 
proved by all, as it did not require accuracy on the part of the pupils. 
But later in the course, as the exercises calling into action the muscles 
of the hand and fingers were taken, it was plainly seen that by the 
drill given in the previous lessons control of these sets of muscles had 
been gained, and the boys were able with considerable accuracy to 
form the small letters, and these in combinations. We make use of 
spaced paper for all our penmanship exercises, so that the habit of 
making the letters of uniform height is easily formed. Though drill 
on the capitals was not begun till April, the specimen of each boy's 
writing given the last of June showed that much progress had been 
made, yet each retained his individuality to a far greater extent than 
would have been the case had he learned to write by copying. 

In language the boys are still enjoying the writings of the dear old 
" Quaker poet." At least a dozen of his choicest poems were memo- 
rized during the year. 

In arithmetic, history, music, etc., very creditable work has been 
done. 

Thanking you for your continued kindness, 

Very respectfully, 

MARY L. PETTIT, 

Principal. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 75 



KEPOET OF THE TEACHER OP SLOYD. 



To T. F. Chapin, Superintendent of Lyman School. 

The experiment spoken of last year, of giving the same fifty boys 
two-hour lessons five days in the week, was continued through the 
year. Each day the boys came to their benches with the last lesson 
fresh in mind. They could carry out instructions received the day 
before, that were interrupted by the closing of the lesson, in a cheer- 
ful, independent manner. Daily lessons keep the boy prepared to 
begin work, without review or assistance from the teacher, to recall 
where he left off or what to do next. Fewer mistakes are made, and 
the subject as a whole is more nearly grasped. 

One hundred and fourteen boys have passed out of the Sloyd room 
and fifty more are in daily attendance. 

Working drawings are taught to each new class. Beginning with 
points, lines, patterns and blocks of various shapes, the pupil is 
brought to the construction of a drawing for each model he wishes to 
make, whether it be one of the regular course or an " extra piece." 
The boys take much interest in these drawings, for through them they 
get their first intelligent glimpse of the model. The drawings have 
led them not only to see the model as a whole but to study it in detail, 
so that when the rough wood is given to them each boy will look at 
his drawing and tell how to proceed, in such a manner that I feel sure 
a picture rises out of the block of wood for him. 

During the year the class spoken of in the last report made the fol- 
lowing record : this class had had five weeks previous teaching, and 
began with the cutting board ;, number in class at the beginning, 25 ; 
number in the class at close, 22 ; number that lost the class, 4, others 
taking their places. Number of models made during the year, 23; 
adding the 6 previously made, it will be seen that these boys nearly 
completed the course of 31 models. Number of lessons in drawing, 
18. Extra pieces, 70. Time worked, 21 weeks. 

Record of one new class, the others being similar : number in the 
class at the beginning, 25 ; number in the class at close, 24 ; number 
that lost the class, 4 ; 2 from inability and 2 left the school. Other 
boys were put in their places. Number of models made, 24. Num- 



76 SLOYD REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

ber of lessons given in drawing, 33. Extra work filled spare 
moments. Time filled, 22 weeks. 

A boy feels it very keenly when he sees the beauty of his model 
destroyed by his own thoughtlessness with regard to the right use of 
the tools. 

Hand work must be united to head work and heart work to be a suc- 
cess. The man that can combine these powers has valuable material 
under his control. In many ways Sloyd disciplines the boy con- 
stantly and demands an all-round development. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ANNA L. WILCOX. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 77 



REPORT OF INSTRUCTOR OF ADVANCED 
MANUAL TRAINING. 



To the Superintendent of Lyman School. 

During the past year we have been fitting up some rooms in part 
of the armory at Wayside for advanced manual training. The work 
has been done by the boys with my supervision, with the exception 
of a little brick laying and steam fitting. 

The equipment consists of a wood- working room, in which are car- 
penter's benches and a full set of tools at each, eight turning lathes 
and tools and a circular saw with cutting-off and splitting saws ; a 
forge room, in which are sixteen portable forges and anvils, a pres- 
sure blower for furnishing blast for the forges and an exhauster for 
taking out the smoke ; and a filing room, with bench and eight vises. 
Our power is furnished by a seven and one-half horse-power upright 
engine and boiler. 

The first classes commenced the 1st of February and closed the 
1st of June. As our equipment was not fully completed in the 
spring, some additions were made during the summer, and September 
1 the classes commenced again with sixteen boys, each boy getting 
eight hours in forging, eight hours in woodwork and four hours in 
drawing each week, each boy working from his own drawing. 

It is our object to give the boys such a class of work as will help 
them in their future life. We do not claim to make blacksmiths or 
carpenters of them, — it is the man we are after. In the forge room 
the boy is taught how to work the iron from the rough bar by draw- 
ing, bending, welding and shaping it into some practical and useful 
object, such as hooks, staples, rings, links and blacksmith's tongs. 
He also learns to work steel, welding steel to iron and tempering. 
In our iron and wood work we always have some object in view in 
each lesson that works out the principles, and at the end have some 
useful piece, not merely an exercise ; this, too, holds the attention 
of the boy. We look rather for the educational value than the man- 
ufacturing. 



78 MANUAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

During the year some extra work has been done by those boys 
who have shown the most skill in their work. A tool case for use in 
the manual training room, two cases to hold the exhibits for the 
Atlanta Exhibition and a filing case to be used at the superintend- 
ent's office have been made. 

One of the boys takes care of the boiler and engine, with my 
supervision. During the year two boys have held this position about 
six months each, and they feel it is quite an honor, and take great 
pride in keeping them in order. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES D. LITTLEFIELD, 

Instructor of the Advanced Manual Training. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 79 



REPORT OF THE TEACHER OF PRINTING. 



To the Superintendent. 

The close of the year finds us in the middle of a job of printing 
consisting of over a thousand copies of a sixteen-page pamphlet, with 
cover, to be sent to the mid-winter fair at Atlanta, Ga. Not only 
the printing, but the binding as well (the folding, stitching, gluing 
on covers and the trimming), will be done in the office. 

Thirteen different boys have had the educational and mechanical 
advantages of the printing office during the year ending Sept. 30, 1895. 
Not over six have been engaged at any one time. 

In our last report we referred to a young man who bid fair to 
become an excellent " all-round" printer. This same young man is 
in a good printing office where a paper is published, and where he 
is making himself generally useful at the case, press or stone work. 
His record since he left the school has been excellent. 

Another printing-office boy was converted while here, and is now 
in Moody's school at Mt. Hermon, determined to have an education 
and to make the most of his opportunities. Because of the knowl- 
edge and experience acquired in the printing office here he has been 
given a chance to earn something in the printing office there for two 
hours every day, and he is making the most of it. 

The printing office is an advantage to the school financially, as 
well as to the boys educationally. We do at least a thousand dollars' 
worth of printing a year, and the expense is but our salary of four 
hundred, and a hundred or two for paper, etc., and the office is 
worth at least a thousand dollars more to-day than it has cost the 
State. 

The manufacturer of the new press has recently sent us the fixt- 
ures for power, and his travelling machinist, Mr. Foote, has attached 
them to the press, without a cent of expense to the State. 

The work has peculiar attractions for the boys, and stimulates 
them to accomplish many difficult tasks. As in Sloyd, so in printing, 
the work demands the complete attention of the boys. It stirs up a 
healthy ambition to excel, to complete what is undertaken and to 
learn more. The printing office is a school, an educational factor of 



80 PRINTING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct, 

much benefit to the boys, and is worthy the careful consideration 
of others. 

We love the work, and have none but the kindliest feelings for the 
future citizens (the boys) in our care. Our chief aim is to encourage 
them to persevere, to help them to overcome all obstacles, to make 
them understand that all laws and rules are made for the common 
good of all and must be obeyed, to develop and bring out the man- 
hood that is in every heart, to have them look into the future and 
commence now to plan for an honest, useful and noble life. We 
hope to meet some one some day who will say of us, as the poor 
woman who tottered down the aisle of Trinity Church, and, gazing 
upon that face ever beautiful in life and ever beautiful in death, 
mid her anguish and her tears, said, of Phillips Brooks, " He helped 
me, — he helped me." 

With a thankful heart for the kindness you have shown in both 
praise and the mutual interchange of opinions, we enter upon another 
year not only with more experience and more courage, but with more 
faith that some of the possibilities and probabilities will become 
realities in the near future. 

Very respectfully yours, 

M. EVERETT HOWARD. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 81 



PHYSICAL TEAINING DEPARTMENT. 



To the Superintendent of Lyman School. 

Gymnastics may be in character educational, entertaining or dis- 
ciplinary. Educational gymnastics include not only the higher types 
of gymnastic movements but also a study of the subject from an 
historical, physiological, anatomical and hygienic stand-point. The 
second class includes gymnastic games and sports of all kinds ; the 
third is applied primarily for discipline, and inclines toward the mili- 
tary in precision and accuracy. The three forms have been used 
during the past two years with good results. The interest of the 
normal class, so called, was aroused in a brief study of anatomy and 
physiology, whereby some knowledge was gained of the human body 
and the effects of muscular action upon the internal organs. This 
class was also drilled in conducting classes in gymnastics. 

For the purpose of arousing ambition and activity in awkward 
boys, a class was organized last year composed of the latest recruits. 
Gymnastic games, both in doors and out, were highly enjoyed, and 
some boys who were not aware that their arms and legs were given 
them for use soon became acquainted with the fact by being com- 
pelled to use them. 

While these methods have in a measure accomplished their pur- 
pose, it is to the disciplinary side of the triangle that I ascribe the 
greatest benefit. For the emaciated in mind and body, the gym- 
nastic games have proved valuable, but as soon as they are able to 
understand what obedience means (which comes with an improved 
constitution) something more seems necessary. My policy, there- 
fore, has been, since the beginning of the present school year, and 
will continue to be, along the disciplinary line, believing the habit of 
unhesitating and unquestioning obedience to commands to be of infi- 
nite value to this class of pupils. 

The laws governing health and purity are laid down with the rules 
of the class drill, and practical illustrations of the results of disobe- 
dience are constantly before the pupils. A decided improvement has 
been made in this respect since the instructor has directed each class 
personally every day, and since a system has been devised whereby 



82 PHYSICAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

carelessness and laziness do not go unnoticed. The attention and 
interest are better maintained as the class becomes more uniform in 
its execution of movements and as the individual members appreciate 
their own capabilities. The exercises are made as enjoyable as is 
consistent with good order. 

Field sports furnished amusement July 4. The list included base 
ball, running high and broad jumps, one-hundred-yard dash, potato 
race, wheelbarrow race, climbing greased pole and swimming match. 
Prizes were offered for each event. 

Physical measurements have been continued this year, demonstrat- 
ing that the most active in gymnastic drill develop greater power in 
every direction, and that the inactive and inattentive, while gaining 
in height and weight, gain little in other ways. 

The following table compares the average measurements of thirty- 
seven boys taken in 1893 with those of thirty boys taken in 1894. 
While in some ways the first group shows to better advantage, there 
are facts which add to the value of the second group : ( 1 ) a larger 
per cent, of these boys were very inactive workers ; (2) at the time 
of the first observation they had been in the school a shorter time ; 
(3) there is a more decided gain in power in proportion to growth, 
as shown by strength tests. The advantage of age rests with the 
boys in the second group, they being older by two and one-third 
months. Six months elapsed between the first and second observa- 
tions in each group. 







Group I. 






Group II. 






Showing Changes in Measures 
of Thikty-seven Boys, taken 
IN 1893. 


Showing Changes in Measures 
of Thirty Boys, taken in 
1894. 




First Ob- 
servation. 


Second Ob- 
servation. 


Average 
Change. 


First Ob- 
servation. 


Second Ob- 
servation. 


Average 
Change. 


Height, .... 


1,463.44 


1,512.02 


48.58 


1,480.27 


1,526.74 


47.47 


Weight, .... 


40.71 


43.91 


3.59 


41.15 


44.12 


2.97 


Chest (girth), 


723 


762 


39 


741 


764 


23 


Chest (full) (girth), . 


760 


797 


37 


765 


797 


32 


Ninth rib (girth) , . 


676 


705 


29 


679 


701 


22 


Ninth rib (full) (girth), 


719 


748 


29 


716 


745 


29 


Waist (girth), 


653 


668 


15 


654 


663 


9 


Hips (girth), . 


758 


785 


27 


765 


784 


19 


R. thigh (girth) , . 


441 


463 


22 


444 


457 


13 


L. thigh (girth), . 


438 


461 


23 


440 


454 


14 


R. calf (girth) , 


298 


312 


14 


302 


310 


8 


L. calf (girth) , 


298 


310 


12 


302 


311 


9 


R. upper arm (girth), . 


235 


250 


15 


235 


245 


10 


L. upper arm (girth) , . 


231 


245 


14 


230 


241 


11 


R. forearm (girth), 


212 


225 


13 


217 


221 


4 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



83 







Group I. 






Group II. 






Showing Changes in Measures 
of Thibty-seven Boys, taken 
in 1893. 


Showing Changes in Measures 
of Thirty Boys, taken in 
1894. 




First Ob- 
servation. 


Second Ob- 
servation. 


Average 
Change. 


First Ob- 
servation. 


Second Ob- 
servation. 


Average 
Change. 


L. forearm (girth), 


210 


225 


15 


212 


223 


11 


Chest (depth), 


175 


177 


2 


173 


177 


4 


Abdomen (depth), 


176 


180 


4 


173 


178 


5 


Shoulder (breadth), 


326 


331 


5 


328 


337 


9 


Hips (breadth), . 


267 


271 


4 


269 


274 


5 


Back (strength), . 


72.02 


86.59 


14.57 


80.00 


90.90 


10.90 


Legs (strength), . 


82.86 


101.59 


18.73 


94.83 


107.86 


13.03 


Chest (strength), . 


26.98 


30.68 


3.70 


27.73 


33.48 


5.75 


R. forearm (strength), . 


20.00 


26.06 


3.06 


25.50 


29.90 


4.40 


L. forearm (strength), . 


22.54 


25.37 


2.83 


23.80 


27.10 


3.30 


Total strength, 


227.40 


270.29 


42.89 


251.86 


289.24 


37.38 


Lung capacity, 


2.39 


2.76 


.37 


2.41 


2.62 


.21 



Units of measure are : kilograms, millimeters, litres. 

In conclusion, the direct results of the year's work are : improved 
discipline in the classes ; better attention and less carelessness ; ap- 
parently an increased interest ; a large number of poorly developed 
forms straightened and strengthened ; and, by the new programme, 
whereby the instructor comes in contact with every boy every day, 
a more intelligent oversight, making it possible to detect and report 
to the attending physician cases of physical weakness. 

This, my third annual report, is respectfully submitted, 



ALLISTON GREENE, 

Instructor. 



84 PHYSICIAN'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPOKT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The work in my department has been uniform throughout the year. 
We have escaped serious disease and been visited by no epidemic of 
a dangerous character, but the minor complaints have been numerous. 

Regularly twice a week all boys having any ailment have been 
allowed to apply for examination and treatment; 1,082 such appli- 
cations have been made, and have received such attention as was 
demanded, the boys returning to their respective homes. Of these 
patients, 142 suffered from accidental causes, disorders of digestive 
and respiratory systems coming next in frequency. 

The hospital has been occupied by 156 boys 708 days ; of these, 34 
were affected by tonsillitis, 31 by indigestion, 24 by colds and result- 
ant disorders, 15 by sores, boils and ulcers, 10 by accidents, 6 by skin 
diseases, 5 by neuralgia, 4 by chicken-pox, 3 by ivy poison, 2 by 
pneumonia, 2 by dysentery, 2 by abscess, with 18 by as many dif- 
ferent diseases. The average occupancy has been 4.5 days ; all 
recovered. 

Observation in the schools led to the conclusion that several boys 
were unable to do good work on account of defective eyes. Vision 
was tested by an occulist in the case of 58 boys and glasses provided 
for 15 ; the remainder were not consistent in their complaints or not 
sufficiently intelligent to aid in the test. 

It is evident the farm is being rid of poison ivy, as only 3 boys 
have been severely afflicted, with a loss of eighteen clays, — a great 
improvement over last year. 

Tonsillitis is one of the most troublesome diseases, and this year 
has been frequent and severe, and so far no satisfactory cause has 
been discovered. 

The sanitary condition of all the houses seems to be good. 



Respectfully submitted, 



F. E. COREY, 

Physician. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



85 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



1894. — October, received f rorr 


i the State Treasurer, 






$4,593 29 


November, 


it it 


cc cc 






5,297 36 


December, 


cc cc 


" 






4,033 80 


1895. — January, 


cc a 


cc cc 






4,554 73 


February, 


cc cc 


cc CC 






4,978 09 


March, 


" 


cc cc 






4,840 59 


April, 


cc cc 


cc 






4,555 30 


May, 


cc cc 


cc 






4,250 29 


June, 


u tt 


cc cc 






4,746 02 


July, 


" 


cc cc 






5,007 71 


August, 


(C 11 


cc c 






5,431 53 


September, 


" " 


" " 






4,948 87 






$57,237 58 


Bills paid 


as per Vouchers at the State Treasury. 


1894. — October, . 


$4,593 29 


November, 


















5,297 36 


December, 


















4,033 80 


1895. — January, 


















4,554 73 


February, 


















4,978 09 


March, . 
















, 


4,840 59 


April, 






.<• 












4,555 30 


May, 


a[ 
















4,250 29 


June, 


















4,746 02 


July, 


















5,007 71 


August, . 


• c 








, 






., 


5,431 53 


September, 


















4,948 87 






$57,237 58 



Amount drawn from State Treasury. 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1893, Chapter 94). 

1894. — December, .' . $1,180 00 



Special Appropriation (Acts of 1895, Chapter 37). 
1895.— July, . . . .. ., . . 



$548 84 



SQ FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Expenditures. 

Bills paid as per Voucher at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 

(Acts ofl893, Chapter 94). 

1894. — December, ' $1,180 00 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1895, Chapter 3 7) . 

1895. — July, $548 84 



Expenditures for the Year ending 
Salaries of officers and employees, . 
Wages of others temporarily employed, . 



Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 
Ammonia, . 
Butter, . 
Beef, . 
Beans, . 
Baking powder, 
Bath brick and sand, 
Boiled cider, 
Barley, 
Butchering, 
Blacking, 
Corn meal, 
Crackers, 
Cheese, 
Coffee, . 
Cereal coffee, 
Cream tartar and soda 
Chocolate, , 
Cocoa, . 
Cranberries, 
Cornstarch, , 
Cocoa shells, 
Citron, 
Dried fruit, , 
Eggs, . 
Extracts, 
Flour, . 
Fish, . 
Fowl, . 
Fly paper, 

Fruit and canned good 
Gelatine, 



Sept. 30, 1895. 
.$23,191 94 



1,080 04 



Amounts carried forward, 



$2 00 


, 1,064 81 


. 1,692 09 


354 80 


22 50 


2 90 


5 75 


1 63 


1 50 


3 00 


69 10 


48 26 


297 22 


185 31 


42 12 


10 94 


7 80 


25 03 


11 00 


3 60 


2 37 


2 40 


59 80 


105 86 


17 20 


. 1,190 25 


526 52 


221 64 


3 40 


141 17 


6 75 


. $6,128 72 



$24,271 98 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 87 

Amounts brought forward, . $6,128 72 $24,271 98 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Hashed meat, ....... 2 77 

Ice, 313 38 

Ice cream and cakes, 8 35 

Insect powder, . 1 50 

Lobster and clams, ...... 38 

Lard, . . .188 38 

Mutton, . . . 107 03 

Molasses, . . . . . . . . 271 59 

Making cider, . . . . . . . 9 74 

Milk, ......... 30 00 

Macaroni, .' 4 03 

Nuts, 5 00 

Oatmeal, ........ 87 05 

Oysters, ........ 59 17 

Olive oil, 3 22 

Pork and hams, 179 42 

Potatoes, ........ 3 75 

Pepper, 9 42 

Paper and paper bags, 8 25 

Rye flour, 14 55 

Rice, 33 25 

Raisins, . ." . . . . : 13 23 

Syrup, ......... 2 70 

Syrup, maple, ....... 15 90 

Sausage, ........ 45 64 

Sugar, . . . . . . . . 595 63 

Salt, . . . . . . . . . 38 77 

Spices, 21 33 

Soap and soap powder, ..... 234 47 

Starch and bluing, ...... 12 10 

Split peas, .'..". I '.'. '. 51 25 

Stove polish, ....... 2 88 

Shredded wheat, ....... 9 00 

Tapioca, . . I . '. . . . 2 38 

Twine, ......... 3 85 

Tripe, 16 17 

Tea, ......... 32 89 

Veal, ; 23 04 

Wheaten flour, .....:. 383 75 

Wheat meal, ;....'.. 35 00 

Whiskey barrels, . . . . . . 14 25 

Wheatlet, ........ 22 50 

Yeast, ......... 125 61 

9,171 29 



Amount carried forward^ * $33,443 27 



88 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amount brought forward, $33,443 27 

Furniture, beds and bedding — 

Ash barrels and sieves, $3 67 

Agate ware, 15 48 

Bedsteads, 26 00 

Boards for egg cases, 1 12 

Brooms and brushes, 129 59 

Baskets, 6 71 

Blankets, 230 00 

Bellows, 2 50 

Chairs, 37 30 

Cutlery, 29 50 

Crockery, 93 97 

Cameo ware, 39 09 

Clocks, .......... 8 00 

Curtain wires, ....... 75 

Carpet paper, 15 00 

Clothes dryer, 1 00 

Coal hods, 1 80 

Cleaning carpets, ...... 18 96 

Corn popper, 3 00 

Copper boiler and fixtures, 64 25 

Curtain repairs, 32 45 

Duck, ......... 6 28 

Electric lamps, 96 93 

Enamel cloth, 4 35 

Flowerpots, ....... 2 22 

Feather dusters, 3 75 

Glassware, ........ 20 21 

Iron ware, 21 37 

Ice cream freezers, ...... 8 46 

Jar rubbers, ........ 1 72 

Laundry boards, ....... 14 00 

Laundry machine and repairs, .... 18 08 

Lap robes, 38 00 

Lantern globes and wicks, 4 18 

Lamp shades, ....... 1 25 

Mattresses and pillows, ..... 24 00 

Mattress pads, . . . '. . . '. 21 50 

Mail bags, 25 40 

Meat cutter, ....;... 35 00 

Mosquito netting, 3 33 

Nest eggs, . . . '. ... 46 

Other furniture, sets, etc., . . . . . 65 25 

Rubber blankets, ....... 15 00 

Rope, 5 30 



Amounts carried forward, .... $1,196 18 $33,443 27 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 89 

Amounts brought forward, .... $1,196 18 $33,443 27 

Furniture, beds and bedding — 

Rugs and carpets, 90 67 

Repair of mattresses, ...... 309 92 

Stoves and stove furniture, 38 90 

Silver and plated ware, 29 17 

Shears, combs and brushes, . . . . 161 90 

Stone jugs, 1 05 

Stone jars, 3 90 

Spreads, 65 05 

Sheeting, 180 91 

Spectacle repairs, 20 

Scales, . . . . 19 10 

Sewing-machine needles and repairs, . . 7 50 

Steel mats 13 50 

Screen cloth and screens, 16 65 

Step ladder, 3 60 

Sundries, 90 

Tables 7 75 

Tin and copper ware, 27 31 

Towels and napkins, 52 12 

Table spreads, . . . . . . . 53 88 

Tooth brushes, ....... 24 00 

Ticking, 75 02 

Wardrobe, . 15 00 

Woodware, 22 07 



Clothing — 

Armlets, . . . . . . . . $4 90 

Buttons, . 16 37 

Cotton, 225 71 

Coats, pants and jackets, 46 75 

Cashmere, 553 58 

Collars, . . 23 10 

Cutting, making and trimmings, . . . 504 30 

Cambric, 68 

Denim, . 140 24 

Darning cotton, 1 60 

Extension cases, 54 60 

Flannel, 70 80 

Handkerchiefs, . 17 82 

Hats and caps, 107 02 

Indelible ink, 2 70 

Laundry, . 10 67 

Leather, 36 18 

Mittens, ........ 31 38 



2,416 25 



Amounts carried forward, .... $1,848 40 $35,859 52 



90 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, .... $1,848 40 $35,859 52 

Clothing — 

Needles, pins and thimbles, . 30 

New blue cloth, 1,152 26 

Neckties, . . 9 30 

Overcoats, 102 14 

Suits, 652 25 

Shirts (outside), 35 90 

Stockings, . . . . . 190 29 

Shoes and repairs, . . . . . . 630 17 

Shoulder straps, 41 80 

Shoe blacking, . 2 76 

Shoe laces, . . 8 00 

Suspenders, 83 13 

Sunday suits, . . . . . .' . 419 72 

Suspender rings, 80 

Thread, 69 38 

Tape, 98 

Underclothing, 288 89 

5,536 47 

School supplies — 

Arithmetics, $4 86 

Book slates, 3 65 

Blue print paper, 2 90 

Binding books, . . . .... 62 55 

Bunting for trimming, . . . . . 3 54 

Battery, 8 50 

Blotting paper, 9 00 

Compasses, . 10 45 

Copper filler, 1 50 

Cork strips, 98 

Dictionaries, 17 00 

Drawing material, 4 32 

Drawing paper, 62 30 

Foldingchairs, . . . . . . . 9 00 

Geographies, . . . . . . . 48 60 

Ink, ..." 6 92 

Lead pencils, . . . . . . . 11 40 

Library paper, . " 4 80 

Labels, gummed, . . . ... 75 

Miscellaneous books, . . . . . . 22 97 

Music 118 40 

Manila paper, . 37 80 

Manual training supplies, . . . . • 170 93 

Mounting pins, ....... 2 53 

Microscopes, ......*. 6 00 

Amounts carried forward, . . . . $631 65 $41,395 J)9 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— -No. 18, 



91 



Amounts brought forward, . 

School supplies — 

Magic lantern views, 

Mucilage bottles, ....... 

Paint and brushes, 

Pens, 

Paper and envelopes, 

Penmanship paper, . . . . 

Pictures and framing, . .... 

Photographs, 

Rubber erasers, . . . . 

Rulers, ........ 

Scissors, ....... 

Thumb tacks, ...... 

Tools and materials for advanced manual train> 



$631 65 $41,395 99 



ing, 



Ordinary repairs — 
Adamant, 

Brass, lead, tin and copper, 
Boiler repairs, 
Bath tubs, . 
Beeswax, 
Blacksmithing, 
Bricks, . 
Bolts, . 
Belting, 
Brackets, 
Bronze liquid, 
Cement, 
Calcine plaster, 
Cotton waste, 
Cockroach powder, 
Charcoal, 

Castings for sewer dumps, 
Doors and windows, 
Dowels, 

Electric light repairs, . 
Emery cloth, . 
Emery, . . 

Glue, 

Glass, putty and paints, 
Galvanized iron, . 
Hardware, . . » 
Hangers and shafting, , 
Iron, 

Amounts carried forward, 



2 35 


1 88 


54 15 


5 85 


19 90 


13 20 


2 75 


2 25 


7 80 


6 00 


7 50 


90 


1,368 13 


o ^o^ 3i 




$5 88 


8 09 


132 64 


33 38 


35 00 


5 52 


36 36 


6 38 


39 85 


1 86 


11 12 


77 75 


2 25 


2 34 


25 00 


90 


12 00 


4 30 


65 


21 28 


40 


75 


7 65 


98 87 


11 57 


12 20 


17 97 


3 03 



$614 99 $43,520 30 



92 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amounts brought forward, 

Ordinary repairs — 

Labor, .... 

Lumber, 

Locks, butts and hooks, 

Linseed oil, . 

Lubricating oil, . 

Liquid disinfectant, 

Lasts, .... 

Lime, .... 

Litharge, 

Liquid slating, 

Man-hole castings, 

Marline, 

Neatsfoot oil, 

Nails, brads and screws, 

Oil cans, 

Organ repairs, 

Paint brushes, 

Pipe and fittings, . 

Pulleys, etc., 

Poultry wire, 

Plumber's chain, . 

Paints, .... 

Repairs to buggies and sleighs, 

Repair of harness, 

Repairs to house utensils, 

Repairs to steam pipes, 

Rubber packing, . 

Rubber hose, 

Rope, .... 

Repair of heater, . 

Repair of furniture, 

Repairs to sewing machines, 

Solder, . 

Steam piping, 

Stove funnel, 

Stove repairs, 

Stove repair materials, 

Sandpaper, . 

Springs for hair clippers, 

Slate, .... 

Small tools, . 

Sal soda, 

Turpentine, . 

Telephone repairs, 

Amounts carried forward, 



$614 99 $43,520 30 



428 73 


509 59 


31 93 


82 94 


9 10 


34 50 


14 72 


8 85 


1 25 


5 00 


32 50 


1 25 


2 75 


44 76 


2 27 


8 00 


4 88 


312 82 


6 97 


94 


2 22 


120 37 


160 83 


36 30 


4 95 


28 22 


41 


42 5Q 


3 85 


4 00 


13 17 


11 71 


3 85 


160 09 


4 68 


19 80 


3 81 


3 00 


51 


4 76 


42 17 


8 00 


156 55 


86 90 


• 



$3,081 45 $43,520 30 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 93 

Amounts brought forward, .... $3,081 45 $43,520 30 

Ordinary repairs — 

Twine, 30 

Tuning pianos, . 4 00 

Tar paper, ......... 11 06 

Tile, 4 25 

Twine, 38 

Tinned roof, 19 92 

Water-closets, 22 40 

Whiting, 2 76 

Window and door screens, 42 19 

Varnish, 90 

3,189 61 

Fuel and lights — 

Barrel charges, $1 50 

Coal, . . . . 1,690 60 

Calcium light, 2 97 

Electric light, 1,759 99 

Kerosene oil, 4 32 

Wood, 35 50 

3,494 88 

Seeds, plants and fertilizers — 

Ashes, . . . . - . . . . . $154 69 

Bone, 76 50 

Flower seeds and bulbs, 22 98 

Fertilizers, 428 42 

Garden seed, 68 70 

Grass seed, 54 80 

Nitrate of soda, . . ... . . 6 75 

Potting soil, 2 50 

Plaster, . 27 50 

Rye, 2 00 

Seed corn, 3 70 

Seed potatoes, . . . • ■ . . . . 71 73 

Tobacco, 30 

920 57 

Grain and meal for stock — 

Bran, . $15 45 

Barley, 5 40 

Cracked corn, 71 45 

Cotton-seed meal, 108 00 

Condition powder, 5 92 

Corn meal, 95 35 

Corn, 107 54 

Fine feed, 235 35 

Gluten, 307 87 



Amounts carried forward, .... $952 33 f 51,125 36 



94 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amounts brought forward. 

Grain and meal for stock — 
Millet, . 
Oats, 

Oyster shells 
Rye, . 
Salt, . 
Straw, . 
Wheat, . 

Institution property 
Balls and bats, 
Fire apparatus, 
Harness, 
Skates, . 
Top buggy, . 
Whips, . 



$952 33 $51,125 36 



Transportation and travelling expenses — 
Express and freight charges, , 
Travelling expenses, . 



Live stock purchases, 

Farm tools and repairs to same, 

Horse and cattle shoeing, 

News, Sunday-school and waste papers, . 
Postage, telephone, telegraph and phonograph, 
Drugs and medical supplies, . 

Printing material, 

Stationery, 

Water, 

Raw material, 

Rent, 

Burial, . . . . ' . 



75 


331 07 


2 10 


3 30 


74 


57 63 


61 25 


$39 66 


145 60 


25 65 


42 50 


80 00 


3 42 



$468 49 
915 33 



1,409 17 



336 83 



1,383 82 


682 00 


477 59 


81 84 


240 42 


339 59 


133 89 


141 21 


109 38 


430 00 


321 48 


5 00 


20 00 



Total, . . . $57,237 58 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18 



95 



Superintendent's Report of Cash Transactions. — Receipts. 







Farm 
Produce 

Sales. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
Sales. 


Labor 
of Boys. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


Totals. 


1894. 














October, 




Received cash from, . 


$53 39 


$1 25 


$3 20 


- 


$57 84 


November, 


. 


<< i< << 


19 00 


• 21 00 


3 05 


- 


43 05 


December, 


" 


«c a tt 


1 00 


9 80 


5 70 


- 


16 50 


1895. 
















January, 




(i (i «( 


33 50 


1 50 


3 25 


- 


38 25 


February, 




c< (( « 


1 50 


11 40 


5 05 


- 


17 95 


March, . 




<« tt tt 


25 33 


6 00 


226 94 


- 


258 27 


April, . 




(i it it 


190 36 


13 50 


43 11 


- 


246 97 


May, . 




" . 


113 30 


- 


80 54 


- 


193 84 


June, . 




" • 


131 21 


6 18 


73 30 


- 


210 69 


July, . 




tt c« tt 


26 51 


15 62 


1 22 


- 


43 05 


August, 




tt <( (< 


8 26 


2 83 


5 75 


- 


16 84 


September, 




l< (< (( 


21 62 


- 


100 52 


- 


122 14 


Totals, 


$624 48 


$89 08 


$551 63 


- 


$1,265 39 



Superintendent's Report of Cash Transactions. — Disbursements. 







Farm 
Produce 

Sales. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
Sales. 


Labor 
of Boys. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


Totals. 


1894. 














October, 


Paid State Treasurer, 


$53 39 


$1 25 


$3 20 


- 


$57 84 


November, . 


(i <« (i 


19 00 


21 00 


3 05 


- 


43 05 


December, . 


(< tt «< 


1 00 


9 80 


5 70 


- 


16 50 


1895. 














January, 


<< (< tt 


33 50 


1 50 


3 25 


- 


38 25 


February, . 


tt tt tt 


1 50 


11 40 


5 05 


- 


17 95 


March, 


(i tt tt 


25 33 


6 00 


226 94 


- 


258 27 


April, . 


If tt (C 


190 36 


13 50 


43 11 


- 


246 97 


May, . 


t( (( tt 


113 30 


- 


80 54 


- 


193 84 


June, . 


tt tt tt 


131 21 


6 18 


73 30 


- 


210 69 


July, . 


tt tt It 


26 51 


15 62 


1 22 


- 


43 05 


August, 


It it tt 


8 26 


2 83 


5 75 


- 


16 84 


September, 


n tt tt 


21 62 


- 


100 52 


- 


122 14 


Totals, . 


$624 68 


$89 04 


$551 63 


- 


$1,265 39 



96 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. fOct. 



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1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 97 



FARMER'S REPORT 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

I respectfully present the following report for the year ending Sept. 
30, 1895. 

I think the year just passed may be considered on the whole a 
successful one, and the results reasonably satisfactory. While the 
yield of all the crops has been good, some have done much better 
than a year ago. We are unfortunate in having very few apples, but 
our peach trees and vineyard have produced well and give promise 
of a good crop next year. Most of the young grapevines and many 
of the young peach trees should bear next year if the season is favor- 
able. 

Several cows have been bought to replace those it was thought best 
to slaughter for beef. 

Much time has been spent in the improvement of roads and road- 
sides, in removing stones and improving land already under cultivation. 

Mr. Swift has assumed charge of the poultry, which under his suc- 
cessful care should add materially to the farm's credit account. I 
would recommend that more substantial hen-houses be erected. Also 
we are much in need of a piggery. 

In conclusion, I wish to thank you for the hearty support I have 
invariably received. I wish also to thank each master for his cheer- 
ful co-operation and the interest shown in all work undertaken. 

Respectfully submitted, , 

C. S. GRAHAM, 

Farmer. 



98 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Summary of the Farm Account for the Twelve Months ending 

Sept. 30, 1895. 

Dr. 
Live stock, agricultural implements and farm prod 
uce on hand, as appraised Sept. 30, 1894, 

Board, 

Farm tools and repairs to same, 

Fertilizers, . 

Grain and meal for stock 

Horse and cattle shoeing, 

Labor of boys, 

Live stock, . 

Ordinary repairs, 

Seeds and plants, 

Wages, 

Water,. 



Net gain for twelve months, 



Cr. 



Asparagus, 539 bunches, 

Beef, 3,679 pounds, 

Beets, 37| bushels, 

Beet greens, 7 bushels, 

Beans, string, 

Beans, shelled, . 

Cabbage, 101 barrels, 

Cherries, 4 quarts, 

Cucumbers, . 

Cucumbers for pieklin; 

Currants, 

Carrots, 

Cauliflower, 

Celery, 

Cash for pickles, . 

Cash for pigs, 

Cash for tallow, . 

Cash for calves, . 

Cash for hides, . 

Cash for cabbage, 

Cash for team work, 

Cash for asparagus, 

Cash for tomato plants, 



Amount carried forward, 



$7,305 64 


312 00 


415 97 


732 76 


1,312 35 


60 46 


391 25 


542 00 


26 13 


135 02 


892 06 


20 00 


fio i,|c a a 




1,363 74 


$13,509 38 


$43 12 


206 29 


24 44 


3 50 


25 62 


25 12 


21 00 


40 


20 67 


2 30 


30 


3 11 


1 00 


2 80 


64 33 


135 50 


19 00 


11 50 


7 33 


43 80 


59 80 


144 97 


21 72 



$887 62 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



99 



Amount brought forward, 

Cash for strawberries, 
Cash for potatoes, 
Cash for peas, 
Cash for chickens, 
Cash for beans, . 
Cash for onions, . 
Cash for tomatoes, 
Eggs, 910^ dozens, . 

Fowl, 

Lettuce, 

Milk, 7,116 T 4 a cans, . 

Melons, 

Onions, 35 bushels, 

Pork, 4,3861 pounds, . 

Peas, 94} bushels, 

Potatoes, 164 bushels, . 

Parsnips, 

Pumpkins, . 

Rhubarb, 273 pounds, . 

Radishes, 471 bunches, 

Strawberries, 1,225 quarts, 

Spinach, 

Sweet corn, 865-^j dozens, 

Squash, summer, . 

Squash, winter, . 

Turnips, 39 bushels, . 

Tomatoes, 77 bushels, 

Labor for institution, . 



Live stock, agricultural implements and farm prod 
uce on hand Sept. 30, 1895, 



. $887 62 


68 38 


3 95 


2 15 


16 94 


25 


24 26 


80 


181 55 


21 20 


21 15 


. 2,329 68 


6 25 


27 75 


285 21 


75 40 


138 15 


80 


1 00 


5 46 


23 55 


98 00 


1 50 


86 85 


5 35 


4 00 


22 62 


35 02 


895 26 





$5,270 10 



8,239 28 



$13,509 38 



Produce of the Farm on Hand Oct. 1, 1895. 



Apples, 
Beets, . 
Beans, . 
Corn, cabbage 

fodder, . 
Corn, . , 
Cabbages, . 
Carrots, 
Celery, 
Ensilage, . 



and 



grass 



$50 00 
45 00 
62 40 

65 00 
180 58 
143 75 
113 40 

85 00 
466 50 



Grain and grass seed, . 


. $16 26 


Hay, 


1,062 00 


Parsnips, 


35 00 


Potatoes, 


255 35 


Pickles, 


13 75 


Onions, 


110 00 


Squash and pumpkins, 


92 50 


Turnips, 


78 30 



$2,874 79 



100 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Farm Sales. 



Asparagus, . 






$144 97 


Peas, . 


. $2 15 


Beans, . 






25 


Strawberries, 


. 68 38 


Calves, 






11 50 


Tallow, 


. 19 00 


Cabbage, . 






43 80 


Team work, 


. 59 80 


Chickens, . 






16 94 


Tomato plants, . 


. 21 72 


Hides, . 






7 33 


Tomatoes, . 


80 


Pickles, 






64 33 


Onions, 


. 24 26 








135 50 






Potatoes, 




o 


3 95 




$624 68 


Live / 


Stock. 




Boar, |15 00 


Horse, " Charley," 


. $150 00 


Bull, . 






75 00 


Hogs, 5, 


. 90 00 


Calves, 2, . 






24 00 


Hens and chickens, 224, . 136 00 


Cows, 23, . 






1,035 00 


Pigs, 4, 


5 00 


Heifers, 2, . 






50 00 


Sows, breeding, 2, 


. 40 00 


Horses, 4, . 






500 00 


Shoats, 32, . 


. 256 00 






125 00 
75 00 






Horse, " Jerry," 


x •» 






$2,576 00 



Summary 



Produce on hand, . 
Produce sold, 
Produce consumed, 
Live stock, . 



Agricultural implements, 



Poultry Account. 
Dr. 

To 159 fowl, on hand and purchased, . . . $107 00 

feed, 66 21 

bone mill, 20 00 

nest eg-gs, ........ 50 

Oo 7 

baskets and pans, ....... 73 



$2,874 79 


624 68 


4,645 42 


2,576 00 


2,788 49 


f 13,509 38 



apparent net gain, 



Cr. 



By 



eggs used 



5y 7 2 dozens, 
fowl used, 263 T 5 g pounds, 
fowl sold, 143| pounds, 
fowl and feed on hand, as appraised, 





f 194 44 
213 13 




$407 57 


f 175 01 

41 41 

30 29 

160 86 


aun? fi7 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



101 



SUMMAEY, 



Real Estate. 



Forty-eight acres tillage land, . 
Thirty-six acres pasturage, 
Wilson land, seventy-two acres, 

Brady land 

Willow Park land, . 



$11,200 00 
1,900 00 
4,100 00 
1,300 00 
1,500 00 



$20,000 00 



Buildings. 

" Wayside Cottage," $5,500 00 

Superintendent's house, ...... 9,500 00 

" Theodore Lyman Hall," 38,000 00 

" Hillside Cottage," 15,000 00 

" Maple Cottage," . . . . . . . . 3,500 00 

" Willow Park Cottage," 5,600 00 

" Oak Cottage," 16,000 00 

" Bowlder Cottage," . ...... 17,00000 

Chapel, . 3,700 00 

Bakery building, 8,000 00 

Armory, . . . 500 00 

" Willow Park Hall," ...... 150 00 

Horse barn, 2,000 00 

Cow barn, 1,200 00 

Store barn, 400 00 



126,050 00 



Personal Estate. 

Beds and bedding, $4,358 75 

Other furniture, 12,925 32 

Carriages, 670 00 

Agricultural implements, 2,788 49 



Amount carried forward, 



. $20,742 56 



102 SUMMARY LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amount brought forward, $20,742 56 

Dry goods, 549 11 

Drugs, medicines and surgical instruments, . . 400 40 

Fuel and oil, 1,453 27 

Library, 1,119 00 

Live stock, 2,576 00 

Mechanical tools and appliances, .... 6,589 91 

Provisions and groceries, 1,426 32 

Produce on hand, 2,874 79 

Ready-made clothing, . 5,634 46 

Raw material, . 1,247 33 



— $44,605 15 

$190,655 15 

ELDRED A. DIBBELL, 
JOHN H. CUMMINGS, 

Appraisers. 
A true copy. Attest : T. F. Chapin, Supt. 

Westeorough, Sept. 30, 1895. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 103 



LIST OF SALARIED OFFICERS NOW EMPLOYED. 



Theodore F. Chapin, superintendent, $2,000 00 

Mrs. T. F. Chapin, matron, 400 00 

Walter Day, assistant superintendent (boards himself), . . 800 00 

Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Pierce, charge of family, . . . . 700 00 

Mr. and Mrs. A S. Meserve, charge of family, . . . . 800 00 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Mason, charge of family, .... 750 00 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Wilcox, charge of family, . . . . 600 00 

Mr. and Mrs. I. T. Swift, charge of family, 800 00 

Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Pettengill, charge of family, . . . 600 00 

Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Lounsberry, charge of family, . . « 800 00 

Mr. F. U. Wetmore, master of family, „ . . . . . 500 00 

Mrs. A. F. Howe, matron of family, ...... 300 00 

F. E. Corey, M.D., physician,". . , , . . . . . 300 00 

Mary L. Pettit, principal, 700 00 

Anna L. Wilcox, teacher of Sloyd, ...... 700 00 

M. Everett Howard, teacher of printing, ..... 400 00 

Alliston Greene, teacher of physical drill, ..... 800 00 

James D. Littlefield, supervisor of manual training, . . . 800 00 

Effie R. Putnam, teacher, . 300 00 

Emma F. Newton, teacher, ........ 400 00 

Jessie Doring, teacher, 300 00 

Carrie Dana, teacher, . . 400 00 

Annie Doughty, teacher, «....,., 300 00 

Annie J. Blanchard, teacher, 375 00 

Eugenia M. Fullington, teacher, 300 00 

Flora J. Dyer, teacher, 300 00 

Fannie S. Mitchell, seamstress, 250 00 

Mrs. Edith Howard, nurse, 250 00 

Florence Exley, assistant matron, 250 00 

Susie E. Wheeler, assistant matron, ...... 250 00 

Sarah E Goss, assistant matron, 250 00 

Jennie E. Perry, assistant matron, 250 00 

Mrs. F. U. Wetmore, assistant matron, 250 00 



104 OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Mabel B. Mitchell, assistant matron, $250 00 

Margaret J. Ord, assistant matron, 250 00 

Rinda M. Wales, assistant matron, 250 00 

Mrs. H. M. Braley, supply officer, ...... 250 00 

Harriett A. Peirson, housekeeper, . . . . . . 300 00 

Mr. and Mrs. George F. Bullard, charge of the storehouse and 

bakery 900 00 

James W. Clark, engineer, 900 00 

A. R. King, carpenter, . .....* • • • • • 300 00 

John H. Cummings, truant officer, . . . • . . . 500 00 

John T. Perkins, driver, 400 00 

Edwin C. Rice, watchman, . . 300 00 

Charles S. Graham, farmer, . ....... 500 00 

Herbert West, teamster, . . 300 00 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



105 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



107 



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John H. Cumming 
John T. Perkins, . 
Arthur I Goodell, 
Everett E. Goodell 
Charles S. Graham 
Herbert West, 
Mrs H. M. Braley, 
Ida Burhoe, . 
Lilla Burhoe, 
Lenora Day, . 
Mark Putnam, 
Edward Haines, . 
S. M. Watson, 
E. A. Dibbell, 


Ira G. Dudley, 
Mary F. Wilcox, . 
Mrs. Walter M. Da 
Lewis Rice, . 
T. M. Clark, . 
G. N. Burhoe, 
C. A. Harrington, . 
Dr. Austin Peters, 
Dr. D. R. Stanhope 
Harry G. Nye, 
J. W. Slattery, 
Charles M. Fay, . 
Chaplains, 



108 SUPERINTENDENTS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES. 


Date of 
Retirement. 




1848 


William R. Lincoln, . 










1853. 




1853 


James M. Talcott, . 










1857. 




1857 


William E. Starr, . 










1861. 




1861 


Joseph A. Allen, 










1867. 




1867 


Orville K. Hutchinson, 










1868. 




1868 


Benjamin Evans, 








May, 


1873. 


May, 


1873 


Allen G. Shepherd, 








Aug., 


1878. 


Aug., 


1878 


Luther H. Sheldon, . 








Dec, 


1880. 


Dec, 


1880 


Edmund T. Dooley, . 








Oct., 


1881. 


Oct., 


1881 


Joseph A. Allen, 








April, 


1885. 


July, 


1885 


Henry E. Swan, 








July, 


1888. 


July, 


1888 


Theodore F. Chapin, 








Still in 


office. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



109 



TRUSTEES. 



Names, Residences, Commissions and Retirement of the Trustees 
of the State Reform School, from the Commencement to the Present 
Time. 



Date of 


• "■ ■■" ■ ■ 




Date of 




NAMES. 


Residence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1847, 


Nahum Fisher,* . . 


Westborough, . 


1849 


1847, 


John W. Graves, . 


° . 


Lowell, 


1849 


1847, 


Samuel Williston, 




Easthampton, . 


1853 


1847, 


Thomas A. Green,* 




New Bedford, . 


1860 


1847, 


Otis Adams,* 




Grafton, . 


1851 


1847, 


George Denney,* . 




Westborough, . 


1851 


1847, 


William P. Andrews,* . 




Boston, 


1851 


1849, 


William Livingston,* . 




Lowell, 


1851 


1849, 


Russell A. Gibbs,* 




Lanesborough, . 


1853 


1851, 


George H. Kuhn, . 




Boston, 


1855 


1851, 


J. B French,* 




Lowell, 


1854 


1851, 


Daniel H. Forbes, 




Westborough, . 


1854 


1851, 


Edward B. Bigelow,* 




Grafton, 


1855 


1853, 


J. W. H. Page,* . 




New Bedford, . 


1856 


1853, 


Harvey Dodge, 




Sutton, 


1867 


1854, 


G. Rowland Shaw,* 




Boston, 


1856 


1854, 


Henry W. Cushman,* 




Bernardston, 


1^60 


1855, 


Albert H. Nelson,* 




Woburn, . 


1855 


1855, 


Joseph A. Fitch, . 




Hopkinton, 


1858 


1855, 


Parley Hammond, 




Worcester, 


1860 


1856, 


Simon Brown, 




Concord, . 


1860 


1856, 


John A. Fayerweather, 




Westborough, . 


1859 


1857, 


Josiah H. Temple, 




Framingham, . 


1860 


1858, 


Judson S. Brown, . 




Fitch burg, 


1860 


1859, 


Theodore Lyman,. 




Brookline, 


1860 


1860, 


George C. Davis,* 




North borough, . 


1873 


1860, 


Carver Hotchkiss, 




Shelburne, 


1863 


1860, 


Julius A. Palmer, 




Boston, 


1862 


1860, 


Henry C nickering, 




Pittsfield, . 


1869 


1860, 


George W. Bentley, 




Worcester, 


1861 


1860, 


Alden Leland, 




Holliston, . 


1864 


1861, 


Pliny Nickerson, . 




Boston, 


1868 


1861, 


Samuel G. Howe,* 




Boston, 


1863 


1862, 


Benjamin Boynton,* 




Westborough, . 


1864 


1863, 


J. H. Stephenson, 




Boston, 


1866 


1863, 


John Ayres, . 




Charlestown, 


1867 



* Deceased. 



110 TRUSTEES LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Names, Residences, etc., of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 






Date of 


Commission. 


NAMES. 


Residence. 


Retirement. 


1864, 


A. E. Goodnow, . 


Worcester, . 


1874 


1864, 


Isaac Ames, .... 


Haverhill, . 


1865 


186,5, 


.Jones S. Davis, 


Holyoke, . 


1868 


1866, 


Joseph A. Pond,* . 


Brighton, . 


1867 


1867, 


Stephen G Deblois, 


Boston, 


1878 


1868, 


John Ayres, .... 


Medford, . 


1874 


1868, 


Harmon Hall, 


Saugus, 


1871 


1868, 


L. L. Goodspeed, . 


Bridgewater, 


1872 


1869, 


E. A. Hubbard, . 


Springfield, 


1877 


1871, 


Lucius VV. Pond, . 


Worcester, . 


1875 


1871, 


John W. Olmstead, 


Boston, 


1873 


1872, 


Moses H. Sargent, 


Newton, . 


1877 


1873, 


A. S. Woodworth, . 


Boston, 


1876 


1873, 


Edwin B. Harvey, . 


Westborough, . 


1878 


1874, 


W. H. Baldwin, . 


Boston, 


1876 


1875, 


John L. Cummings, 


Ashburnham, 


1879 


1876, 


Jackson B. Swett, . . 


Haverhill, . 


1878 


1877, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester, . 


1879 


1877, 


Milo Hildreth, .... 


Northborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Lyman Belknap,* . 


Westborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Franklin Williams,* 


Boston, 


1879 


1878, 


Robert Couch, 


New bury port, . 


1879 


1879, 


John T Clark, 


Boston, 


1879 


1879, 


M. J. Flatley, 


Boston, 


1881 


1879, 


Adelaide A. Calkins, 


Springfield, 


1880 


1879, 


Lyman Belknap, . 


Westborough, . 


1884 


1879, 


Anne B. Richardson, 


Lowell, 


1886 


1879, 


Milo Hildreth,* . 


Northborough, . 


1891 


1879, 


George W. Johnson, 


Brookfield,. 


1887 


1879, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester,. 


1888 


1880, 


Elizabeth C. Putnam, . 


Boston, 


Still in office. 


1881, 


Thomas Dwight, . 


Boston, 


1884 


1884, 


M. H. Walker, . 


Westborough, . 


Still in ofiice. 


1884, 


J. J. O'Connor,* . 


Holyoke, . 


1889 


1886, 


Elizabeth G. Evans, 


Boston, 


Still in ofiice. 


1887, 


Chas. L. Gardner, . 


Palmer, 


1891 


1888, 


H. C. Greeley, 


Clinton, 


Stillin office. 


1889, 


M. J. Sullivan, 


Chicopee, . 


" " 


1891, 


Samuel W r . Mc Daniel, . 


Cambridge, 


U It 


1891, 


C. P. Worcester, . 


Boston, 


u u 



* Deceased. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. Ill 



REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF VISITA- 
TION, LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS. 



To the Trustees. 

The office of superintendent of visitation, to which I have the honor 
to be appointed by your Board, was created July 1 of the present 
year ; the work consequently covers a period of only three months. 
Mr. Asa F. Howe, formerly a master at the Lyman School, a man of 
large experience in reform work for boys, and having the additional 
advantage of being personally acquainted with the boys themselves, 
was appointed assistant, and commenced his duties July 12. 

Before anything more than a general plan of operation could be laid 
out, we found the urgent necessity confronting us of relieving the 
congestion of the institution, which then contained about 260 boys, 
with accommodations for 35 less than that number. Among this 
number were about 20 children from eight to twelve years of age who 
had been in the school only a brief period, and who were evidently 
out of place among so many older boys. It was determined by your 
Board to find proper families, and to place such of these little fellows 
as might reasonably be expected to do well with them. This, then, 
was our first work, and through the active assistance of one of your 
own number, Miss Elizabeth C. Putnam, such homes were found, and 
18 of these little boys were placed therein for care and training. The 
highest price to be paid is two dollars per week. Full directions as to 
their care and treatment are given the parties taking them, and blanks 
for a monthly record of the school attendance, deportment, progress 
and application of each child are furnished their respective teachers 
in the public schools they attend ; the blank also inquires the probable 
cause of any repeated tardiness or absence. 

In general, the ordinary work of this department may be classified 
as follows : — 

1. Placing and caring for boys in homes other than their own. 

2. Visits to boys released on probation to their parents, but still 
in the custody of the State. 

3. The selection, inspection and report of places suitable to receive 
boys. 



112 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

4. Investigation of homes where parents have made application 
for the release of their sons. 

5. Special work for particular cases. 

6. Treatment of emergency cases. 

During the three months we have made 136 visits to boys in their 
homes, 69 to boys in places ; investigated 28 homes and 35 places for 
employment; 20 boys have been taken to their places, not in- 
cluding the 17 boarded boys; 7 have been returned to the school 
and 15 emergency calls answered, — in all, 313 visits. 

The visits to boys in places would indicate that the most of them 
are well situated, though in some cases the places have been of more 
than doubtful character. In my judgment, no boy should be allowed 
to go to a distillery to work nor to the home of a hard-drinking man, 
— not alone to protect the boy from the abuse which is likely to arise 
in such cases, but lest he learn the habit so easily acquired by the 
descendants of parents unfortunate in this respect. If we wish to 
have bo} T s temperate and clean at twenty-one years of age, they must 
have some example approximate to the ideal before them while in 
their teens. The instruction at the Lyman School is not uncertain on 
this subject. "Is your employer a drinking man?" I asked of a 
manly boy of seventeen years, as I had reason to believe that such 
was the case. " Yes," he replied, " but I do not touch it; I signed 
the pledge at the Lyman School." Evidently his pledged word was 
to him a sacred thing. Quite unlike this is the report of another, who 
is alleged to have learned to drink at the extensive cider-brandy dis- 
tillery of his employer. 

Hardly second in importance in the work of this department is the 
oversight of boys released on probation to their parents. Back in 
their former homes, and surrounded by the same circumstances which 
produced their fall, is it any wonder that from this source have come 
the most failures, and that many have gone from such homes to the 
Reformatory at Concord? 

It is the purpose of this department to keep a careful oversight 
of this class of boys, to be in communication with them and their, 
parents, to know whether they have steady employment, and to 
sustain such close relations with them as to know their habits and 
tendencies. So far our efforts in this direction have been most 
gratefully received. The boys are glad to see us, and the parents 
welcome us as oft-wished-for aids in keeping their boy. Even in 
this short time more than one boy has been induced to go to work 
and has remained steady because of the knowledge of our oversight. 

To assist and render more effective our supervision of these and 
other boys, we have already enlisted the sympathy and voluntary 
service of several philanthropic people, including clergymen, lawyers, 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 113 

superintendents of schools and others, which number we intend to 
increase until we have a corps of men interested in this work of 
charity who will consent to act as sources of information and 
friendly aids in the various localities they represent. By such 
agencies we hope to hold our boys, not by that officious paternalism 
which destroys the independence and self-respect of the recipient, 
but by quietly directing the undercurrent until he becomes able to 
make his own way against the tide. 

An old adage has it that it is not wise to put a race horse to the 
plough. Some of our boys take readily to mechanical pursuits, as 
evinced by the proficiency they attain in the manual training depart- 
ment of the Lyman School. To certain of these the round of labor 
of the farm is so positively distasteful that when placed with farmers 
they never do well. There are others who, though they may stay a 
year or more on a farm, never become rooted in their places, and only 
anxiously await the time when they will be at liberty to go back to 
the city or populous town. Arrived there, with no cows to feed nor 
corn to hoe, they are again adrift, practically worthless, and an easy 
prey to their old temptations. Far be it from me to disparage farm 
life for our boys. The constant and varying round of duties required 
of the boys, the quiet of the country, the contact with nature in all 
her forms, the rigid economies practised and the healthful example of 
the sturdy yeomanry are alike conducive to the physical and moral 
development of the great majority. 

For the exceptions, however, and they are not a few, special efforts 
must, in my opinion, be made along the lines of their inclinations and 
abilities. We have done a little in this direction, and although it 
is too early to speak of results, the prospects of success are very 
promising. Such boys, placed as they must be in large towns and 
cities, must be carefully watched, and every influence tending to 
develop a manly self-respect sought out in their behalf. 

Thus we have made a beginning in the work for the Lyman 
School boys. By our personal knowledge of the individual in the 
school and our relations with him outside we hope to be able to guide 
him on the road to a useful citizenship. 

The boy is one ; the work planned and begun in the school and 
continued as long as he remains in your custody should be one con- 
tinuous effort by the same agencies to this end. In constant touch 
with the superintendent of the Lyman School, of which we are in 
reality a department, we are greatly assisted by his experience and 
are often guided by his judgment. 

From our contact with the older boys we also shall be able, as 
time goes on, to learn from their experience what in their training at 
the school has been most effective in their reformation. This infor- 



114 VISITATION EEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

ma Hon will not be dead statistics, but living facts on which future 
plans may be based. Thus shall the Lyman School see the results 
of its sowing, and this department become its strong right arm. 

One obstacle to the economical administration of this department, 
and a serious menace to the welfare of our boys, arises from the fact 
that the literal interpretation of the law now upon the statute book 
requires that before any boy can be placed in a home an investiga- 
tion and report on that home must be made by the State Board of 
Lunacy and Charity. I am not restive under supervision nor afraid 
of inspection, but, on the contrary, am a believer in both on general 
principles. But when this law operates to make two or three 
journeys instead of one, and often requires a boy to remain for a 
longer or shorter period where he ought not to be, and prevents good 
families from taking a boy at the time they want him, it is not only a 
hardship to all parties, but a serious block to prompt and efficient 
action. 

One or two examples typical of many which constantly arise will 
suffice to show the working of this bungling system. 

On one of my visits to the town of X I found a boy not well placed ; 
i.e., the place and boy did not fit. Soon after I found a family of 
excellent reputation who desired a boy immediately. I at once 
notified the Lyman School, and the usual request for investigation 
and report upon the home was made. Then came the period of wait- 
ing, — probably necessary, as the home was over one hundred and 
fifty miles from Boston, and the time of a visitor cannot always be 
commanded promptly, owing to prior or pressing cases of his own, — 
until twenty-eight days had elapsed before we could put the boy where 
he belonged and where his welfare demanded he should be. 

Good places are sometimes lost by the inability to fill promptly, 
and in every case the boy is liable to be injured by it. 

In one case, when more than two hundred miles from the Lyman 
School, finding a place wholly objectionable, the dilemma was pre- 
sented to me to either return a good boy to the school and then send 
him back to an excellent family who wanted him in the same neigh- 
borhood, or break the letter of the law by putting him in this family 
at once myself. I chose the latter, believing that the spirit of the 
law and the boy's welfare could not conflict. In this action I was 
sustained by your Board. 

If we had the power to relocate a boy when necessity required 
prompt action, pending the investigation at the convenience of the 
State Board of Lunacy and Charity, all such inconveniences and un- 
necessary expense would be avoided, much valuable time saved and 
the welfare of the boy secured, because the right boy would be put in 
the right place without unnecessary delay. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 115 

Financial Statement. 

Receipts. 

Received of State treasurer for salaries, . . , . . $577 17 

Received of State treasurer for travelling expenses, . . . 416 45 

Received of State treasurer for office fittings and stationery, „ 73 70 



11,067 32 



Expenditures. 
Paid Walter A. Wheeler, superintendent of visitation (3 months), $400 01 
Paid Asa F. A. Howe, visitor (2 19-30 months), ... 177 16 
Paid Walter A. Wheeler and Asa F. Howe for travelling ex- 
penses, . 404 24 

Paid John Curtin & Co. for office desk, . . . . . 50 00 

Paid for stationery, 23 70 

Cash on hand 12 21 



$1,067 32 
Respectfully submitted, 

WALTER A. WHEELER, 

Superi?itendent of Visitation. 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



State Industrial School for Girls 



LANCASTER 



SUPEKINTENDENT'S EEPOBT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

For several years past one of the greatest problems has been to 
know how we could manage to successfully carry out our plan of 
industrial training and discipline with the overcrowded condition 
of the school ; but our necessity has been met, and we are to-day 
rejoicing in abundance of room for all practical purposes. Each 
officer is doing more satisfactory work, and we are hoping for better 
results. 

The new house, the Anne B. Richardson Hall,* was opened June 
14, and a new household established, thus making five families 
instead of four. This house not only gives us ample room for the 
girls here, but affords two spare rooms for worthy girls when they 
return for vacations which they so well deserve after months of hard 
work. They write asking if they may " come home to visit." In 
many cases it is the only place they can call home and be a safe 
retreat in cases of illness or for vacation. In the list of such ones, 
recalled to the school this year, are twenty-seven who have remained 
for one week more or less, for no reason implying misconduct. 

We realize that we have been generously remembered by these 
special appropriations, and hope to be able to refund the State in 
return by the conscientious care and training which shall be given to 
its wards. 

The teachers have kindly taken an interest in preparing entertain- 
ments for the girls, in which teacher and pupils have taken part ; 
such as " An afternoon with Holmes," "An evening with Holland." 
Others were miscellaneous, consisting of music, reading, dialogues, 
etc. Their lives here are necessarily narrow, having rarely a fresh 
breeze from the outside world ; therefore this change helps to break 
the monotony of the regular routine of school work, and exerts an 
influence which obviates the evil of having few topics for conversa- 
tion. In seeking for an elevating, healthy atmosphere, the question 
of entertainment cannot be emphasized too much. 



* This house was designed by Mr. J. Thissell and built by Mr. H. W. Welch, both of 
Clinton. 



120 SUPT.'S REPORT INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The new reservoir has been completed and we already are having 
a good supply of water, which is usually needed at this season more 
than at any time through the summer. 

Donations consisting of a generous supply of books, for the Rogers 
library, from Miss Bartol, and an awning from Mr. Field, have been 
gratefully received. 

The hours for school, farm work and the course of training in the 
kitchen have been practically the same as in former years. It is to 
be regretted that more girls are not sent to us at the first of their 
being wayward, instead of prolonging the sentence until they are 
thoroughly bad. When the court recognizes the fact that girls are 
committed to the school for improvement and not for punishment, 
we shall see girls committed earlier in their experience of wrong- 
doing, and not left by continuance of the case for months or years, 
unrestrained in their own homes, till they are considered nearly 
hopeless. After such experience, a girl requires a much longer 
period in the school for training and discipline, and even then would 
not stand an even chance with the more innocent girl to become a 
self-supporting citizen. 

In caring for these classes there is needed " the strength of the 
strong, the wisdom of the wise to unite in removing unjust conditions, 
and to give just opportunities of life to all." 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. L. BRACKETT, 

Superintendent. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 121 



STATISTICS. 



Sept. 30. 
1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 

In custody of Industrial School (in the school and 

on probation) 272 283 311 353 367 

These girls were distributed as follows : — 

I. — Supported by the State. 

Remaining in the school, 91 82 112 124 111 

Transferred to Reformatory Prison for Women — 

In former years 3 4 1 4 2 

This year, 4 1 4 7 10 

Transferred to institutions not penal, .... 1 4 8 10 6 

99 91 125 145 129 

II. —NO LONGER SUPPORTED BY THE STATE. 

Under twenty-one years, still in custodv, . . .173 192 188 208 238 
Subtracting those who had left their places, 14 15 17 18 21 

Total honestly self-supporting, . . . .159 177 171 190 217 

Distributed as follows : — 

With relatives on probation, 26 30 31 36 47 

At work in other families, 96 118 102 111 120 

At work elsewhere, 1 - - 1 

At academy or other school, self-supporting, . - 7 11 11 

Married, but subject to recall, .... 36 29 31 31 39 

159 177 171 190 217 
Summary of Commitments and Discharges. 

1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 

Total in custody at beginning of year, . . 272 283 313 353 367 

New commitments, ..... 50 77 78 72 

Attained majority, 36 44 36 53 

Discharged by trustees, .... 1 3 2 5 

Died, 2 

Total who passed out of custody, . . . — 39—47—38—58 

Net increase 11 30 40 14 

A girl may be recalled by the trustees to the school whether 
on account of misconduct or illness or change of place. The 



122 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



figures in the following table will show how often this policy 
has secured, even for a restless or troublesome girl, a satisfac- 
tory place at last : — 





1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


Recalled to the school during the year : — 










For bad conduct, 


8 


16 


10 


17 


For no serious fault, .... 


49 


48 


60 


48 


For unsatisfactory conduct, again 
placed out, 


6 


19 


13 


16 


For unsatisfactory conduct, not yet 
placed again, 


_ 


2 


9 


4 


For illness or change of place not im- 
plying misconduct, .... 


32 


17 


31 


24 


Having left places, but found with re- 
spectable relatives or at work, . 


10 


5 


_ 


3 


To prepare wedding outfit, . 


- 


3 


1 


- 


Feeble-minded, unfit for placing, . 


- 


2 


- 


- 


From State almshouse hospital, . 


- 


- 


4 


1 




57 


64 


70 


65 



SUMMARY OF CONDUCT 

Of Girls who have been in Care of the State One Year or More. 





Sept. 30, 
1892. 


Sept 30, 
1893. 


Sept. 30, 
1894. 


Sept. 30, 
1895. 


A. -HONESTLY SELF-SUPPORTING. 

I. NO LONGER IN CARE OF THE STATE : — 

Attained majority, conduct good, 

Died, conduct good, 

Discharged, conduct good, 


25 
2 


29 

1 


28 


39 
2 


II. In Care of the State, but no longer main- 
tained at Public Expense: — 

Married, conduct good at last accounts, 

On probation with friends, 

At work in other families, 

At work elsewhere, 

Attending school at academy or elsewhere and 
paying their way by housework, 


27 

26 

27 

117 

1 


30 

31 

28 

102 

7 


28 

25 

36 

111 

1 

11 


41 

39 
35 

120 

10 


Total honestly self-supporting, .... 


171 
198 


168 
195 


184 

212 


204 
245 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



123 



Summary of Conduct 

Of Girls who have been in Care of the State One Tear or More — Concluded. 





Sept. 30, 
1892. 


Sept. 30, 
1893. 


Sept. 30, 

1894. 


Sept. 30, 
1895. 


B.- CONDUCT BAD OR DOUBTFUL. 
I. Had attained Majority: — 

Married, 

Unmarried, . . . 

II. Still in Care op the State, being under 
Twenty-one Years of Age: — 

In Reformatory Prison, 

In almshouse, conduct had been bad, . 
Married, conduct doubtful, . 

With friends, conduct bad, 

Recalled and remaining in State Industrial School, 


5 
2 

7 

3 


5 
4 
3 

17 


3 
1 

11 

4 
5 

11 


1 

5 

7 

10 

3 

7 
6 


Total, conduct bad or doubtful, .... 

C- CONDUCT NOT KNOWN. 
I. Had attained Majority, married, i 
II. Had attained Majority, unmarried, 
III. At Large, not yet Twenty-one, 


24 

4 
14 


35 

1 

7 
17 


35 

4 
18 


39 



6 

20 


D.- REMAINDER. 
I. In State Industrial School through year, 
II. Recalled for illness or change of place, . 

III. For transfer, ill or feeble-minded, or insane, . 

IV. Discharged as unfit subject, 


18 

23 
8 
1 


25 

15 
3 
3 


22 

36 
3 
4 
1 


26 

31 
7 
3 
2 


Total remainder, . 

Grand total, 


32 

272 


21. 
283 


44 
313 


43 
353 



Conduct of 58 girls who passed out of care of the State 
within the year : — 

Sept. 30, 1892. Sept. 80, 1893. Sept. 30, 1894. Sept. 30, 1895- 

Married, good at last accounts, . 16 13 12 9 

Unmarried, good at last accounts, .9 - 13 30 
Died, good at last accounts, 2 

Discharged, good at last accounts, . 1 1 2* 

Total, conduct good at last ac- ~~ 

counts 27 or 72$ 30 or 63$ 26 or 68$ 41 or 71$ 

Had been bad, now living respectably, - - - - 3 or 8$ - 

Runaways, conduct unknown, . 4 or 10$ 8 or 17 % 4 or 11 % 6 or 10 # 

Bad, 7 or 18$ 5 or 11 $ 4 or 11$ 6|orl0# 

Discharged, unfit subject, . . . 1 - 2 or 4$ 1 or 2% 1 or.02# 

Feeble-minded,. . . . . - - - - - 3 or. 05 # 

Insane, ....... - - - - - 1 or.02* 

Caring for illegitimate child, . .= - 2 or 4 /« 

39 47 38 58 



* Both discharged for good conduct. 

t Four of these have been in Reformatory Prison for Women, present conduct un- 
known. 



124 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Of those committed this year, 

64 could read and write 
3 could read but not write. 



5 could neither read nor write. 



42 born in Massachusetts. 
3 born in Maine. 
3 born in New Hampshire. 

1 born in Vermont. 

2 born in Rhode Island. 
2 born in N ew York. 

Both parents living, . 
One parent living, 



37 
27 



6 born in Canada. 

2 born in England. 

3 born in Ireland. 

3 born in Germany. 
5 birthplace unknown. 



Orphans, . 



17 American parentage. 

5 English parentage. 

1 English-American parentage. 
22 Irish parentage. 

9 Colored parentage. 

4 German parentage. 



37 French parentage. 
1 Scotch- American parentage. 
3 Scotch-Irish parentage. 
1 Irish-American parentage. 
1 Jewish parentage. 
1 Indian-French parentage. 



39 Stubbornness. 






2 Night-walking. 




13 Idle and disorderly. 






2 Lewdness. 






11 Larceny 








2 Vagrancy. 






2 Drunkenness. 






1 Fornication 








Appropria- 
tion allowed 
from Jan 1 
to Jan. 1. 


Average 
Number in 
the School. 


Number 
of Commit- 
ments. 


Number at 
Work in 
Families* 


Weekly Per 
Capita Cost. 


Total Actual 

Cost of the 

School Sept 30 

to Sept. 30. 


1866, . 


$20,000 


144 


59 


53 


$3 30 


$24,753 


1876, . 


28,300 


121 


53 


40 


4 05 


25,683 


1890, . 


2 ',000 


94 


56 


90 


4 08 


20,000 


1891,. 


21,000 


89 


46 


98 


4 38 


21,000 


1892, . 


20,000 


89 


50 


118 


4 46 


21,329 


1893, . 


21,500 


95 


77 


109 


4 02 


19,856 


1894, . 


25,385 


117 


78 


111 


3 49 


21,617 


1895, . 


27,750 


116 


72 


120 


4 62 


28,801 



* Girls on probation to friends are not included in the above list. They are, however, 
visited, and, if necessary, are recalled to the school. 



Cash received for deposit to credit of sundry girls from Sept. 

30, 1894, to Sept. 30, 1895 $1,712 70 

By deposit in savings bank on account of sundry girls, . . 1,712 70 
Cash drawn from savings bank on account of sundry girls from 

Sept 30, 1894, to Sept. 30, 1895 1,813 72 

By paid amounts from savings banks, 1,813 72 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 125 



INVENTOEY OF PEOPEETY. 



State Industrial School for Girls, Lancaster, Mass., Oct. 1, 1895. 

Real Estate. 

Chapel $6,500 00 

Hospital, . . . . ... . . 1,500 00 

Richardson Hall, 15,000 00 

House No. 1, 11,750 00 

No. 2, ....... 12,000 00 

No. 4, . . . . . . . . 12,500 00 

No. 5 4,900 00 

Superintendent's house, ...... 3,500 00 

Storeroom 300 00 

Farm-house and barn, 2,000 00 

Large barn, 7,275 00 

Silo, 400 00 

Old barn, 150 00 

Holden shop, 200 00 

Ice-house 1,000 00 

Storehouse No. 3, . . . . . . . 25 00 

Woodhouse, . . 600 00 

Hen-house, 200 00 

Piggery, 100 00 

Reservoir house No. 1, . . . , . . 100 00 

Reservoir house, land, etc , No. 2, 300 00 

Carriage shed, 150 00 

Water works, land, etc., 7,500 00 

Farm, 176 acres, 8,800 00 

Broderick lot, 12 acres, ...... 500 00 

Wood-lot, 10 acres, . . . . . . , 200 00 

Storm windows, , 40 00 

Total valuation real estate, $97,490 00 

Personal Property. 

Produce of farm on hand, ...... $5,681 21 

Tools and carriages, 2,087 00 

Valuation of horses, 500 00 

Amount carried forward, $ 8,268 21 



126 



INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Amount brought forward, $8,268 21 

Valuation of live stock, 1,920 80 

House furnishings and supplies, .... 12,904 17 

Miscellaneous, 421 25 

Total valuation of personal estate, . . . — $ 23,514 43 

A. J. BANCROFT, 
H. F. HOSMER, 

Appraisers. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
Worcester, ss. Oct. 5, 1895. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, 

Thos. F. Larkin, 

Justice of the Peace. 

Personal Property. 

Produce on Hand Oct. 1, 1895. 

Beans, white, 20| bushels, .... . . . $35 87 

Beans, cranberry, 15| bushels, . . . . . 31 50 

Beans, butter (seed), 2 bushels, 8 00 

Beets, table, 198 bushels, 148 50 

Bedding, 15 tons, . . ... . . . 120 00 

Cabbage, heads, 1,014, . . . . . . 50 70 

Celery, heads, 200, ....... 10 00 

Corn, ears, 300 bushels, 100 00 

Corn, sweet, 2 bushels, 4 00 

Corn, old, 10 bushels, 6 50 

Corn, pop, 100 pounds, 4 00 

Ensilage, 75 tons, 600 00 

English hay, 62 tons, 1,470 pounds, .... 1,129 23 

English hay, old, 40 tons, . . . . . . 720 00 

Fruit, canned and preserved, 840 quarts, ... 84 00 

Fodder, oats, 3 tons, 1,040 pounds, . . ... 56 32 

Fodder, rye, 1 ton, 500 pounds, ... . . 15 00 

Fodder, sweet corn, 10 tons, 1,600 pounds, . . 172 00 

Fodder, sweet corn, 3 tons, ... . . . 24 00 

Fodder corn, old, 2 tons, . . ... . 12 00 

Grass seed, clover and herds grass, . ... 16 00 

Lumber, birch flooring, 700 feet, . . . . 28 00 

Lumber lot, old, 12 00 

Mangolds, 75 tons, . . . ... . . 900 00 

Meal, 800 pounds, . ..... . . 8 40 

Middlings, 800 pounds, ". 8 40 

Manure, 93 cords, 558 00 

Oats, 10 bushels, . . . ... . 4 00 

Pumpkins, 5 tons, 850 pounds, . . . . . 63 75 

Pease, 3 bushels, . . . ... . 6 00 

Pease, dried, 1\ bushels, . . . . . . 15 00 

Amount carried forward \ $4,951 17 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 127 

Amount brought forward, $4,951 17 

Provender, 1,000 pounds, 10 50 

Potatoes, 600 bushels, 300 00 

Pickles, 1,103 quarts, ........ 88 24 

Ruta-bagas, 208 bushels, . . . . . . 104 00 

Shorts, 1,000 pounds, 9 00 

Squash, 3 tons, 1,530 pounds, . . . . . 75 30 

Salt, 2 tons, . . . . . . - . . 20 00 

Vinegar, 1,050 gallons, ...... 105 00 

Wheat, 3 bushels, 2 00 

Watermelons, 200, 16 00 

$5,681 21 

Live Stock. 

Horses, 6, . . 500 00 

Cows, 24, . $1,200 00 

Bull, 1, 25 00 

Calves, 3 25 00 

Hogs, fat, 19 (5,700 pounds), . . . . . 342 00 

Sows, breeding, 7, . . . . . . 70 00 

Boar, 1, 25 00 

Shoats, 17, 85 00 

Pigs, 28, 70 00 

Fowls, 197, 78 80 

1,920 80 

Tools and carriages, 2,087 00 

Flour barrels, 50, . $7 50 

Bags and sacks, 6 00 

Phosphate, 1,500 pounds, . . . . . . 21 25 

Drain pipe, . . . 10 00 

Hose, garden, 15 00 

Ashes, 1 ton, . 11 00 

Hay caps, 20 00 

Hay scales, 50 00 

Kettle, set, 26 50 

Extinguishers, fire, 140 00 

Escapes, fire, . . 16 00 

Lamps, street, 9, . 16 00 

Cider casks, 20, 10 00 

Lawn mowers, 20 00 

Stoves, 32 00 

Oil tank, 20 00 

Miscellaneous, 421 25 

Richardson hall furnishings, $2,225 00 

Property in No. 1, . 1,259 00 

No. 2, 1,296 76 

No. 4, 1,570 50 

No. 5, 1,025 40 

Amounts carried forward, ..... $7,376 66 $10,610 26 



128 



INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Amounts brought forward, 

Superintendent's house, 

Chapel and library, . 

Groceries, . 

Dry goods, . 

Crockery and hardware, 

Paint and oil, 

Fuel 



To live stock, as per in- 
ventory 1894, . 

tools and carriages, as 
per inventory 1894, 

labor, . 

grain, . 

dressing, 

live stock, 

potash, 

seeds, . 

ashes, 

poultry netting, 



Summary of Farm Account. 
Dr. 

To ox cart, 



$7,376 66 $10,610 26 

995 00 

650 00 

1,063 65 

909 00 

310 35 

57 50 

1,542 01 

12,904 17 

$23,514 43 



>2,176 80 


1,925 00 


2,335 77 


1,272 65 


753 02 


1,268 15 


32 40 


44 97 


10 00 


18 90 



black smithing 
phosphate, . 
tools, . . 
Paris green, 
ice, 



Balance, 



Or. 



§30 00 

130 80 

68 00 

22 51 

5 76 

45 00 

$10,139 73 
1,309 52 

$11,449 25 



live stock, as per in 




By beets, . 


. 




. §165 75 


ventory 1895, . 


. f2,420 80 


turnips, 




115 50 


tools and carriages, as 


cucumbers, 




8 00 


per inventory 1895, 


2,087 00 


tomatoes, . 




9 00 


balance on fodder, 


728 55 


pumpkins, . 




m ib 


balance on bedding, 


24 00 


muskmelons, 




12 50 


balance on dressing, 


48 00 


watermelons, 




34 00 


cash paid State treas 




squash, 




81 30 


urer, 


937 36 


beans, 






75 37 


milk, 44,810 quarts, ■ 


. 1,792 43 


rhubarb, 






15 00 


eggs, 821 dozen, 


213 73 


radish, 






5 50 


pork, 5,900 pounds, 


472 00 


grapes, 






2 50 


leaves, 25 tons, 86C 


> 


plums, 






17 50 


pounds, . 


178 01 


potatoes, 






300 00 


soap, 385 gallons, 


46 20 


mangolds, 






420 00 


muck, . 


375 00 


ashes, . 






11 00 


ice, 


200 00 


phosphate, 






21 25 


strawberries, 


2 00 


green fodder, 




186 42 


string beans, 


35 00 


keeping horse for 


shell beans, 


20 00 
13 13 

108 00 


school, . 


150 00 


peas, . 

green corn, 


$11,449 25 


cabbages, . 


53 70 


Balance for 


farm 


> • 


$1,309 52 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



129 



Produce sold and Receipts sent to State Treasurer 

Cattle and swine, $899 64 

Hides, 35 52 

Pork barrels, 2 20 













$937 36 




Produce Consumed. 


Milk, 44,811 quarts, 


$1,792 43 


Tomatoes, . $9 00 


Eggs, 821 dozen, . 


213 73 


Muskmelons, 






12 50 


Pork, 5,900 pounds, 


472 00 


Watermelons, 






18 00 


Soap, 385 gallons,. 


46 20 


Squash, . 






6 00 


Ice, 


245 00 


Rhubarb, . 






15 00 


Strawberries, . 


2 00 


Radish, . 






5 50 


String beans, . 


35 00 


Grapes, . 






2 50 


Shell beans, . 


20 00 


Plums, 






17 50 


Peas, 


13 13 


Bedding, . 






82 01 


Green corn, . 


108 00 


Green fodder, 






186 42 


Cabbages, 


3 00 


Hay,. . 






36 00 


Beets, . 


17 25 




Turnips, . 


11 50 


$3,377 67 


Cucumbers, . 


8 00 











130 



INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct 





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1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



131 



00 
00 






CJi 



I: 






Totals. 


$2,184 39 
3,398 08 
2,697 23 


^NNCNCNNHCOGO 

OOOOJ^WiOCCH 

COGOCOCOCMt-hcO-HHilO 
CO O »0 ^t* ^^r-^'tft^ 
t-h CSCD^tO C^i— ' CO^GO 00 

cmtHt-h"i-h"cm"cm*'co''cm*''— 1 


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00 
00 
CM 


paAoidina £\ii 
-Biodrao; eiios 
-J9J jo saSBAV. 


ill i i i i i i i i i 


1 


•saa-foid 
-rag pu« sjao 
-tgO JO sauBiBS 


$941 90 
873 95 
810 48 


(NNt>i-iOHCOW»0 
^O^NCOCOHCMO 

COWCNO>COCOHOOO 
COCOCOCMGOCOCO^HTtH 
Nt»N00COO5O5aiO5 


CM 

CO 

o 

CO 
CO 

o 

T-H 


•S3SU9dX3 

SnO8UBn808TJ\[ 


o 
o 

CM 


16 00 

18 31 
35 00 
92 79 

- 


O 

T-H 

CM 

00 


PUB jfBH 


$243 02 
4 50 
6 00 


102 00 

180 00 

375 00 

390 00 
53 23 


CO 
tQ 
CO 

T-H 


•HIJBjJ JOJ SJOO X 

put? siazim-iaj 
's^uBia 'spaas 


$13 16 
32 69 


ONMOCOCOCOOCO 
(NWCOHONCN-^tH 

COCCCO»OH«5HCOCO 
-^-HCMCOCMOiOCi 
i— 1 r-H CM tH t-H 1— 1 


CO 

GO 
GO 

g 


•80|AJ3g pdBlIO 


$20 00 
20 00 
25 00 


ooooooooo 
ooooooooo 

>OOOOOiO*00»0 
T-ICMCMCMCMCMrHrHCM 


8 

O 
CM 


'saedBdsAvax 
puB sraB.iS9j.9x 
l AJ9aon« j s 


$18 20 

6 35 

112 10 


»0"<tft>.CO»OCOOiCMCM 

Os^-^OOHtHOtH 
(N O CO ■* H i-i CO (N tH 


CM 

>o 

CM 
■<cH 


•S9JBJ 
c SJ9SlI9SSBJ pUB 

^qSigjj'ssgadxa 


$91 30 
48 65 
70 48 


OCOtNHOCONCNCO 
OCMiOCOCOT-HQOOiCM 

OCNQOIMCOH^O 
-HiC^COCOCOt^l>.COCO 


CM 

o 

CO 

s 


•013 'sjoox JO 
mitas5[0Bia 


$34 80 
75 45 


4 85 

44 95 
16 65 


o 
co 


•S9iiddr)g looqos 

PUB SJ[00a 


$15 92 
47 38 


r-t O GO O O t-H Oi 

»o OOO^COO 

iO t- 1 CM CM tH GO Oi 
CM CM i-i H 


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CO 

CO 

t-H 


•saiBdaa 

a\ibuipjo 


$173 65 
304 83 
229 54 


lOOWiOHCNOCC 
COOJ^OTONCOCO 

f-iNOCOHO^CS 
^HOSHCOCONOO 
t-H CM CM 


T-H 

CO 

co 

OO 

CO 


•ifj95lOO.TO 

p u b Sutppoy; 
'spoa 'ajn^inanj 


$280 45 

333 09 

44 70 


Oii-HCOCMfMOit^GOO 

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1894. 

October, 
November, . 
December, . 


1895. 

January, 
February, . 
March, 
April, . 
May, . 
June, . 
July, . . 
August, 
SejDtember, 





132 



OFFICERS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Pay-roll of Persons employed at the State Industrial School for Year 
ending Sept. 30, 1895. 



NAMES. 




Occupation. 


Time. 


Amount 
Paid. 


A. M. Waite, . 




Sub-teacher, 






1 month 21 days, . 


$42 24 


E.V.Morse, . 




• 


<< << 






26 days 


21 35 


A. L. Brackett, 






« « 






2 months 25 days, 


79 27 


B. McManus, . 






(« <( 






2 months 6 days, . 


27 00 


M. Stover, 






CI l( 






1 month 21 days, . . | 


42 24 


M.E.Eaton, . 






» " 






1 month 4 days, . . j 


27 91 


F. E. Hodgden, 






(( <( 






1 month 17 days, . . 1 


38 96 


S. M. Baker, . 






« « 






16}£ days, . . . 


13 55 


M. Torry, . 






Housekeeper, . 






10 months 13 days, 


260 30 


S.C.Osgood, . 






" 






12 months 5 days, . 


304 56 


I.N.Bailey, . 






" 






9 months 12 days, 


234 48 


H. M. Oakes, . 






« 




. 


7 months 11 days, . 


183 66 


E. H. Knowlton, . 






" 






9 months 26 days, . j 


245 97 


K. E. Saunders, 






ii 






11 months 5 days, . 


278 37 


J. McPherson, 






Sub-housekeeper, 




28 days, .... 


22 99 


D. C. R. Parsons, 






« 




3 months 8 days, . 


81 57 


R. G. McMillan, 






« 




2 months, 


50 00 


C. L. Everingham, 






" 




2 months 26 days, 


71 35 


L. E. Holder, . 






.« 




1 month 12 days, . 


34 85 


J. M. Mclntire, 






« 




1 month, 


25 00 


H. S. Holder, . 






Nurse, 






16 days 


15 33 


M. V. O'Callaghan, 






Physician, . 






1 year, .... 


200 04 


J. W. H. Baker, 






Foreman, . 






1 year, .... 


540 00 


E.V.Morse, . 






Laborer, 






6 months 20 days, 


166 42 


M. E. Murphey, 






« 






14 days 


5 00 


G.K.Wight, . 






" 






1 year 


456 00 


0. "W. Osgood, 






" 






1 year 13 days, 


323 10 


H. Carr, . 






«< 






1 year 


426 00 


E. W. Lawrence, 






" 




• 


1 year 15 days, 


57 00 


J. C. Evans, . 






" 




• 


2 years 6 days, 


83 32 


L. L. Brackett, 






Superintendent 






1 year 


1,200 00 


N. C. Brackett, 






Steward, . 






1 year 


650 04 


E.C.Bailey, . 






Matron, 






10 months 2 days, . 


292 68 


L. D. May hew, 






<< 






9 months 20 days, 


281 60 


T. E. Rastell, . 






<< 






8 months 22 days, 


254 36 


F. M. Thayer, . 






" 






6 months 17 days, 


190 83 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



133 



Pay-roll of Persons employed, etc. — Concluded. 



NAMES 




Occupation. 


Time. 


Amount 
Paid. 


E. B.Eames, . 






Matron, 




2 months 24 day6, 


$81 32 


L. E. Hazelton, 






. . 






2 months 21 days, 


78 44 


H. M. Staples, 






'< 






2 months 20 days, 


77 48 


A. T. White, . 






" 






1 month 8 days, . 


36 82 


C. L. Everingham, 






" 






1 month, 


29 16 


E. V. Morse, . 






Sub-matron, 






2 months 10 days, 


67 48 


A. L. Brackett, 






" « 






1 month 11 days, . 


39 70 


C. J. Bean, 






,« <« 






2 months 11 days, 


68 86 


H. B. Parsons, 






« " 






1 month 17 days, . 


45 45 


K. E. Saunders, 






" " 






11 days, .... 


10 53 


A. Hawley, 






" » 






15 days, .... 


14 37 


M. A. Bass, 






« 






16 days, .... 


15 33 


M E. Palmer, . 






Clerk, . 






7 months 20 days, 


222 86 


E. B. Thompson, 






Sub-clerk, . 






15 days 


12 32 


E. B. Thompson, 






Clerk, . 






4 months, 


116 64 


M. A. Bass, 






Teacher, . 






10 months 6 days, . 


253 82 


J. C. Trask, . 






« 






10 months 26 days, 


271 35 


A. Hawley, 






« 






10 months 14 days, 


261 13 


F. E. Rastell, . 






" 






2 months, 


50 00 


S. Williams, . 






«« 






2 months 27 days, 


72 17 


L. E. Bass, 






" 






5 months 11 days, 


134 13 


G-. L. Smith, . 






'< 






1 month 1 day, 


25 82 


A. E. Gordon, 






Sub-teacher, 






7 days, . 


5 75 


S. E. Palmer, . 






" 






4 months 18 days, 


114 41 


D. H. Bailey, . 






Laborer, 






8 months 8 days, . 


226 35 


R. McKenzie, . 












3 months, 


78 00 


M. Dolphin, . 












2 months 18 days, 


67 37 


Amos L. Bean, 












5 months 21 days, 


215 62 


Amos T. Saunders, 












5 months 27 days, 


222 94 


A. R. King, . 












4 months 13 days, 


167 86 


H. W. Welch, 












13 days, .... 


19 50 














$10,330 32 



134 PHYSICIAN'S REPORT INDUS'L SCHOOL. [Oct.'95. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees oj the State Industrial School. 

During the year ending Sept. 30, 1895, we have had four cases 
of follicular pharyngitis, so closely resembling diphtheria that we 
isolated the patients and took full precautions to prevent the spread 
of the disease. 

In June one of our girls returned from her place suffering from 
appendicitis. She was removed to the Massachusetts General Hos- 
pital, where laparotomy was performed. Later a second operation 
was found necessary, and now the girl is far from well. 

Another girl, a phthisical patient, was seized with severe nasal 
hemorrhages. As soon as she could bear the journey she was placed 
in the Dorchester Home for Consumptives. There she improved 
quite a little, so that she is now with her own people in Boston. 

In January and February we had several cases of "La grippe.'' 
Convalescence from this disease is at best slow, and at that time the 
cold weather and the snow-covered condition of our grounds made 
the return to health unusually prolonged. Out-of-door exercise was 
entirely cut off, and we had no regular methods of in-door calisthenics. 
I am then very much in sympathy with the present movement to 
introduce physical culture among our girls during the winter months. 

Respectfully, 

MARY V. O'CALLAGHAN, M.D. 

Worcester, Oct. 9, 1895. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 18. 



SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



o:..> 

Lyman and Industrial 



Schools 



(Formerly known as Trustees of the State Primary and 
Reform Schools) 



Year ending September 30, 1896. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1897. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Trustees' Report on Lyman School, 3 

Trustees' Report on State Industrial School, . . . . . . . 15 

Report of Treasurer of Trust Funds, 26 

Report of Superintendent of Lyman School, 34 

Statistics of Lyman School, 38 

Report of Principal of Schools of Lyman School, 50 

Report of Instructor in Manual Training, Lyman School, 53 

Report of Instructor of Advanced Manual Training, 55 

Report of the Instructor in Printing, Lyman School, 57 

Report of Instructor of Gymnastics, Lyman School, ...... 59 

Report of Physician, Lyman School, 61 

Report of Matron of Berlin Farmhouse, . 63 

Financial Statement, Lyman School, .65 

Report of the Farmer, Lyman School, 79 

Report of Berlin Farmer, 80 

Valuation of Property, Lyman School 81 

Schedule of Salaried Officers, Lyman School, 86 

List of Superintendents, Lyman School, 91 

List of Trustees, Lyman School, 92 

Report of Superintendent of Visitation of Lyman School Probationers, ... 94 

Report of Superintendent of State Industrial School, 103 

Statistics and Financial Statement of State Industrial School, .... 104 

Report of Physician of State Industrial School 116 



€0mm0itforaltfj of ^unnvifymtttB, 



TRUSTEES' REPORT. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools respect- 
fully present their annual report for the two reform schools 
under their control. 

LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS, 

At WESTBOROUGH. 

Fifty years have now elapsed since the Lyman School for 
Boys, formerly known as the Massachusetts State Reform 
School, was established by act of Legislature as a manual 
training school for the* employment, instruction and reforma- 
tion of juvenile offenders. Founded at the instance and with 
the financial aid of the Hon. Theodore Lyman, for whom the 
school was later named, it was a pioneer among institutions of 
its kind. Now similar establishments have sprung up in many 
other States, and the problems connected with this line of re- 
formatory work command wide attention both from philan- 
thropists and from students of social science. The methods 
now pursued at the Lyman School are therefore no mere acci- 
dent nor the result of any snap judgment, but have been 
adopted in the light of much discussion of the subject by 
specialists and of careful observation and experiment on the 
part of those in control. 

Commitments to the Lyman School are by sentence of the 
court for * * any offence not punishable by death or imprison- 
ment for life." The term is always for minority. This is in 



4 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

effect a commitment to guardianship, and places upon the 
school the whole responsibility for the boy's readjustment to 
a normal relation with society. 

The methods relied upon to accomplish this result are : first, 
a period of restraint and discipline, varying in length and in 
character according to the needs of each individual case; and, 
second, a period of partial freedom, when the boy, restored to 
a normal social relation, is still not wholly free, but is guarded 
from the temptations which his character is least likely to 
resist. Experience shows that for reformatory purposes this 
second period is of fully equal value to the first, and it is one 
which in most reform schools is far too little regarded ; indeed, 
until recently it was far too little regarded at the Lyinan 
School. 

The main branch of the Lyman School is located upon the 
southerly slope of a hill sufficiently removed from the town of 
TVestborough, and a newly instituted branch of the school lies 
some seven miles beyond, in the neighboring town of Berlin. 
The whole number of inmates in the two branches of the insti- 
tution on Sept. 30, 1896, was 268, of whom 250 were at West- 
borough and 18 at Berlin. 

The headquarters of the institution are at Westborough, and 
here all newly-committed boys are delivered. Each one on his 
arrival is examined by the superintendent, and all that can be 
learned either from the boy's testimony or from other sources 
is recorded. Since the branch school was opened last Novem- 
ber newcomers under thirteen years of age and a few over 
thirteen whom it is judged appropriate to classify in the junior 
division are transferred to Berlin ; * the rest are assigned to 
one or other of the eight family houses on the grounds at 
Westborough. 

At Westborough a well-systematized course of education, 
physical, manual and mental, has been gradually developed, 
each step having been tested by observed results. The super- 
intendent Mr. Theodore F. Chapin has devoted himself for 
eight years past to developing methods, educational in the 
broadest sense and appropriate to the special needs of this 
special class of boys. The details of this educational system 

* Pains are taken that boys assigned to Berlin shall not come in contact, pending 
their transfer, with Westborough boys. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT^ No. 18. 5 

need not now be entered into at length, having been much 
dwelt upon in past reports. Suffice it to say that, as to the 
boys' bodies, by careful attention to daily personal hygiene 
and by a regular systematic course of physical development 
exercises they are brought into as normal a condition as they 
can attain. One who has an opportunity to compare the physi- 
cal condition of an average lot of Lyman School boys with that 
of a similar set of boys outside cannot fail to note that, so far 
as a good, clean, well-developed body may be a helpful basis 
for sound mental and moral development, the Lyman School 
boy has a distinct advantage. 

In more purely mental training, while the importance of the 
schoolroom is not underrated and much good work is accom- 
plished there, the chief educational emphasis is placed upon 
the training of the mind through the hand and eye in the man- 
ual training shops. The educational value of manual training, 
now universally recognized and rapidly becoming an indispen- 
sable part of every public-school system, applies with special 
force to such boys as these. Their past lives have been of 
almost exclusively physical rather than mental activity, and 
they can therefore respond the more readily to educational 
methods which call into play and train their physical powers. 
As a whole they are greatly interested in this part of their 
work and make good progress in it. It proves an invaluable 
means of teaching how to use the hands in absolute obedience 
to the will and the wits, and conversely it is a means of train- 
ing will and wits to profitably direct the hands. In a word, it 
reaches the reform-school boy where he is and develops and 
trains his higher faculties in a way that is agreeable to him and 
with which he can and does healthily co-operate. Such a will- 
ing partnership between the boy and the school can hardly be 
compared with the old relationship between a forbidding prison- 
like institution and its sullen inmate. 

While the Lyman School has nothing of the prison in its 
aspect or its methods, it is nevertheless a place of strict if not 
severe discipline. The boys are required to stand straight, to 
answer promptly, to step in line, to be busied at one task or 
another pretty much from early morning to night. They work, 
and they work hard, at household and farm labor, as well as 
in workshops, in schoolroom and in manual training classes. 



6 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The time of detention at Westborough can never be regarded 
as a holiday. Rather it is a period of strenuous exertion, cal- 
culated to send a boy out into the world inured to simple liv- 
ing and hard work. Certainly it will never tempt the slothful 
by offering a life of relaxation and ease. 

A tangible outcome of the manual training teaching is visible 
in the recently completed barn, built entirely by boys' labor, 
under the direction of the engineer and two of the masters of 
the school. The timbers came in the rough, and were all 
planed and fitted together by boy labor. The building has a 
capacity for seventy-two cows, and is constructed according to 
the latest sanitary ideas. 

A further improvement in way of buildings which is recom- 
mended is a central schoolhouse, where the school work, now 
carried on at a great disadvantage in the various family houses, 
can be concentrated. The trustees have long recognized the 
mistake of ever having tried to educate the boys according to 
family groups, and for several years past the strictly family 
system has been modified to the extent of sending some boys 
of each family to school in other households. This allows a 
certain amount of grading, but in many ways it is an awkward 
arrangement. A central school building would allow better 
schooling in every way, stimulating the boys by the keener 
competition of a larger group, allowing specialized and there- 
fore more efficient teaching, and enabling the superintendent 
to have the schoolrooms under his own more immediate direc- 
tion. Also it would enable him to meet the boys all together 
in a way that is now only occasionally possible. Outside of 
school hours, the boys would still eat and sleep and work and 
play in family groups, and thus it is believed that nothing val- 
uable in the present system would be lost. 

As before stated, all the boys have been committed to the 
school during minority. At Westborough a marking system 
is in use, under which a well-behaved boy can earn his release 
in fifteen months or less. Be the time longer or shorter,* the 
name of each boy, as he attains his honor grade, is presented 
to the trustees, who must decide whether he may safely go to 
his own home or whether his chance of well-doing will be 

* The average time of detention of boys sent out for a first trial last year was 
twenty-one months. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

greater in new and more favorable surroundings. In the con- 
sideration of this most difficult and critical question the trus- 
tees are aided by the superintendent's knowledge of the boy's 
character and by the two Visitors of the school, one or the 
other of whom has personally investigated the home of the 
boy in question, and who know, if the home is rejected, what 
other openings may be available. Many times, of course, the 
merits of a case are easily determined ; but again the pros 
and cons are so complex that, without the fine shades of evi- 
dence such as the superintendent and the Visitors can furnish, 
discriminating action would be impossible. 

In any case, whether the decision is that a boy shall go 
home or not, he remains in the custody of the school until he 
is twenty-one, and is subject to recall or even to transfer to 
the Massachusetts Reformatory for bad conduct. The period 
of probation is far more effective than formerly now that Visi- 
tors responsible to the trustees and who have made the boy's 
acquaintance in the school follow him out into the world and 
bridge over the dangerous step from the strict rule of the 
institution to a state of complete freedom. 

The Visitors, Mr. Walter A. Wheeler and Mr. Asa F. Howe, 
have both shown themselves admirably qualified for the work 
in hand, — a work that demands at once sympathy, decision 
and infinite discrimination. Some boys, weak and only kept 
steady by compulsion, must be held sharply under the school 
authority ; others need simply a watchful interest and readi- 
ness to act if difficulties arise ; while others, having demon- 
strated their ability to stand alone, may best be left very much 
to their own devices. 

A sharp watch is always necessary in behalf of boys bound 
out to farmers. Usually the farmer has agreed that, if the boy 
is satisfactory, besides being clothed and fed he shall be paid 
fifty dollars when he is eighteen, or a proportional part of 
this sum in case he leaves before his time expires. It is need- 
less to say that many a farmer is ready to find a boy unsatisfac- 
tory as pay day draws near, or to put him off with a promise ; 
and without the Visitor to enforce the boy's rights they would 
be too often little regarded. Formerly these bargains were 
loosely made and very imperfectly enforced ; now within this 
year the sum of $1,175.87 was collected by the Visitors in 



8 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

behalf of 43* boys, and placed in bank to be paid over to them 
when they attain their majority. 

The Visitors appear to have been uniformly welcomed by 
the boys, and parents have frequently expressed their grati- 
tude for the help thus given them. In several cases when 
boys have been out of work and discouraged at their pros- 
pects in the city they have been glad to avail themselves of 
the Visitor's good offices to secure work upon a farm. 

The report of the Superintendent of Visitation on page 94, 
gives the occupations of all the boys, no less than 508 in num- 
ber, who were subject to visitation on Sept. 30, 1896, and gives 
also much other interesting information relative to this branch 
of the school's work. The number of visits recorded to pro- 
bationers by the Visitors is 1,043, and the number of homes 
and places investigated 191 ; the number of visits by trustees 
is 74, and of investigations 15. 

The activity of the visiting department and its value in the 
single matter of keeping the numbers to be maintaiued in the 
institution within anything approaching its capacity is shown 
by the following figures ; — 

1893-94, Released on probation, . . . 114. Retained, 33 f 
1894-95, Released on probation (18 boarders), 188. Returned, 60 f 
1895-96, Released on probation (29 boarders), 212. Returned, 87 f 

It will be seen by the above figures that in spite of the large 
increase in the number of returns (necessarily resulting from 
the fact that runaways from their places and those who other- 
wise misbehave are looked up and recalled to the school more 
sharply than ever before) there has been a net gain in the num- 
ber of boys cared for outside the institution ; i. e., the increase 
of placings this year exceeded that of two years ago by 98, and 
the increase of returns by 54, giving a net increase of placings 
over returns of 44, — a number sufficient to fill one family house 
and to almost half fill another. 

As a result of fifteen months' experience, the trustees are 
emphatically of the opinion that no more important advance in 

* Boys over 18 usually collect and spend their own wages while boys nnder 16 can- 
not earn more than board and lodging. 

t These returns do not include runaways from the school who were brought back, or 
bovs returned on transfer from the State Primarv School. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

reformatory work has been made in recent years than was in- 
augurated by the legislation authorizing the employment of 
these Visitors.* 

The present law is defective, however, in that the Lyman 
School Visitors are unable to act in placing out boys until, in 
addition to their own investigations, an investigation has been 
made by the State Board of Lunacy and Charity and a report 
of the same received at the school ; also that probationer must 
in addition to school visitation be visited at least once a year 
by agents of the above State Board. The trustees recommend 
that these provisions, which are inapplicable to present condi- 
tions and involve a wholly unnecessary expenditure of public 
money, be so revised as to free the Lyman School Visitors from 
cumbersome restrictions and to allow the supervisory Board to 
exercise a wise discretion in its method of inspecting this branch 
of Lyman School work. 

The branch school at Berlin has been open for only eleven 
months, and as its aims and methods are wholly different from 
those pursued at Westborough, it seems proper to describe 
this new departure with some detail . It grew out of the recog- 
nition that for some juvenile offenders institution training of 
any kind is unnecessary and therefore undesirable. With a 
boy of ten or twelve years old whose lawlessness presumably 
arises from the bad management or bad example of his parents 
or the seductions of life in the street, the trustees have long 
believed the best course would be to try whether new interests 
and the rule of a sensible woman whom he had never defied, as 
he has his mother, with impunity, would not suffice to bring 
the young rebel to terms. Accordingly when fifteen months 
ago on the closing of the State Primary School boys of from 
eight to twelve began flocking into Westborough, instead of 
seeking to erect another cottage there, the trustees began to 
board them out in carefully-selected farmers' families. Mean- 
while it was felt to be undesirable to associate these young 
children even temporarily with the older boys, and as all the 
cottages at Westborough were so overcrowded that some new 
quarters were imperatively needed, the Berlin farm with its 

* Chapter 428 of the Acts of 1895. 



10 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

substantial buildings was acquired * and set apart for the use 
of the younger class of children. 

With the immediate object in view of fitting the boys placed 
at Berlin into families, its arrangements and methods are mod- 
elled as closely as possible on those of a natural household. 
The old-fashioned farmhouse itself has nothing of the formal 
aspect of an institution, and no attempt is made to hold the 
boys up to a rigid discipline ; rather the motherly woman 
who is at the head of the establishment tries to get into the 
confidence of her little charges and to rule them as any wise 
mother rules her own children. She and the young farmer 
and his wife who help in the care of the boys live with them 
on the most informal terms ; there is thus opportunity to pick 
out those who can safely be placed at board, while the more 
lawless ones can be somewhat tamed before being imposed 
upon a private household. It is gratifying to note how readily 
these rough little fellows yield to civilizing influences and be- 
come obedient and gentle, and ambitious to be counted worthy 
of trust. No doubt, however, the fact that West borough, 
dreaded from the one night spent there all alone under lock 
and key, is known to be the fate of any persistently naughty 
boy, goes far to make severe discipline unnecessary at Berlin. 

Of the 44 boys so far tried at Berlin, 3 were transferred 
back to Westborough on the ground that its discipline would 
be better suited to their individual needs, and 3 others were 
returned there from places ; of these latter, one whose offence 
was slight will soon be tried in another place, while the rest 
will be required to earn their release as if they had been classi- 
fied from the first at Westborough. It is intended that no boy 
who has misbehaved in a place shall ever go back to Berlin. 

The way in which the discipline of Berlin and Westborough 
interact is illustrated in the case of a boy sent to the Lyman 
School by his widowed mother because he had gotten wholly 
beyond her control. After six months at Berlin he went out 
to a place with a full determination to rule his wilful ways ; 
but with the first days of freedom his old wilfulness reasserted 

* The Lyman fund was originally used to buy and fit up the Berlin property, the 
.Governor concurring with the trustees that it would be injurious to these young children 
to defer making provision for them till the Legislature could act. Later when the Leg- 
islature met, the property was purchased by the State in behalf of the Lyman School. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18 



11 



itself, and the farmer wrote post haste to have the boy re- 
moved. He was removed, — hut to solitary confinement at 
Westborough, and after five days was tried again in another 
place. There he has given satisfaction, and when he has con- 
tinued to do well for a sufficient length of time he can go home 
and be a comfort to his mother. " If ever a boy was trying to 
get home, Fred is," is the record given him by the farmer. 

In the case of another boy the mere name of Westborough 
was efficacious : during a three-weeks stay at Berlin he had con- 
ceived a great affection for the young house master, and when 
placed out he kicked and screamed to go back. When given 
to understand, however, that if returned it would be to West- 
borough, not to Berlin, he concluded to be good where he was, 
and he soon grew contented and happy. When seen a few 
months later by one of the trustees, his talk was all of the in- 
terests of the farm and of the kindness of the young farmer. 
" He is real good, he gives us lots to eat and he lets us ride 
the horse and sometimes he takes us to the store and we helped 
him plow the field," etc. This boy has miserable belongings, 
and he will probably live upon a farm until he is grown up. 

The total number of boys boarded out since the experiment 
was initiated in August, 1895, or placed without board after a 
short stay at Berlin, is 47. Of these, there are now : — 



Placed on probation with parents, . 
Placed on probation with relatives, 
Self-supporting in a place, 

Now at board, 

Recalled to Westborough, and still there, 

The causes of these returns are : — 



2 

2 

5 

28 

10 

47 



An abnormal child, 2 

Physical infirmity, 1 

Simple laziness, 1 

Laziness and untruthfulness, 1 

Stealing, . 1 

Stealing and running away, 2 

Generally depraved, 2 

Two other boys, each returned twice for running away, are 
now again on trial. 



12 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Of the above 47 boys,* 25 have so far given no cause for 
anxiety nor been the subject of complaint ; only 4 have been 
runaways, and they were all brought back to Westborough, 
2 of them however to be soon given another trial. Only 7 
others have as yet been guilty of any serious misconduct. 
But of course it will not be till a typical group of these children 
are grown up that one can pronounce with certainty as to the 
outcome of the boarding system. 

The question of returning these children to their own homes 
on probation is one as to which the trustees can only feel 
their way. In the attempt to decide this and similar questions 
the trustees take pains not only to acquaint themselves with 
the individual children while in the school, but to visit them 
in their boarding-places and to follow them up personally when 
they go home.f In several cases before a child was sent back 
one of the trustees has formed the mother's acquaintance in 
the hope of securing her co-operation in the management of 
her boy. 

* The following details as to individual children will illustrate their varying charac- 
ters and fortunes : — 

Tony used to be called a bad boy by the police ; but his home, though poor, is respect- 
able, and his heart is very tender toward his mother. He is a manly little fellow, and 
bore his homesickness like a hero. After six months at board he went home; he 
brought back his farming interests to the city, and takes great pride in the little garden 
he has planted in the front yard. His teacher says that he shuns all his former bad 
companions and that there is not a better boy in her school. 

Georgie, ten years old, was a terror in his neighborhood ; but four weeks at Berlin 
showed him to be a well-meaning, honest-hearted and particularly lovable child. He is 
now boarded with people who call him an unusually good boy and who will probably 
give him a permanent home. 

Frank, whose father used to find him wholly unmanageable, has been an obedient 
and exceptionally good boy both in Berlin and in his boarding-place. As his home is 
respectable, it is to be hoped that when he gets older he may go back and have no more 
trouble. 

Louis, after two months at board, was taken away because an uncle offered him a 
good home ; but he and his caretaker had become so attached that both cried heartily 
at parting. " It seems as if I couldn't let that boy go," the farmer's wife exclaimed. 

" Leander is my right-hand man," is the record of another little boarder whom the 
police had called " a dreadfully bad boy." He is home again now and it remains to be 
seen whether or not his old habits will reassert themselves. 

Willie, with a very bad record at home, is now trused with money to trade at the 
shop, and has never once betrayed his trust. 

Benjy, however, cannot be taught to tell the truth, and he has stolen from his kind 
caretakers ; but they forgave him, because he confessed with genuine penitence, and he 
promises he will never do such a mean thing again. 

Tom and Georgie, the latter only ten years old, seemed both to be as bad as boys 
could be, and, showing no improvement after ten months at board, they were recalled 
to Westborough and will stay there for a considerable season. 

t Besides the boarders who have gone home, 4 have gone direct from Berlin. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

During the first months of the boarding experiment the ex- 
pense was borne from the Lyman fund; since January, 1896, 
the expense has been met from an appropriation of $3,000 
granted for the purpose by the Legislature.* A slightly in- 
creased appropriation will be needed to carry on the work 
another year. 

The total equipment at Berlin cost $8,500; of this, $5,250 
was for the purchase of the property (there are some ninety 
acres of land in the estate) and $3,250 for repairs and furnish- 
ings, f This is less than half what a new cottage at West- 
borough would have cost. 

The running expenses of the Berlin farmhouse are inconsid- 
erably greater than if the little family were located in a sep- 
arate cottage on the grounds at Westborough. So far $60 is 
the total spent for farm labor there, and the crops, planted, 
tended and harvested by boy labor, have been abundant. All 
the supplies not raised on the place are given out on requisi- 
tion from the storeroom at Westborough the same as to the 
other cottages. Three officers are all that are needed at Ber- 
lin, the washing and most of the baking being done at West- 
borough. There is no question that, were the State called 
upon to make provision for this whole group of little boys, 
boarders included, in new quarters at Westborough or else- 
where, the expense would be very much heavier than under 
the present arrangement. The Berlin farmhouse is amply large 
for all probable demands upon it. The houses at Westborough, 
on the other hand, have remained overcrowded in spite of the 
relief granted by the Berlin annex and of the unprecedented 
number placed out, and it is possible that it may be necessary 
to ask for another cottage. 

* The rates paid for the present boarders are : — 



4 children, 
1 child, . 
1 child, . 

17 children, 

5 children, 



$2.00 a week and clothing extra. 
2.00 a week and clothing by caretaker. 
7.00 a month and clothing extra. 
1.50 a week and clothing extra. 
1.00 a week during school term and clothing by caretaker. 



All but 4 of the above are under thirteen years old, and 11 are under twelve. So far 
there has been no dearth of boarding-places, but places without payment for boys under 
thirteen are scarce. 

f Many of these were bought from the old State Primary School property. 



14 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The Lyman School opened the year with 264 inmates and 
closed with 268, of whom 18 were at Berlin. The whole num- 
ber of individuals in the school within the year was 458 ; the 
average number was 264. The number newly committed 
was 144 and the number placed out on probation 212, of whom 
87 went to their own people, 96 to be self-supporting in places 
and 29 were boarded. The number returned to the school 
from their homes or places was 87, and 7 runaways were like- 
wise returned. There were 8 transfers to the Massachusetts 
Reformatory. 

The total number of boys whose names are upon the books 
of the school Sept. 30, 1896, as under twenty-one years of 
age is 985. Of these, 268 were in the school and 46 had been 
discharged as unfit subjects, returned to court as above the 
age limit when committed, placed in the Massachusetts School 
for the Feeble-minded, or died, leaving 671 outside the institu- 
tion but still in its custody, of whom 508 are on probation and 
subject to the care of the Lyman School Visitors, while 163 
have for all practical purposes passed beyond control. On 
pages 39-41 is an elaborate set of tables, showing, so far as 
possible, the moral condition of the above 671 boys. It is 
planned that hereafter comparative tables on these lines will 
be carried along from year to year. Fuller sets of statistics 
than ever before as to the inmates and the finances of the 
school will be found on pages 38-49 and 65-78. 

The appropriations for the Lyman School were : for salaries 
and wages, $27,000, for current expenses, $40,000, — total, 
$67,000 for the institution ; to be expended outside the school, 
$5,000 for visitation and $3,000 for boarding. The expendi- 
tures in behalf of the institution from Oct. 1, 1895, to Sept, 30, 
1896, were $63,793.48. Approximately $2,500 of this appro- 
priation was spent on boys outside the institution; i. e , on 
outfits or other clothing, on railroad fares, etc. The per capita 
cost of the school was $4.61 ; the per capita expense of visita- 
tion was about 17 cents a week. The whole sum spent in 
behalf of the boys under the care of the school either as in- 
mates, probationers and boarders, was $69,276.42, or approx- 
imately a per capita of $1.76. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

The comparison of the per capita of the school for the last 
six years shows : — 



1891, . . U 44 

1892, . . . 4 75 

1893, 4 31 

1894, . . . . . . . ... . 4 75 

1895, . . 4 46 

1896 . 4 61 



$9 19 



9 06 



9 07 



By thus grouping the figures it is apparent that the per 
capita cost has fallen of late rather than risen. The average 
for six years is $4.55. This is no doubt a high rate; but if 
the Lyman School shall succeed in reinstating a goodly number 
of sometime law-breakers as honest, law-abiding citizens, the 
money spent in bringing this result to pass will be amply re- 
paid the Commonwealth. 



THE STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, 

At LANCASTER. 

The purpose of this school is to secure for young offenders, 
whether reckless or simply misguided, a season of absence from 
temptation, and, that which is still more important, a year or 
more made up of well-filled days, each hour having its assigned 
duty, which is made, if possible, an absorbing occupation. Im- 
mediate recognition of good conduct is given, and frequent in- 
ducements to deserve such recognition are furnished ; so that 
almost invariably the year in the school brings about cheerful 
acquiescence in its requirements, with an improved condition 
of health and intelligence. 

The trustees fully understand the objection to bringing to- 
gether, even in groups of twenty-five, girls who have had ex- 
perience or at least a knowledge of evil from which girls better 
born and bred are sheltered. They would be very glad to find 
virtue enough in a girl's own home or in some other home to 



16 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

secure her reformation without commitment to any institution. 
Unfortunately, the girl's own home is the very place from which 
she has been removed, and no other home can be secured for a 
girl who has been "idle, vicious or vagrant," until industry 
and other softening influences shall have replaced bad habits 
by good habits, and little by little developed in her some 
womanly instincts and capacity for earning her way by the 
domestic arts and labors. 

There are in the Lancaster School five separate households, 
very carefully classified according to the character of the girls 
before commitment, and there is no promotion from one family 
to another and no association between these different groups of 
girls except as they sit beside one another in chapel, or meet, 
after having advanced to the roll of honor, at the occasional 
festivities, in which the officers kindly take part. Separation 
of one group from another is of the greatest importance in a 
school for the reformation of girls who are more often guilty of 
offences against good morals than of offences against person or 
property. While some of them have lost character, others have 
simply been in danger of so doing, having been arrested upon 
complaint of parent or guardian, in order to rescue them from 
bad companions outside, and the trustees appreciate the respon- 
sibility laid upon them to keep the more innocent from contam- 
ination by the more degraded. 

The matron of each household consults with her assistants 
as well as with the superintendent as to the most suitable ways 
of disciplining, training and interesting the special group she 
has in charge ; while the ultimate aim of all the officers is to 
bring the girls to a fresh stand-point, a broader outlook, a 
more sensible view and a purer ideal of the outside life to which 
they are soon to return, equipped with skill enough to earn an 
honest living. 

The State Industrial School deals with three sets of girls : 
(1) those whose circumstances have been so discouraging as 
to account in great measure for their misconduct; (2) those 
whose innate tendency to evil and lack of interest in things 
good and pure would seem likely to] set at naught any effort 
to bring about a real reformation of their lives ; (3) those 
whose lack of intelligence is so marked as to render them 
incapable, if placed out, of ever protecting themselves, and 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

who must therefore be considered unfit subjects for a course of 
training the whole purpose of which is to prepare the pupils for 
earning their way where their work is in constant demand, in 
families out in the world. We have lately heard of a girl of 
defective intellect, from another institution, who before the age 
of twenty-six years had borne six illegitimate children. No 
course of training could avert from her such dangers nor secure 
the community from the unwelcome burden entailed upon it by 
her feeble-minded offspring. Seven girls, originally committed 
to the Lancaster School, defective in intellect as well as vicious 
in their tendencies, have spent more or less time in Tewksbury 
Almshouse this year, one of them being an epileptic, one becom- 
ing insane, one having borne and a second about to bear her 
second illegitimate child. There is no legal restraint which 
could hold such persons in the almshouse past their twenty-first 
birthday nor .prevent a recurrence of their misconduct ; they 
cannot be held responsible for their conduct because it is not 
in their power to behave otherwise when subjected to tempta- 
tion ; and, even if transferred to Sherborn Prison, they would be 
at large upon completion of minority. There is need of further 
legislation in their behalf. We do not refer to idiots, but to 
those who are at once feeble-minded and vicious. 

We have mentioned the three sets of girls who come to the 
school. While the distinction is often quite marked, there has 
been found no key to character by which the magistrate, the 
State agent or the superintendent of the school can in every 
case decide in advance that for one girl there is hope ; for 
another, no hope. The work of reclaiming young offenders is 
full of surprises, and must be undertaken with patient accept- 
ance of its difficulties. 

The gymnastic exercises in which the girls are now trained 
are such as are used in the public schools, and are giving to 
minds and bodies that are inert and undisciplined just the stim- 
ulus they need. 

During the long illness and slow convalescence of the super- 
intendent, her staff of officers carried on the school with a loyalty 
that is above all praise. Accustomed as they had been to as- 
sume the responsibility for their several households and to be- 
ing accredited with the fruits of their thought and labor, they 
continued upon the same general lines which Mrs. Brackett had 



18 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

laid down for and with them, the trustees lending a hand, but 
all agreeing that they could not fully carry out Mrs. Brackett's 
work, because they could not fully grasp her aims and meth- 
ods. The officers of the visiting department of the State Board 
of Lunacy and Charity have also exerted themselves to the ut- 
most to help on the placing out of the girls who were candi- 
dates for places. 

Two cases of hysterical temper have severely taxed the offi- 
cers of the school, — one a girl of almshouse inheritance for 
generations, the other belonging to a family one member of 
which has just been committed to a hospital for the insane. 
The former has been much improved by the healthful out-of 
door work under the care of Miss Morse, our invaluable assist- 
ant farmer, with whom groups of girls may be seen, daily, 
dropping seeds, weeding, cutting corn or gathering in fruits or 
vegetables. The other hysterical patient has learned to exert 
so much of self-control as to give hope for her future. 

Among the triumphs of the year is to be counted that of a 
very intelligent girl over her own haughty, wilful disposition, 
until she has become so efficient as to fill a place in a family 
where she can begin to earn by housework the means neces- 
sary for carrying on her education. 

If to be forewarned is to be forearmed, it is a good sign to 
find a girl on the way to her first place, saying to the Visitor, 
"Now the temptations will begin." Unfortunately, all does 
not rest with the girl herself. There are too often complicated 
conditions to be met ; sometimes relatives who, through mis- 
taken kindness or less good motives, will prevent the girl from 
carrying out the good resolutions she may have formed. Again, 
there are evil-minded men and women in every neighborhood, 
and occasionally, though rarely, some former schoolmate to lead 
her astray. 

Sometimes there is lack of wise management on the part of 
the employer. As a rule, we find the mother of a well-ordered 
household glad of the opportunity to befriend the hired girl ; 
but there are exceptions to this rule, some employers giving 
too much liberty, others forgetting that the hired girl needs 
young companions quite as much as her own daughter needed 
them when of the same age. 

The trustees cannot sufficiently thank the Yisitors, paid and 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

unpaid, for their willing help. Last year a young woman came 
to one of the trustees to ask for work for her husband, who had 
accidentally lost his steady employment. One could hardly 
recognize, in the fresh, healthy wife of a respectable working- 
man, the once troublesome girl over whom the Visitor had 
worked hard and of whom she had at one time almost de- 
spaired. A girl who is soon to receive her honorable dis- 
charge writes of her Visitor, who has lately died, "I should 
never imagine I should be so lonely without her. I almost 
forget, sometimes, that she is dead, and, before I think, 
will say to Auntie, * I guess I will go to see Mrs. D.' " 

It is the earnest wish of the trustees that, for the sake of 
the girls placed out from the Lancaster School, the system of 
local volunteer Visitors, initiated and developed under the State 
Board of Lunacy and Charity, may be long continued and so 
directed as to be kept in a state of highest efficiency. They 
believe that women of well-recognized position in their dis- 
tricts will always be found willing to devote a portion of 
their busy lives to helping these young strangers to win such 
respect and friendship as their conduct may deserve. These 
volunteers have in countless ways extended hospitality to the 
girls, letting them come to their houses on their days out, 
securing social and other privileges of the place and co-operat- 
ing with their employers in managing them when indiscreet or 
otherwise troublesome. There is little danger that this good 
work will be overdone. Until a girl is well fitted into a new 
place she needs to feel that she has a friend within reach, and 
the Visitor should be glad of this opportunity to make ac- 
quaintance with the girl. Again, when social relations outside 
the family are developing, such a Visitor is especially needed, 
for she can incidentally gather information and quietly keep 
watch over the girl without danger of calling too much atten- 
tion to her affairs ; she can, through channels not open to an 
outsider, discover the dangers that lurk under cover of re- 
spectability among the people of her own town. From the 
first investigation of an application to the final decision whether 
or not a girl shall remain an inmate of the family, a good local 
Visitor has, for girls between fourteen and twenty-one years 
of age, advantages over any outside investigator. Meantime 
this local volunteer stands in need of warning and of criti- 



20 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

cism, as well as of encouragement, until she becomes fully 
awake to the dangers and perplexities inseparable from such 
work. If earnest in her endeavor, she would surely welcome 
frank criticism and suggestion, brought to her own door by 
someone equally in earnest in this difficult enterprise, — the 
caring for other people's children. A volunteer, if invited to 
take part in such work, should be charged with full responsi- 
bility, and then held so strictly to her duty that whenever she 
may become preoccupied by other cares she may feel herself 
bound to lay her visiting aside. The development of the work 
of carrying these young girls safely through their minority 
will be found worthy of the best study by college graduates, 
among whom some of the best Visitors have already been 
found, while these new recruits should be trained to follow 
in the footsteps of our pioneers, and, like them, be ready to 
render the humblest, homeliest service whenever such may be 
needed to bring them into helpful relations to a lonesome 
girl, so that by force of sympathy and persistent moral strength 
they may help her to bear her homesickness, conquer her ill 
temper, stamp out her evil inclinations and become helpful as 
well as virtuous. 

The trustees have, for the past four years, stated, in the fol- 
lowing tables, the outcome of the State's efforts to reform the 
girls through this school and the visiting outside. While the 
figures vary from year to year, the proportion of girls who, at 
majority or other discharge from custody, are known from re- 
cent reports to have become honest and respectable, has varied 
from 62 per cent, to 72 per cent., or from two-thirds to some- 
what less than three-quarters, while less than one-quarter are 
known to be behaving badly. This year 68 girls went out of 
the school's care, of whom 18 had been married and were be- 
having well, while 3 had married and behaved badly. 

Of the twenty-four girls not married whose conduct was good 
at expiration of minority, one who had everything to contend 
against has come out a good, trusty girl, and is engaged to a 
reliable man ; another has been adopted ; and a third, a grad- 
uate from the High School, has been honorably discharged; 
while those who are simply earning their living by housework 
deserve much credit for self-control. Men and women who 
have a rich inheritance of worthy ancestry and the world be- 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



21 



fore them can hardly understand the struggles of these young 
lives, with no background and very little outlook. 



Statistics. 



Sept. 



In custody of Industrial School (in the school 

and on probation), . 
These girls were distributed as follows : — 

I. — Supported by the State. 
Remaining in the school, 
At board in families, .... 
Transferred to Reformatory Prison for 
Women or House of Correction, . 
In former years, .... 

This year, 

Transferred to institutions not penal, . 

Total still supported by the State, 

II. — NO LONGER SUPPORTED BY THE STATE 

Under twenty-one years, still in custody, 
Subtracting those who had left their places, 

Total honestly self-supporting, . 



891. 1893. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 

272 283 311 353 365 384 



91 



99 



173 

14 



82 



91 



192 
15 



112 124 



125 



188 
17 



208 
18 



111 



145 129 



238 
21 



129 
5 



17 

167 



217 
20 



159 



177 171 190 217 



197 



Distributed as follows : — 

With relatives on probation, 
At work in other families, 
At work elsewhere, . 
At academy or other school 

porting, .... 
Married, but subject to recall, 



Total, 



self-sup 



26 



36 
159 



30 

118 



29 

177 



31 

102 



36 

111 

1 

11 
31 



47 
120 



11 



120 
1 

8 
33 



171 190 



217 



198 



Summary of Commitments and Discharges. 



Total in custody at beginning of year, 
New commitments, 
Attained majority, 
Discharged by trustees, 
Died, . . . . 
Total who passed out of custody, 



Net increase, 



1891. 

272 
50 
36 
1 
2 
— 39 



11 



1892. 

283 
77 
44 
3 

— 47 



1893. 

313 
78 
36 
2 



1894. 

353 
72 
53 
5 

— 58 



1895. 

365* 
86 
58 
6 
2 
— 67t 



1896. 

384 



30 



40 



14 



19 



* Two names had appeared twice on last year's list, now corrected, 
t One discharged because recommitted by court. 



A girl may be recalled by the trustees to the school whether 
on account of misconduct or illness or change of place. The 
figures in the following table will show how often this policy 



22 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

has secured, even for a restless or troublesome girl, a satisfac- 
tory place at last : — 





1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


Recalled to the school during the year : — 












For bad conduct, 


8 


16 


10 


17 


23 


For no serious fault, .... 


49 


48 


60 


48 


55 


For unsatisfactory conduct, again placed 
out, 


6 


19 


13 


16 


12 


For unsatisfactory conduct, not yet 
placed again 


_ 


2 


9 


4 


5 


For illness or change of place, not im- 
plying misconduct, .... 


32 


17 


31 


24 


34 


Having left places, but found with re- 
spectable relatives or at work, . 


10 


5 


_ 


3 


2 


To prepare wedding outfit, 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


Feeble-minded, unfit for placing, . 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


From State almshouse hospital, • 


- 


- 


4 


1 


2 




57 


64 


70 


65 


78 



SUMMARY OF CONDUCT 

Of Qirls who have been in Care of the State One Year or More. 





Sept. 
30,1892. 


Sept. 
30,1893. 


Sept. 
30,1894. 


Sept. 
30,1895. 


Sept. 

30,1896. 


A. — Honestly Self-supporting. 

I. No longer in Care of the State : — 

Attained majority, conduct good, . . .♦ 

Died, conduct good, 

Discharged, conduct good, .... 


25 
2 


29 

1 


28 


39 
2 


41 
2 
4 


II. In Care of the State, but no longer maintained 

at Public Expense : — 
Married, conduct good at last accounts, 
On probation with friends, .... 
At work in other families, .... 

At work elsewhere, 

Attending school at academy or elsewhere 

and paying their way by housework, 


27 

26 
27 

117 

1 


30 

31 

28 

102 

7 


28 

25 

36 

111 

1 

11 


41 

39 

35 

120 

10 


47 

25 

35 

119 

1 

8 


Total honestly self-supporting, . 

B. — Conduct Bad or Doubtful. 

I. Had attained Majority : — 

Married, 

Unmarried, . . 


171 
198 


168 
195 


184 
212 

3 

1 


204 
245 

1 
5 


188 
235 

5 
11* 




7 


6 


4 


6 


16 



* Including one recommitted by court and therefore discharged from list. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



23 



SUMMARY OF CONDUCT, Etc. — Concluded. 





Sept. 1 Sept. 
30,1892. 30,1893. 

1 


Sept. 
30,1894- 


Sept. Sept. 
30,1895.30,1896. 


II. Still in Care of the State, being under Twenty- 
one Tears of Age: — 
In Reformatory Prison, .... 
In almshouse, conduct had been bad, . 
Married, conduct bad or doubtful, 
With friends, conduct bad, .... 
Recalled and remaining in State Industrial 
School, 


5 

2 

7 

3 


5 
4 
3 

17 


11 

4 
5 

11 


7 

10 
3 

7 

6 


15 
8 
3 
1 

6 


Total, conduct bad or doubtful, . 

C. — Conduct not known. 

I. Had attained Majority, married, 
II. Had attained Majority, unmarried, . 
777. At Large, not yet Ttoenty-one, .... 
IV. Married, 


24 

4 
14 


35 

1 

7 
17 


35 

4 
18 


39 

6 
20 


49 

1 

20 
5 


D. — Remainder. 

I. In State Industrial School through year, 
II. Recalled for illness or change of place, . 

III. For transfer, ill or feeble-minded, or insane, . 

IV. Discharged as unfit subject, .... 
V. Defective intellect and irresponsible, 

VI. In institutions not penal nor for fault, 
VII. At board in families, 


18 

23 
8 
1 


25 

15 
3 
3 


22 

36 
3 
4 
1 


26 

31 

7 
3 
2 


26 

35 
5 
4 
1 
1 
6 
3 


Total remainder, 

Grand total, 


32 
272 


21 

283 


44 
313 


43 
353 


55 
365 



Conduct of 67 girls who passed out of care of the State 
within the year : — 



Married, good at last accounts, . 
Unmarried, good at last accounts, 
Died, good at last accounts, . 
Discharged, good at last accounts, 

Total, conduct good at last ac- 
counts, .... 

Had been bad, now living respec- 
tably, 

Runaways or conduct unknown, . 

Bad, 

Discharged, unfit subject, . 
Feeble-minded, .... 

Insane 

Caring for illegitimate child, 

Total out of custody, 



Sept. 
30, 1892. 


Sept. 
30, 1893. 


Sept. 

30, 1894. 


Sept. 
30, 1895. 


Sept. 

30, 1896. 


6 


13 




12 




9 




19 


9 


- 




13 




30 




22 


2 


- 




- 




- 




2 


- 


1 




1 




2* 




4 



27 or 72 $ 30 or 63 * 26 or 68 * 41 or 71 47 or 69/, 



4 or 10 f c 
7 or 18 $ 

1 



8 or 17 
5 or 11$ 
2 or 40 



3 or 8<f 

4 or 11$ 
4 or 110 
1 or 2 % 



6 or 10$ 5 or 70 

6 for 100 13+ or 17* 

1 or .02$ 1 or 1* 

3 or .05.0 1 or 10 
1 or .02/, - 



39 



2 or 

47 



40 



38 



58 



67 



* Both discharged for good conduct. 

t Four of these have been in Reformatory Prison for Women, present conduct unknown. 

% Including one recommitted by court and one runaway. 



24 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 





Appropriation 

allowed 

from Jan. 1 to 

Jan. 1. 


Average 

Number in 

School. 


Number of 

Com- 
mitments. 


Number 
at "Work in 
Families. 


Weekly 

Per Capita 

Cost. 


Total Actual 

Cost 
from Sept 30 
to Sept 30. 


1866, .... 


$20,000 


144 


59 


53 


$3 30 


$24,753 


1S76, 










28,300 


121 


53 


40 


4 05 


25,683 


1890, 










20,000 


94 


56 


90 


4 08 


20,000 


1891, 










21,000 


89 


46 


98 


4 38 


21,000 


1892, 










20,000 


89 


50 


118 


4 46 


21,329 


1S93, 










21,500 


95 


77 


109 


4 02 


19,856 


1894, 










25,385 


117 


78 


111 


3 49 


21,617 


1895, 










27,750 


116 


72 


120 


4 62 


28,801 


1896, 










27,775 


120 


86 


120 


4 17 


26,049 



Among the commitments to the school are a few children, 
in some cases as young as eight years old, who are very prop- 
erly sent there because their vicious experiences have made 
them a danger to other children, yet who often readily respond 
to the reformatory influences of the school and become fit for 
placing, and whom it is desirable to place out as soon as their 
minds are sufficiently purified. It was to meet the needs of 
such cases that an appropriation of $500 was asked last year, 
because unless boarded out these children might have to be 
kept in the school until they grew old enough or competent 
enough to earn their way at housework. Last summer two 
promising little girls of eleven were placed at board for $2 
a week and another of thirteen for $1 during school term, 
and with all these the boarding experiment is succeeding ad- 
mirably. Two older girls, one a deaf mute and the other of 
somewhat defective intellect, are also at board, but these do 
not seem to be profiting by the advantages of family life, and 
the trustees may decide to place them in almshouses. A small 
appropriation will be asked to carry on the boarding out work. 



The farm of one hundred and eighty-eight acres has yielded 
large crops of hay, vegetables and fruits. The families have 
thus been supplied with an abundance of fresh farm products. 

By the careful utilization of domestic fertilizers and by addi- 
tional purchase, the tilled land is being brought into a higher 
state of productiveness. 

The test of a year has shown that the new reservoir can be 
relied upon for an abundance of water for all needed purposes. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 25 

As asked for in our report of last year, $2,060 was granted 
for the extension of facilities for protection from fire. Addi- 
tional hydrants have been provided and a hose house has been 
built, where a hose carriage and needed appliances for putting 
out fires are quickly available in case of alarm. 

The $900 voted for a piggery has furnished a healthful dom- 
icile for our large swine family. 

The improvement of the sewage disposal of the school has 
been the subject of much thoughtful attention. With the kind 
advice of officers of the State Board of Health, satisfactory ar- 
rangements have been made. 

The average number of girls in the school was 120. The 
appropriation for salaries and expenses was $27,775. The 
total expenditure from Sept. 30, 1895, to Sept. 30, 1896, has 
been $26,049.86 and the average number 120, making a gross 
per capita cost of $4.17. Deducting $580.20, which was paid 
into the State treasury, the net per capita cost was $4.08. 

During the past twelve months an unusually large number 
of girls has been committed to this school, 86, nearly three 
times the number committed in 1880. Overcrowding is a se- 
rious hindrance to good work in such an institution, and it is 
possible that another cottage may be needed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. H. WALKER, Westborough, Chairman. 
ELIZABETH G. EVANS, Boston, Secretary. 
H. C. GREELEY, Clinton, Treasurer. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston. 
MICHAEL J. SULLIVAN, Chicopee. 
CHARLES P. WORCESTER, Newton. 
SAMUEL W. McDANIEL, Cambridge. 



26 



TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



TRUST FUNDS OF LYMAN AXD INDUS- 
TRIAL SCHOOLS. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

State Reform School, Lyman Fund. 
Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Lyman t Fund. 



1895. 

Oct. 1. 
2. 

Dec. 27. 

1896. 

Jan. 1. 

15. 

April 1. 

July 1. 

22. 

Alio;. 14. 



1895. 



Oct. 



Xov. 
Dec. 



21. 
24. 

30. 
16. 



1896. 

Jan. ( 



11. 



Dr. 



Balance former account, . 
Dividend Citizens 1 National Bank, 
Clinton Xational Bank, money borrowed, 
State tax refunded, .... 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 

Clinton Xational Bank, money borrowed 
Dividend Fitchburg Railroad, . 
Dividend Citizens" Xational Bank, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad 
Dividend Fitchburg Railroad, . 
Received from State Treasurer, 



Cr. 

Paid for Berlin Farm, 

Paid Wm, Bassett, surveying and making deed 

Agent's commission, 

John H. Cummings, .... 

Board of boys, ..... 

Xational Manufacturing Company, . 

Board of boy 

Recording deed, .... 



Board of boys, . 
Skates for boys, 
Sleds for boys, . 
Sundrv bills Berlin Farm, 



§1,211 99 

120 00 

5,000 00 

81 11 

286 00 

3,250 00 
m 00 
120 00 
286 00 
286 00 
181 00 

8,331 15 



§19,340 


25 


§5,000 


00 


15 


00 


250 00 


15 


09 


149 


45 


12 


00 


9 


00 


1 00 


409 


72 


51 


00 


10 


13 


2,318 


25 



Amount carried forward, $8,240 64 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



Amount brought forward, 



1896. 



Mar. 18. Sundry bills Berlin Farm, 

April 29. Sunday services Berlin Farm, 

June 27. Independence Day, . 

Aug. 14. Paid Clinton National Bank, 

24. Sunday services Berlin Farm, 

Sept. 16. Silver medal, 

Balance forward, . . 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved: M. H. "Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 





27 


?8,240 


64 


719 


71 


22 


00 


50 


00 


8,563 


72 


26 


00 


6 


00 


1,712 


18 


119,340 25 



State Reform School, Mart Lamb Fend. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 

1895. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance former account, 

Dec. 31. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 

1896. 

April 1. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
July 1. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 

§327 93 



1291 


93 


12 


00 


12 00 


12 


00 



Cr. 



Balance forward, 



8327 93 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 

C. P. "Worcester. 



Industrial School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 



1895. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance of former account, 

Oct. 2. Dividend Boston National Bank, 

Dec. 27. State tax refunded, . 

1896. 

April 1. Dividend Boston National Bank, 



§133 01 


26 


00 


16 


14 


26 


00 



§201 15 



23 



TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



1895. CR. 

Dec. 13. Christmas, 

1896. 

Mar. 20. Dr. O'Callaghan, 

May 8. Help to girl, 

June 27. Independence Day, . 
Balance forward, 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved: M. H. "Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



$30 00 



50 00 


11 43 


30 00 


79 72 



$201 15 



Industrial School, Fay Fund. 
Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Fay Fund. 

Dr. 



1893. 



Nov. 4. Interest Chelsea Savings Bank, 



$40 40 



1895. CR. 

Nov. 4. Mrs. L. L. Brackett for best girls,, 



$40 40 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
C. P. Worcester. 



Inventory of Lyman School Investments. 



Lyman Fund. 

143 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, 
92 shares Fitchburg Railroad stock, . 
40 shares Citizens 1 National Bank, 
1 $1 ,000 Old Colony Railroad bond, 
4 $1,000 Worcester Street Railway bonds, 
Deposit Monson Savings Bank, 
Deposit Ware Savings Bank, 
Deposit Palmer Savings Bank, 
Deposit Hampden Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Springfield Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Springfield Institution for Savings, 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Worcester County Institution for Sav 



Deposit Westborough Savings Bank, 
Deposit Amherst Savings Bank, . 

Amounts carried forward, 



Par Value. 

$14,300 00 
9,200 00 
4,000 00 
1,000 00 
4,000 00 
1,280 82 
1,301 10 
1,275 94 
1,268 16 
1,268 16 
1,148 68 
1,253 22 

1.246 86 
1,255 72 

1.247 75 



Market Value. 

$28,600 00 
6,900 00 
4,800 00 
1,050 00 
4,000 00 
1,280 82 
1,301 10 
1,275 94 
1,268 16 
1,268 16 
1,148 68 
1,253 22 

1.246 86 
1,255 72 

1.247 75 



$45,046 41 $57,896 41 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



29 



Amounts brought forward, . . 

Deposit Worcester Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Franklin Savings Institution, . 
Deposit Worcester North Savings Institution, 
Deposit Fall River Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Clinton Savings Bank, 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
C. P. Worcester. 



Par Value. 


Market Value. 


. $45,046 41 


$57,896 41 


1,240 94 


1,240 94 


541 20 


541 20 


541 20 


541 20 


540 47 


540 47 


1,082 42 


1,082 42 


1,712 18 


1,712 18 



$50,704 82 $63,554 82 



Mary Lamb Fund. 

6 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, . 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



$600 00 $1,200 00 
623 03 623 03 

327 93 327 93 



$1,550 96 $2,150 96 



Inventory op Industrial School Investments. 
Mary Lamb Fund. 

Par Value. Market Value. 

13 shares Boston National Bank stock, . . $1,300 00 $ 1,300 00 

Deposit Clinton First National Bank, ... 79 72 79 72 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



$1,379 72 $1,379 72 



Fay Fund. 
Deposit in Chelsea Savings Bank, 



$1,020 00 $1,020 00 



Sept. 30, 1896. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 

C. P. Worcester. 



Sogers Fund. 

One State of Maine 6 per cent, bond in custody 

of State Treasurer, . . . . . . $1,000 00 $1,000 00 



REPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS 



WESTBOROUGH. 



1895-96, 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

The average number present for the year ending Sept. 30, 1896, 
has been 7 per cent, greater than that for the preceding year. While 
the number of newcomers is not so great as last year by 21, yet the 
total for the two years, 311, is largely in excess of any other two 
consecutive years for a long time. Leaving out of account boys 
boarded, the number released to parents and to approved homes is 
8 per cent, greater than last year and 40 per cent, greater than the 
average of five preceding years. 

The average time spent in the school by those placed on probation, 
exclusive of boarded-out boys and those who have been tried on 
probation once before, is 21J months. The boarded-out boys spent 
an average of 4.4 months in the school. 

The percentage of boys recalled to the school from place has been 
considerably larger than in former years. This undoubtedly is clue 
in some measure to an increase in the rate of placing out, but the 
main cause is a more active and vigorous discipline exercised over 
these probationers, a discipline rendered possible by the recent legis- 
lation. Seventy-four individuals were brought back from probation. 
In 2 cases the offence was so serious that the culprits were transferred 
to the Massachusetts Reformatory ; in 35 cases the conduct was bad 
enough so that they are still detained in the school ; 2 were placed 
out again after a few weeks' detention ; and for the remaining 35 
the cause of recall was of such a nature that they were speedily 
placed out again. 

The work of visitation has been ably conducted and its results have 
been highly gratifying. Its relation to the internal work of the school 
has been eminently satisfactory. The Visitors have established an 
acquaintance with the boys previous to placing out which has not 
only been very helpful in fitting the- boy to his place, but important 
in maintaining an influence over him until he has become settled in 
his new surroundings. 

The current of life within the institution itself has been full and 
buoyant. Every department has seemed vigorous and successful. 



34 SUPT.'S EEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The subjoined reports of the heads of the various departments speak 
for themselves. The corps of officers and teachers have worked 
together harmoniously and enthusiastically. The swing of the school- 
room work has been fuller and stronger than ever. The manual train- 
ing has reached nearly every boy capable of taking the course with 
profit, who had not had it previously. A larger number than ever be- 
fore have been employed on labor about the institution, for the accom- 
plishment of which skilled mechanics have usually been called in. 
Nearly all repairs and betterments have been made wholly or in large 
part by the labor and skill of boys, under direction of officers of the cot- 
tages to which the boys respectively belong. In addition, a large 
hay and cow barn has been erected and completed, above the founda- 
tions, by boy carpenters under similar direction. It may fairly be 
said that the needs of the institution are being used as far as possible 
to serve the ends of education, and nothing by the doing of which 
a boy can be rendered more skilful and capable is turned over to 
hired mechanics. 

The new primary department at Berlin has now been open for 
eleven months. Only boys under thirteen years of age are placed 
there. Such a boy upon arrival at the school is examined, his history 
noted, and then he is taken with the least possible delay to the Berlin 
farmhouse. In no way does the boy come in contact with the boys or 
the life in the main institution. Aside from the fact that the distance 
precludes daily visits of the superintendent, and that therefore greater 
responsibility must be laid upon the cottage officers, this department is 
treated the same as any other cottage of the school. The officers con- 
sist of a manager and teacher, who is a woman, a man who is farmer 
and assistant to the manager, and a housekeeper. A telephone plant 
is about to be installed, connecting the cottage with the superin- 
tendent's office, thus obviating much of the present inconvenience due 
to distance. This widely separated family has this great advantage, 
that the younger boys committed to the care of the school may be 
there quietly and discriminatingly observed without contact with older 
boys, and those who seem of proper disposition may early be placed 
in some good family in the country, or, in case of unfavorable devel- 
opment, the boy returned to the main school for more rigid and 
thorough discipline. Forty- four boys have thus been treated, and it 
has been found necessary to return only 6 to the main school at 
Westborough. I subjoin the reports of the cottage manager and of 
the farmer, which will give additional details. 

The question most frequently asked of me by those whose interest 
in the work is greater than their knowledge of it is, " What part of 
these boys do you really reform?" and my uniform reply is, "I 
don't know." Reformation is like education, in that we can judge 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 35 

of it only indirectly by its apparent effects of available power in the 
individual. Our public schools give a deal of instruction, but educa- 
tion is quite another question. With the acquisition of knowledge 
usually comes mental power in varied degrees, and not necessarily at 
all in proportion to the amount of knowledge crammed in. 

The boys of the Lyman School are plied with every incentive which 
the combined ingenuity of its corps of workers can devise to induce 
normal will activity and the building up of correct ideals ; the mind 
is stimulated, the hand trained, the waking hours filled literally full 
with useful activity of mind and body, and withal a persistent effort 
is made to carry forward this activity until it results in fixed habits 
of mind and body. Now, to what extent this reform process is me- 
chanical and perfunctory can no more be determined by present con- 
duct than mental power can be determined by a written examination 
in arithmetic or geography, or spiritual regeneration by public profes- 
sion. Table No. 3, on p. 39, shows interesting facts; but I should 
hesitate to accept deductions based upon its percentages as of any 
great significance bearing upon the degree or kind of reformatory 
work done. When I read that 476 boys out of 670 are doing well, 
that 50 are lost sight of, while so many have gone behind the bars, 
I am thankful the record is no worse. When I read that, of boys 
who have been out two years, 63 per cent, are doing well and of those 
completing their twenty-first year before Oct. 1, 1896, 46 per cent, 
only are doing well, I recall that when eighteen years old the boy 
understands that he has wider liberties and I expect some to abuse 
them, and not until the youngster has passed through this trying 
period of adolescence and shown an incorrigible disposition to be an 
Ishmaelite, am I disposed to count him out of the list of potentially 
reformed. 

When it is seen, that out of the 144 boys committed this year, over 
one-third had intemperate parents, that two-thirds and more had been 
devoted to the deadening cigarette, that more than one-half had lost 
one or both parents or the parents had separated, that one-third came 
from families out of which some members had a police record, and 
add to this that over half were idle when they got into trouble, do 
you wonder that they are here, and will you wonder, when a year or 
two hence, they try again the freedom of our American society, if a 
large number, in spite of their training here, fail to win the approba- 
tion of their neighbors and employers? 

That the most serious want of Lyman School is a central school 
building, is a conviction rendered only stronger by the lapse of an- 
other year. The teaching force cannot be used economically with the 
present system of cottage school-rooms, and it compels the maintain- 
ing of a larger teaching force than is necessary. The attempt to main- 



36 SUPT.'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

tain a graded system necessitates the breaking up of the boys of each 
cottage into several groups, to go to as many different cottages to 
find their proper grade ; and this wastes valuable time, which must be 
robbed from their already too brief school hours or from the coveted 
short recreation period. Neither superintendent nor principal can 
render the efficient service to the schools which he ought, because of 
the loss of time and strength in going from one school-room to 
another, and also because of the impossibility of regrouping the boys 
of like grade occupying widely separated recitation rooms. It is pre- 
cisely like trying to run a graded school with the class rooms half a 
mile apart. It is an arrangement neither business-like nor sensible. 
If I were running the school as a business enterprise, I should regard 
such a disposition of my forces as extravagant and absurd. What- 
ever cogency an argument for cottage school-rooms may have once 
possessed has been overcome by the change wrought in conditions 
by the work of the past eight years. Over and above the benefit to 
the purely educational work of the school by the proposed change, 
the discontinuance of the cottage school-rooms would add a most val- 
uable auxiliary to the cottage life in the shape of a family sitting 
room for the boys. No such thing now exists. Boys cannot be 
taught to be home keepers and home lovers without learning how to 
use and enjoy in a suitable manner an hour that is not devoted to 
appointed tasks and duties ; and if such a thing is not taught here, 
one of the safeguards to their future is neglected, and the door of 
their future home left a little wider open toward the saloon. 

A gymnasium and playroom, however excellent for their purpose, 
carry no suggestion of a home sitting room, where the family gather 
for a little while every day to enjoy what each likes best, — reading 
or music or games or conversation. A school-room with its para- 
phernalia and associations is not calculated to leave any ideal in the 
boy's mind by which to guide his notion of home building by and by. 
If these cottages are not to be models, so far as the successful conduct 
of them will permit, of a home toward the possession of which the 
boy may aspire when he becomes a man, they signally fail at a vital 
point by neglecting the boy's social education. 

The so-called cottage or family plan in vogue in most reform 
schools in the United States is too much like a collection of small 
institutions on a somewhat modified plan of the old congregate 
school. This is not the fault of the so-called family idea, but of a 
failure to grasp its essential meaning, and devise a feasible plan of 
carrying it out acceptable to the tax payer. The sitting room is an 
appliance in the right direction, and when the size of the cottage is 
reduced to a capacity for twelve boys under two cottage officers only, 
and with separate sleeping room3 for the boys, we shall be a good 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 37 

deal farther on the road towards the ideal institution family than we 
are now ; and the running of an institution so organized need not be 
greatly, if at all, in excess of the expense of conducting the Lyman 
School at present. 

It may be deemed necessary, in view of the increase of the size of 
the school, to ask that another cottage be erected ; but I should much 
prefer considerable discomfort from overcrowding to longer going 
without so necessary an adjunct to the efficiency of the school as the 
central school building would be. 

The subjoined tables of statistics will be found to be somewhat 
enlarged from former years, and it is hoped by so much improved. 

Respectfully submitted, 

T. F. CHAPIN. 



38 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 1. 

Showing the Number received and released, and the General Condition 
of the School for the Tear ending Sept. 30, 1896. 

Boys in school Sept. 30, 1895, 264 

Received. — Since committed, . 144 

Returned from places, 73 

Recommitted, 2 

Runaways recaptured, 7 

Returned " boarded-out " boys, . . . .12 
Returned from State Almshouse, .... 1 

239 

Whole number in the school during the year, . . . . • *503 

Released. — On probation to parents, 87 

On probation to others, 96 

To Massachusetts Reformatory, .... 8 
Returned to court (over age) , .... 6 

Discharged as unfit subject, 1 

Runaways, 7 

Boarded out, .29 

To hospital, State Almshouse, Tewksbury, . . 1 

235 

Remaining in the school Sept. 30, 1896, 268 



Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number discharged and Average Number 

for Each Month. 



MONTHS. 



Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average No. 


13 


10 


267.16 


!3 


9 


269.00 


16 


5 


271.67 


17 


29 


270.93 


16 


15 


273.20 


23 


23 


270.87 


18 


33 


257.20 



October, . 

November, 

December, 

January, . 

February, 

March, . 

April, 



* This number represents 458 individuals. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



39 



Table No. 2 — Concluded. 



MONTHS, t 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average No. 


May, 


15 


30 


243.51 


June, 


25 


12 


248.20 


July, . . . . . . . 


32 


18 


262.67 ' 


August, . . ... . . 


33 


25 


272.83 


September, 


18 


26 


268.06 


Totals, 


239 


235 


264.61 



Table No. 3. 

A, Shoiving the Status of all Boys under Twenty-one ivhose Names 
were on the Books of the Lyman School Sept. 30, 1896. 

In the school, . 268 

Released from the school, but still subject to its control : — 

With parents (220 known to be self-supporting), . . 287 

With others, all self-supporting, 132 

For themselves, self-supporting, 38 

At board, 28 

Have been in penal institutions other than the Massachu- 
setts Reformatory, .23 

508 

Still legally in custody, but beyond practical control : — 
Lost sight of : — 

This year, 18 

Previously, ' . .32 

— 50 
Released to go out of State, . . . . . , .14 

Left the State, .13 

In United States Navy, . ( 1 

In United States Infantry, 1 

In State Almshouse, 1 

Massachusetts Reformatory (sent this year and in former 
years), *83 

163 



* Only 33 of these are now in the reformatory (3 of them on a second term) ; the 
remaining 50 have been released on ticket of leave, of whom 14 were recently known to 
be doing well, 1 is known to have gone to States Prison, 1 to Joliet Prison, Illinois, 
while nothing recent, i. e., within six months, is known of 34. 



40 STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Table No. 3 — Continued. 
Discharged from the care of the school : — 

Returned to court as over the age limit, , . . .13 

Discharged as unfit subjects, to parents, . . . .11 

Discharged as unfit subjects, to State Board of Lunacy and 

Charity, 2 

In Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, .... 4 

Dead (this year, 5 ; previously, 11), 16 

46 

985 

B. Showing Condition by Ages of all Boys outside the School, but 

Subject to its Custody. 
Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation up to Oct. 1, 1896 : — 

Doing well, 476 or 71 per cent. 

Not doing well, 9 or 1 per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 106 or 16 per cent. 

Out of State, . . 29 or 4 per cent. 

Whereabouts and condition unknown, . . . 50 or 8 per cent. 

Total, 670 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation one year or more : — 

Doing well, 334 or 66 per cent. 

Not doing well, 9 or Ik per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 97 or 19 per cent. 

Out of State, 26 or 5 per "cent. 

Whereabouts and condition unknown, ... 42 or 8£ per cent. 

Total, 508 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation two years or more : — 

Doing well, 254 or 63 per cent. 

Not doing well, 9 or 2& per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 80 or 20 per cent. 

Out of State, 21 or hh. per cent. 

Whereabouts and condition unknown, . . . 35 or 9 per cent. 

Total, 399 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
nineteenth year before Oct. 1, 1896 (114, or 96 per cent., have been out 
two years or more) : — 

Doing well, . . . . . . . 72 or 61£ per cent. 

Not doing well, 4 or 3£ per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 31 or 26 per cent. 

Out of State, 3or 2| per cent. 

Whereabouts unknown, 8 or 6£ per cent. 

Total, 118 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 



Table No. 3 — Concluded. 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
twentieth year before Oct. 1, 1896 (91 of whom, or 96 per cent., have 
been out three years or more) : — 

Doing well, . . . . . . . . 45 or 47 percent. 

Not doing well, . . . . . . . 2 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 27 or 29 per cent. 

Out of State, 7 or 7& per cent 

Whereabouts and condition unknown, . . 13 or 14£ per cent 

Total, . . . . ... . .94 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
twenty-first year before Oct. 1, 1896 (all have been out three years or 
more) : — 

Doing well, . 54 or 46 percent. 

- Not doing well, 4 or 3£ per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 41 or 35 per cent. 
Released to go out of the State, . . , . 2or 1| per cent. 
Lost track of, 

Doing well at last accounts, . , .11 

Not doing well, 6 

— 17 or 14 per cent. 

Total, 118 



C. Visitation of Probationers. 

Visits made by agents of the school, ...... 1,043 

Visits made by trustees, . 74 



1,117 



Of the 1,117 visits, 289 were to 198 boys over eighteen years 

old, 828 visits to boys under eighteen years old. 
Whole number of names on visiting list for the year, . . 625 

Investigations of homes by agents of the school, . . . 165 
Investigations of homes by trustees, 2 



Investigations of places by agents of the school, ... 26 
Investigations of places by trustees, ...... 13 

$ 1,175.87 have been collected for the accounts of 43 boys. 



167 



39 



42 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL, 



[Oct. 



Table No. 4. 

Showing the Commitments from the Several Counties the Past Year 

and Previously. 



COUNTIES. 



Past Year. 



Previously. 



Totals. 



Barnstable, 
Berkshire, 
Bristol, . 
Dukes, 
Essex, 
Franklin, . 
Hampden, 
Hampshire, 
Middlesex, 
Nantucket, 
Norfolk, . 
Plymouth, 
Suffolk, . 
Worcester, 
Totals', 



1 

2 
16 

1 
23 



48 

4 
3 

25 
17 



144 



55 

242 

626 

16 

1,090 

55 

435 

86 

1,269 

17 

461 

135 

1,468 

784 



56 

244 

642 

17 

1,113 

55 

439 

86 

1,317 

17 

465 

138 

1,493 

801 



6,739 



6,883 



Table No. 5. 

Showing Nativity of Parents of Boys committed during the Year, 

Fathers born in United States, 13 

Mothers born in United States, 14 

Fathers foreign born, 8 

Mothers foreign born, 6 

Both parents born in United States, ....... 27 

Both parents foreign born, . 51 

Unknown, .34 

One parent unknown, 23 

Per cent, of American parentage, 28 

Per cent, of foreign parentage, 40 

Per cent, unknown, 32 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



43 



Table No. 5 — Concluded. 
Showing Nativity of Boys committed during the Year. 

Born in United States, 

Foreign born (14 in Canada), 

Unknown, 

Total, 



115 

29 



144 



Showing Nativity of Parents of Boys committed during the Past Ten 

Years. 





3D 


* 

3D 
/ 


* 

3D 


o 
* 


* 


9t 

3D 


I I. 


w 

3D 

H 


* 

- 


Fathers born in United States, 


12 


29 


7 


7 


10 


12 


7 


15 


18 


13 


Mothers born in United States, 


7 


32 


13 


4 


10 


7 


8 


17 


11 


14 


Fathers foreign born, .... 


8 


63 


11 


5 


18 


5 


10 


9 


7 


8 


Mothers foreign born, .... 


13 


58 


9 


9 


5 


12 


8 


17 


25 


6 


Both parents born in United States, 


15 


20 


29 


22 


20 


22 


24 


18 


31 


27 


Both parents foreign born, 


43 


48 


71 


52 


53 


54 


70 


59 


61 


51 


Unknown, 


25 


13 


13 


11 


7 


23 


20 


32 


34 


34 


One parent unknown, .... 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


16 


19 


20 


25 


23 


Per cent, of American parentage, . 


23 


29 


35 


28 


29 


25 


23 


24 


29 


28 


Per cent, of foreign parentage, 


52 


64 


54 


60 


60 


50 


56 


50 


42 


40 


Per cent, unknown, .... 


25 


9 


11 


12 


11 


25 


21 


26 


29 


32 



Shoiving Nativity of Boys committed during the Past Ten Year 





3D 

/ 


3D 

3D 
3D 


3D 


9 
C 
3D 


3D 


3D 


ft <i is e 

a © s © 

3D 3D 3D j 3D 


Born in the United States, . 
Foreign born, . . . . 
Unknown, 


80 
13 


89 

10 


105 

17 

2 


77 
14 

1 


86 
23 


105 

19 

1 


110 
36 


110 130 

32 35 

2 


115 
29 



44 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 6. 
Showing by what Authority the Commitments have been made the Past 

Year. 



COMMITMENTS. 

B} r district court, .... 
municipal court, .... 
police court, .... 
superior court, .... 
trial justices, .... 
State Board of Lunacy and Charity, 

Total, 



Past Year. 



66 
19 
44 

4 
10 

1 



144 



Table No. -7. 
Showing the Age of Boys when committed. 



AGE. 



Committed 

during 
Past Year. 



Committed 
Previously. 



Totals. 



Six, . 

Seven, 

Eight, 



Nine, 
Ten, 

Eleven, . 
Twelve, . 
Thirteen, 
Fourteen, 
Fifteen, . 
Sixteen, . 
Seventeen, 
Eighteen and over, 
Unknown, 
• Totals, . 



1 

6 
15 

22 

35 

58 

4 

3 



144 



5 

25 
120 
235 

459 

672 

926 

1,222 

1,349 

956 

528 

181 

17 

44 



6,739 



5 

25 

120 

236 

465 

687 

948 

1,257 

1,407 

960 

531 

181 

17 

44 



6,883 



Average age of boys committed, 13. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



45 



Table No. 8. 
Showing the Domestic Condition of the 144 Boys who have been com- 
mitted to the School during the Year.* 

Had parents, 75 

no parents, 10 

father, 31 

mother, 27 

step-father, 13 

step-mother, 12 

intemperate father, . . . .52 

intemperate mother, 3 

both parents intemperate, 11 

parents separated, 15 

attended church, 139 

never attended church, 3 

never attended school, . — 

not attended school within one year, 24 

not attended school within two years, 6 

not attended school within three years, 6 

been arrested before, . . . . . . . . .81 

been inmates of other institutions, . . . • . . . .29 

used intoxicating liquor, 10 

used tobacco (mostly cigarettes) , 100 

Were employed in the mill or otherwise when arrested, . . .19 

Were idle, * . . .85 

Were attending school, 39 

Could not read or write, . . . 5 

Parents owning residence, 15 

Members of the family had been arrested, . . . . . .52 

* These facts are gathered for the most part from the boys' testimony. 



Table No. 9. 

Showing the Length of Time the 228 Boys * who have left the Past 

Year have spent in the School since committed. 



3 months or less, . . .30 


1 year 1 month, ... 1 


4 months, . 






5 


1 year 2 months, 






2 


5 months, . 








5 


1 year 3 months, 






5 


6 months, . 








7 


1 year 4 months, 






4 


7 months, . 








2 


1 year 5 months, 






8 


8 months, . 








1 


1 year 6 months, 






21 


9 months, . 








6 


1 year 7 months, 






12 


10 months, . 








3 


1 year 8 months, 






10 


11 months, . 








. 3 


1 year 9 months, 






13 


1 year, 








. 1 


1 year 10 months, 






. 11 



* This includes all who have left the institution, either on transfer to another institu- 
tion, on return to court or otherwise, as well as on probation. 



46 



STATISTICS LYMAK SCHOOL. 



[Oct, 



Table No. 9 — Concluded. 



1 year 11 months, 

2 years, 



2 years 1 
2 years 2 
2 years 3 
2 years -4 
2 years 5 
2 years 6 
2 years 7 
2 years 5 
2 years 9 
2 years 10 

2 years 11 

3 years, 



month, 

months, 

months, 

months, 

months, 

months, 

months, 

months, 

months, 

months, 

months, 



10 

8 

9 

11 



d years 
3 years 
3 years 
3 years 
3 years 
3 years 
3 years 
3 years 
3 years 
3 years 

3 years 

4 years 



1 month, 

2 months, 

3 months, 
■4 months, 

5 months, 

6 months, 

7 months, 

8 months, 

9 months, 

10 months, 

11 months, 
or more, 



Total, . 



1 
1 
2 

o 

1 

1 

3 
1 
1 

22S 



Average time spent in the institution, . 

Average time spent in the institution of boarded boys 



Average time spent in the in 
boarded, released for the firs 



titution of probationer: 
t time, .... 



not 



18.03 months. 
4.09 months. 



211 months. 



Table No. 10. 
Comparative Table, showing Average Numbers of Inmates and Xum- 

oer of New Commitments, etc., for a Period of Ten Years. 



Average ZSew Com- Returned Placed on Discharged 
Number. I mitments. Anv Cause. Probation. Otherwise.* 



1556-87, 


104.32 


93 


31 


80 


16 


1887-88, 








127.24 


99 


38 


91 


22 


1888-89, 








168.23 


124 


39 


93 


19 


1880-90, 








186.46 


92 


18 


89 


16 


1890-91, 








183.96 


109 


21 


99 


16 


1891-92, 








203.88 


125 


30 


120 


16 


1592-93, 








226.05 


146 


49 


122 


31 


1593-94. 








228.00 


142 


53 


124 


75f 


1894-95, 








246.73 


167 


79 


188J 


28f 


1895-96, 








264.61 


144 


88 


212§ 


16 


Average 


for t 


en yi 


iars, . 


193.95 


124.5 


44.6 


121.8 


25.5 



* This includes boys transferred to any other institution, returned to court, discharged 
as unfit subjects, runaways, etc. 

' The large number these two years was due to the fact that numbers of young boys 
were transferred to the State Primary School. 

J Eighteen of these were boarded. : Twenty-nine of these were boarded. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



47 



Table No. 11. 
Showing Commitments by Months for Ten Years. 





1887. 


1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


October, . 


17 


4 


16 


6 


8 


13 


17 


18 


18 


10 


November, 


8 


7 


13 


4 


5 


5 


12 


11 


9 


6 


December, 


2 


14 


15 


15 


2 


4 


13 


9 


7 


11 


January, . 


7 


3 


13 


5 


4 


13 


6 


16 


5 


9 


February, 


4 


7 


4 


3 


6 


7 


5 


8 


10 


7 


March, 


4 


5 


10 


8 


6 


10 


13 


16 


14 


15 


April, 


8 


2 


3 


8 


17 


5 


6 


9 


18 


10 


May, 


7 


11 


12 


10 


10 


12 


14 


15 


12 


9 


June, 


5 


13 


8 


7 


12 


15 


6 


13 


22 


13 


July, 


6 


9 


8 


5 


15 


17 


10 


4 


20 


23 


August, . 


15 


8 


13 


9 


14 


16 


17 


12 


16 


23 


September, 


10 
93 


16 


9 


12 


10 


8 


27 
146 


11 


16 


8 


Totals, 


99 


124 


92 


109 


125 


142 


167 


144 



Table No. 12. 

Offences with which Boys committed the Past Year have been 



charged. 



Assault, 

Breaking, entering and larceny, 

Burglary and larceny, 

Larceny, 

Embezzlement of bicycle, 

Stubbornness, 

Burning, 

Setting fires, . 

Vagrancy, 

Total, . 



3 

32 

2 

63 

1 

30 

3 

3 

7 

144 



48 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 13. — Some Comparative Statistics. 

A. Showing the Average Age of Boys released on Probation for the 

Past Ten Years. 



1887, . 


. 15.56 


1892, . 


. 15.63 


1888, . 


. 14.96 


1893, . 


. 14.81 


1889, . 


. 15.17 


1894, . 


. 14.94 


1890, . 


. 15.1 


1895, . 


. 15.49 


1891, . 


. 15.48 


1896, . 


. 15.17 



B. Showing the Average Time spent in the Institution for the Past 

Ten Years. 



1887, 


. 17.82 months. 


1892, . 


. 22.1 months. 


1888, 


. 17.58 months. 


1893, . 


. 19.4 months. 


1889, 


. 17.3 months. 


1894, . 


. 16.95 months. 


1890, 


. 18.38 months. 


1895, . 


. 21.17 months. 


1891, 


. 22.6 months. 


1896, . 


. 18.03 months.* 



Shorter average is due to the number of young boys boarded out. 



C. Showing the Average Age of Commitment for Past Ten Years. 



1887, . 


. 13.56 


1892, . 


. 13.73 


1888, . 


. 12.92 


1893, . 


. 13.39 


1889, . 


. 13.07 


1894, . 


. 13.87 


1890, . 


. 13.15 


1895, ... 


. 13.44 


1891, . 


. 13.89 


1896, . 


. 13.63 



D. Showing the Number of Boys returned from Place for Any Cause 

for Ten Years. 



1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 



27 
34 
20 
14 
21 



1892, 
1893, 
1894, 
1895, 
1896, 



30 
35 
33 

60 

87 



1896 ] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



49 



Table No. 14. 

Report of the Sewing Room for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1896. 



Articles made. 


Articles repaired. 


Aprons, 126 


Aprons, 29 


Coverings, 






6 


Awnings, 






6 


Coats, 






52 


Blankets, 






6 


Dusters, . 






29 


Braces, . 






96 


Dish towels, . 






71 


Bands on hats, 






30 


Holders, . 






22 


Caps, 






40 


Napkins, 






197 


Coats, 






100 


Night shirts, . 






2 


Curtains, 






1 


Mattresses, 






24 


Drawers, 






3 


Pillow ticks, . 






19 


Draughted patterns 


? 




6 


Pantaloons, . 






661 


Flags, . 






2 


Pillow slips, . 






297 


Horse blankets, 






2 


Spreads, . . 






3 


Jackets, . 






20 


Strips for labels, 






40 


Mittens, . 






5 


Sheets, . 






355 


Mattresses, 






3 


Shirts, . 






1,155 


Napkins, 






46 


Table cloths, . 






73 


Pantaloons, . 






533 


Towels, . 






297 


Pillow slips, . 






72 


White aprons, 






5 


Sheets, . 






80 


White jackets, 






21 


Shirts, 






425 






Spreads, . 






8 




3,455 


Slippers, 
Table cloths, . 
Towels, . 






12 
21 
15 
















1,556 



Average number of boys employed in sewing room, 
Number of different boys employed, . 



5.38 
14* 



Laundry Work for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1896. 

Number of pieces washed, 262 650 

Number of pieces ironed, 203 061 

Number of pieces starched, 21358 

Average number of boys employed in laundry work, ... ' 34.7 

Number of different boys employed, 108 * 

* As this work is not educational, no boy is so employed exclusively. 



50 PRINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



EEPOET OF PKINCIPAL OF SCHOOLS. 



To the Superintendent of Lyman School for Boys. 

It has been said that it is easier to wear an old coat than a new one, 
because it becomes adjusted to the form of the person. So, many 
teachers prefer to follow along in well-beaten paths rather than to 
attempt any new line of work. However, I have not found this to be 
the case with our efficient corps of teachers. On the contrary, they 
have always seemed ready cheerfully to undertake any change of sub- 
ject, to make use of improved methods of teaching, and to adopt any 
system* which tends to stimulate the boys to greater effort, to higher 
ambitions and to loftier, nobler purposes. Hence, although the same 
subjects as of the preceding year have been pursued, they have not 
become threadbare; for each teacher has "adopted, adapted and 
used with skilful individuality the best methods that the profession 
has developed in the matter of instruction. " As a result, in every 
department of the school work a very commendable spirit has been 
manifested on the part of the boys ; there have been increased interest 
and more earnest work, followed by far greater advancement than in 
previous years. Especially is this true of the higher classes, showing 
that as the mind is trained the memory is strengthened, and the 
power to comprehend language and grasp thoughts is greatly in- 
creased. At the close of the school year forty boys were prepared 
for promotion to the Advanced A Class, — the largest number in that 
class at any time since I have been connected with the school. 

We are encouraged and cheered at times by the fact that some of the 
boys, but recently inmates of our school, have done so well since they 
went from here. One, who was considered by no means a bright, 
good boy, has continued his studies till he is now attending a high 
school, and has an ambition to prepare for the legal profession. An- 
other, on returning to his home in Boston, at once entered the Latin 
school. During the last few months of his stay here he was directed 
in the study of Latin so that he pursued it during play hours, and, 
with an occasional recitation and frequent criticisms of his written 
work, he made fair progress. This instruction and its value to him 
he appreciated sufficiently to send a letter of thanks soon after he 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 51 

entered the Latin school. He also expressed his intention of taking 
a college course in the future. Though these cases represent only a 
minority, yet all such stimulate us to redouble our efforts to lead those 
under our care in right paths, to instil into their minds loftier am- 
bitions, to broaden their mental horizon and to teach them lessons of 
good morals and purity, having full confidence that the foundation 
work begun here will bear much good fruit in the future. 

Even greater effort than heretofore has been made to teach the boys 
to read intelligently, and to interest them in books containing useful, 
ennobling thoughts expressed in choice language. The fact that 
many boys who enter the school cannot read at all, or but very 
poorly, renders it extremely difficult for them, in their comparatively 
short stay here, to learn to read well. Their vocabulary, except of 
street jargon, is very limited ; so that only those engaged in this 
work can appreciate the difficulties with which both boy and teacher 
have to contend. 

The enthusiasm of the boys in the study of insects has not seemed 
to wane in the least during the past year. Many specimens have 
been added to the already large collection made and mounted. 

The interest in drawing has seemed rather to increase than to di- 
minish. This has been noticed especially in the color work and original 
designing. One has said that "Picturing is one of the simplest ex- 
pressions of the imagination, and the exercise of imagination lies at 
the root of all our intelligence and our creative arts." Believing this, 
we aim to give the boys perfect freedom in illustrating and designing, 
while we simply guide them in the exercise of the imaginative faculty. 

The specimens of penmanship shown at the close of the year were 
very creditable, convincing me that each boy had striven to improve. 

As usual, we have observed the various holidays of the year with 
appropriate exercises, which in every instance have been educational 
in their character, and the boys have entered into them with a zest 
beyond our expectations. 

During the greater part of the year literary and musical exercises 
were rendered in the chapel every Wednesday evening, which proved 
very profitable and pleasant to the members of the school. So great 
was their enthusiasm that every boy was desirous to take some part, 
and each week they gladly memorized some selection given and 
recited it in concert. In addition, about one hundred and fifty selec- 
tions were committed and recited by as many different persons. 
These were all of a nature to aid greatly in moulding the thinking 
and reading of subsequent life and be helpful in the formation of 
character. Of these fully a hundred were u adapted to the awaken- 
ing and strengthening of a deep and lasting love of country and an 
enthusiastic devotion to American institutions." Many of the officers 



52 PRINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

also kindly took part in these exercises, thus increasing the interest 
and teaching the boys by example. 

Of the number, 144, committed to the school the past year, 2 could 
hardly speak or understand English, 3 could not read and 5 could 
neither read nor write ; while 42 entered the D Class, 42 the C, 41 
the B, 14 the A and 5 the Advanced A Class. 

While we have not accomplished all that we wished, yet we believe 
that some advancement has been made in the right direction, and 
that the future will reveal results for which, in our weak faith, we 
hardly dare hope. We can only sow the seed, water and tend care- 
fully ; God must give the increase. 

Respectfully submitted, 

MARY L. PETTIT, 

Principal. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 53 



EEPOET OF INSTRUCTOR OF SLOYD. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

One thousand and sixteen names have been enrolled in the Sloyd 
record books since its introduction seven years ago. Counting the 
boys admitted since, and those in the school at the time Sloyd was 
introduced, I find 1,109 boys. Allowing for 44 that have gone to 
the primary department at Berlin the past year, and as many more 
new boys who have not been in the school long enough, besides a 
few incapable ones, it will be seen that almost every boy who has 
attended Lyman School has had the opportunity for this training. 

The plan of the past year has been similar to that of the previous 
year. Working drawings have preceded the Sloyd work, and so 
helpful are they that the boys prefer to make their own drawings 
rather than to work from dictated directions. After the drawing has 
been made, only a glance now and then is necessary to give the boy 
a perfect understanding of the successive steps. There have been 
412 two-hour lessons given; 149 boys have been in attendance and 
48 are in the room at the present time. 

One boy completed the entire course, and made seven pieces of 
extra work, among which was a small table ; 65 completed twenty- 
seven of the thirty-one models and 21 finished twenty-five of the 
same total. Of the remaining 14 boys, 4 went away, 6 lost the class 
by reason of sickness, 1 from inability, 1 transferred to another 
department and 2 had had the work before coming to the school. 

During the year not a boy belonging to the Sloyd classes has 
attempted to escape from the school. 

I still believe individual instruction yields the best results ; but 
" greatest good to greatest numbers" calls for class work here, and 
my individual work is carried on in any spare moment as I go about 
the room. In testing a class of 50 who had no instructions as to the 
proper position of the hand for grasping the knife to whittle, only 5 
grasped the knife correctly, binding the thumb over the fingers, thus 
showing the very limited knowledge of tools the boys have with 
which to begin. The course involves the use of 47 tools and repre- 
sents 72 different exercises. 



54 SLOYD REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The exercises of Sloyd are so varied that mental activity upon the 
part of the boy is always required. If he relaxes his care, he soon 
awakens to fiud his plans marred, and the model bearing his mental 
image and reflecting it so vividly that he cannot avoid the object les- 
son about himself. Again, if a boy has drawn a coat hanger, and, 
by using forethought, carries out his plan, he realizes that he has a 
power within himself which gives birth to hope and courage for the 
future. Thus the hand training becomes intellectual training, teach- 
ing the boy how to think. 

Those boys who have never been taught obedience find difficulty 
with Sloyd, but gradually yield to its demands. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ANNA L. WILCOX, 

Teacher. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 55 



REPORT OF INSTRUCTOR OF ADVANCED 
MANUAL TRAINING. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

Since the report of last year (1895) 32 boys have entered and 
completed the course in advanced manual training, which consisted 
of twenty-four models in carpentry and wood turning, also eighteen 
models in forging, — the last four being of steel, in order that they 
may derive an understanding of tempering and the difference between 
working iron and steel. The boy completes this entire course in 
twenty-two weeks, devoting four hours a week each to wood turning, 
carpentry and mechanical drawing, and eight hours to forging, allowing 
him time (in the wood work) for his drawings from which he makes 
his model. In the forging he is provided with a blue-print from 
which to make his model. 

Each exercise is finally developed into a complete object. This 
affords the boy the opportunity of producing a useful as well as 
sometimes ornamental piece of work upon the completion of his 
model. This also affords him considerable in the educational line, 
as, having some definite object in view, he is stimulated to attain the 
completion of this object by steady, earnest and interested applica- 
tion, and thus to advance. We value this educational part even 
more than the work exhibited. 

It might be stated here that, although we do not claim to send 
forth a boy fully qualified to enter upon the carpentering and forging 
trades, yet, in several cases during the past year, boys have left 
Lyman School and are now succeeding in their work in this line. 

Aside from the regular class work, the boys have turned on the 
lathes 150 mortise pins, 80 pieces for the ornamentation of posts, 
75 staging bracket bolts, door pull and latches, pipe hooks and 
various minor pieces now in use at the new barn. They have also 
furnished the bakery with a fire tool rack of wrought iron, newly 
pointed and sharpened pickaxes, and ground and repaired the lawn 
mowers used at the different houses. The latter has been done by 



56 MANUAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

the boy in charge of the boiler and engine, and mention might be 
made of a blue-print drawing case made by this same boy. 

During the past year we have received the very helpful addition of 
a power grindstone and an emery wheel. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES D. LITTLEFIELD, 

Instructor of Advanced Manual Training. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 57 



EBPORT OP THE INSTRUCTOR OF THE 
CLASS IN PRINTING. 



To the Superintendent of the the Lyman School for Boys. 

The past twelve months have been fruitful of some satisfaction on 
our part and a good degree of progress on the part of the boys. 

The effect of our influence, example, teaching, for good or ill upon 
the future lives of those in our care is a mighty matter, ever present 
in our mind, and demands our most careful consideration, for we all 
know that good boys, good men, good citizens are of far more im- 
portance to the home, the State and the country than good printing. 

A new blocking machine has been put into the office, which is not 
only a convenience but enables us to furnish the school with blocks 
of paper at a less price than they can be bought ready made, and also 
to use up odd sizes of paper that could hardly be used to print on. 

There has been considerable printing done during the past year, 
and no doubt the printing office is a very convenient auxiliary 
to the school. There are five boys at present in the printing office. 
One, a small boy, is also in the class in manual training two 
hours each day. It takes all of the time of this boy to keep the 
office in good shape and sort over type, print wrappers and assist in 
mailing the u Enterprise." Another boy, perhaps the largest in the 
institution, who was put into the printing office on account of his 
muscle, turns the crank on the cylinder press, sets up the Sunday- 
school lessons in two versions, prints and distributes the type, and 
sometimes prints the chapel service. Another boy does most of the 
small job printing, directs the wrappers and mails the " Enterprise/' 
with some assistance, and distributes the jobs when printed. This 
leaves us two boys to set and distribute the type on the " Enter- 
prise," and they sometimes assist in the printing and mailing of 
the paper also. 

Eight hundred copies of the paper are printed at each issue. Every 
boy in the school has a copy to read, after which it is sent to his 
home or to some friend, as he may direct. 



58 PRINTING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Simple and unpretentious as our work may seem to some, it is no 
easy matter to edit and print such a paper as is expected of us ; still, 
we love the work, and are trying to do the best we can under the 
circumstances. 

Twelve boys in all have been in the printing office since Oct. 1, 
1895, and we believe the experience and training have been a help to 
them ; while the paper has been a welcome visitor to the hundreds of 
other boys in the school, and much appreciated by many outside of 
the school. 

Thanking you, sir, for all your kindness, we most respectfully 
submit this report. 

M. E. HOWARD, 

Teacher of Printing. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. : 



PHYSICAL TEALyrVGr DEPARTMENT. 



Totkt - :perintendeni :/ : '-.-. 1. ■-. ■ 8 : ;r Boys. 

Gymnastic lessons have been gi^en five lays _ tto luring forty 
weeks of the past year. The teacher was engaged in special duties 
for the school during the twelve wee ks —hen gymnastics ^ere not 
taught, with the exception of two weeks' vacation. In all about 
sixteen hundred lessons have been given, representing nearly two 
hundred changes of programme, — a new lesson for nearly every lay 
Instruction is given :: sigh! :■'_ asses every afternoon and evening, the 
exercise occupying twenty :: twenty-five minutes. There are on an 
average thirty-one boys in each daw 

The arrangement, which was spoken of brief - in my last report, 
places the teacher in a position where he comes in contact with every 
boy every day. so that the slight-s: change for better or worsr is 
easily detected. Physically the boys are this year in much better 
condition than a year ago. ~^V_s: may be the cause does not appear. 
The change from city :: sountiy life, the diet, the open-air exercise, 
the physical training, constant oversight, — all these work together 
for good. 

The gymnastic drill which is used here Bonsists ::' free movements 
on the floor and apparatus work in all but fcwc schools, — hich 
demands the contraction and relaxation of every muscle to its fullest 
extent, from the muscles of the ankle joint to those of the ne:k. 
The movements in an exerc ise follow T?.ch other in the order followed 
teachers ;: Swedish drill, which has been outlined in a prev::~s 
report. The whole scheme may be described brief y : — 

Use eve ■: ::'-: :; i:s ' '.'.-is: -. :-. :. For ir.s:ar:o-e. :ir :rf.er is 

given, "Arms upward stretch!" This means to extend ::t arms 
perpendicularly upward until the highest point is readied, by :om- 
plete extension of elbo~. wrist and finger jo:z:s. 

Uat y necessary mus: ■'.->. Avoid bending the body forward, 
backward or sideways, :r in any way changing its position while 
:::::::.:: :_e movemei: ieseribed abc~r 

Use > ~ : -. : ;:.;-- ;:";. The :.rr_:s ':e:zg in 7-:s::::z :: :l_e siiies. 
the order is ^iven. "Arms sidewavs i__^ - _.:_ r_;..i? :_;.: tie 



60 PHYSICAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

firms are to assume a position horizontally sideways, at right angles 
to the position of the body, as quickly as possible. If more than 
sufficient power is used, the arms are carried higher than was in- 
tended by the pupil. Herein lies the meaning of the phrase, " Gym- 
nastics teach self-control." By a constant endeavor to use only 
necessary power in assuming any position is this achieved, and in 
many cases to a limited extent only. 

This is the basis upon which the teacher is working, — not to teach 
a certain number of movements, but to train the energies to their highest 
development witfi as much suj-jjIus of power as possible. 

The general effect is a better appearance of the schools when they 
are assembled together. Interested visitors speak of the improve- 
ment in marching, which is due to more individuality and less of the 
machine. • 

The special effect may be seen in a few cases of boys with local 
weaknesses who have wonderfully changed by application of massage 
treatment, in addition to personal attention of Dr. Corey, all under 
his direction. Gymnastics have done much for our boys, and can 
still do more. 

Fourth of July games were arranged by the teacher, and, while 
they afforded amusement for all, very good work was done by those 
who took part in the races. 

In closing this, my fourth annual report, I must thank you and the 
masters for most hearty support in carrying on the work. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALLISTON GREENE, 

Teacher. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 18. 61 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

In the year ending at this date, 835 prescriptions have been made 
for boys with minor ailments as out-patients. 

The hospital has been occupied 955 clays by 76 different boys, mak- 
ing an exceptionally high average confinement, which is accounted for 
by a number of chronic cases and the precautionary detention of those 
recovering from contagious diseases. 

Throat troubles were most numerous, 31 ; indigestion, 17 ; sores, 8 ; 
accidents, 8 ; neuralgia, 6 ; synovitis, 3 ; eczema, 3 ; abscess, 2 ; con- 
junctivitis, 2 ; and 20 other disorders furnished 1 case each. Of these 
last appendicitis seemed to threaten one boy's life, and Dr. Homer 
Gage of Worcester was summoned, who removed the offending organ 
and the patient recovered. A case of scarlet fever gave considerable 
anxiety for a time, but the boy got well and the disease did not 
spread. One boy is still suffering from chronic hip disease, who has 
been in the hospital 166 days ; he will probably be an invalid for the 
next two years. 

Since the school was established on its present location, throat 
diseases, especially tonsillitis, have been exceedingly common. Many 
cases have been severe enough to excite temporary alarm and raise 
the question whether they were not genuine diphtheria ; but, as all 
recovered without serious effects, we became confident in our diag- 
nosis. In October 7 cases occurred, which was unusual for that 
month, and, though none were fatal, there were features in the con- 
valescence of some not usually observed, which excited suspicion. 
A request was made that all boys afflicted with sore throats be sent 
to the hospital on the first complaint, and the nurse was directed to 
apply active treatment at once. Those who came improved so rapidly 
that a positive diagnosis could not be made by inspection alone, there- 
fore cultures from several throats were submitted to bacteriological ex- 
amination, and the diphtheria bacillus found in 6. Reviewing the 
cases which occurred in the first three months of the year in the light 
of subsequent developments, there are reasons for believing that 10 
boys were infected by diphtheria. That all recovered without grave 



62 PHYSICIAN'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

symptoms or serious after-effects, unaided by antitoxin, was due, in 
my judgment, to the early use of both local and general antiseptics. 

To illustrate the difficulty of distinguishing diphtheria from tonsil- 
litis by inspection in the early stages, I will relate that two throats 
were tested by bacteriological examination the same day ; the one 
having by far the gravest symptoms was pronounced tonsillitis, while 
the other, having a very mild appearance, was certified diphtheria. 

A thorough and systematic disinfection of all the houses was done 
with the kindly co-operation of the Boston health department. Imme- 
diately the effect was apparent, and from that day to this there has 
been no sign of diphtheria, and only six short and mild cases of 
pharyngeal and tonsillar disease. 

Trying as was our experience, if it serves to impress the importance 
of early treatment and thorough disinfection, we can only be thankful 
for it. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. E. COREY, 

Physician. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



63 



EEPORT OF THE MANAGER OF BERLIN" 
FARM-HOUSE. 



To the Superintendent. 

We trust that this first report of the primary work at Berlin 
Farm will demonstrate the wisdom of the trustees in making such a 
work possible. 

Disconnected as we are from the main school, and isolated, so far 
as neighbors are concerned, we have been able to give our boys 
nearly the same freedom that a farmer would give his own sons. 
Most of these boys are from city homes, and they have found this 
farm home, with its orchards of fruit trees and its fields of grass 
and flowers, very attractive. As soon as the first feeling of home- 
sickness had been conquered, they quickly identified themselves with 
the place, became interested in its industries, and warmly attached 
to the numerous pets which the boys have been allowed to gather 
about them. Not until a boy feels at home do we consider him 
really ready for the home influence with which he is here surrounded, 
and from which we expect so much in the way of reformation. 

Since Nov. 1, 1895, 44 boys have been placed with us. Of those, 
18 are still here. There were : — 



Received. 


Dismissed. 


3 


- 


6 


2 


5 


1 


2 


- 


5 


3 


2 


1 


2 


3 


3 


4 


8 


1 


5 


4 


3 


7 



Retained. 



November, 

December, 

January, 

February, 

March, . 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, . 

September, 



3 

7 
11 
13 
15 
16 
15 
14 
21 
22 
18 



<34 FARM-HOUSE REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Of the 25 dismissed, 6 are now in the Lyman School at West- 
borough. 5 have been returned to their homes and 14 are in boarding 
places. 

Average time of detention of all boys dismissed, . . 106 days. 
Average rime of detention of boys placed out or re- 
turned to their homes, 117 days. 

Average time of boys now here 84 days. 

Whole number of boys received, 44 

Having the children so short a time, the apparent results from 
work in the school-room must necessarily be small. Especial atten- 
tion has been paid to reading and orthography, and by making use 
of histories for reading books and frequent reference to our maps, 
globe and the world of nature around us, a great deal of information 
has been gained on many subjects. The morning session of one and 
one-half hours has been given to this work and the afternoon session 
of two hours devoted to language and arithmetic, which we have 
endeavored to make thorough and practical. 

Our evenings have been spent in the boys' sitting room. Quiet 
games were played by those who were so disposed, and good use has 
been made of our large library of interesting books. All were ready, 
however, to leave games and books at sound of the piano. We 
think no hour of the day has been more enjoyed by the boys or more 
helpful to them than this last hour, given to song and praise, with a 
word of thanks to Him who now, as of old, blesses little children. 

Our school being small in number (at no time numbering more 
than 23), we have found it possible to get very near the hearts of 
our boys : and, while endeavoring to quicken the intellectual facul- 
ties, we trust we have stimulated a healthy moral growth. 

Our thanks are due to you for the confidence and trust reposed in 
us, as shown by placing no hindrances in the way of carrying out our 
plans, yet being ever ready with counsel and encouragement when 
needed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

EMILY L. WARNER. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



65 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



1895. 


— October, received from the State Treasurer, 




$5,447 16 




November, 


tt tt < 








4,380 05 




December, 


(t tt ( 








8,019 32 


1896. 


— January, 
February, 
March, 
April, 
May, 
June, 
July, 
August, 
September, 


tt it ( 

l< It l 
(C Ct t 

«( 41 t 

tt tt « 
it it t 
tt tt t 
tt tt t 
tf tt i 








4,994 59 
4,502 62 
.6,302 79 
5,234 75 
3,551 71 
6,518 40 
6,046 45 
4,058 34 
4,737 30 






163,793 48 




Bills paid 


as per Vouchers at the State Treasury. 


1895. 


— October, 


$5,447 16 




November, 


4,380 05 




December, 


8,019 32 


1896. 


— January, 


. . 4,994 59 




February, 


4,502 62 




March, . 


6,302 79 




April, 


5,234 75 




May, 


. . . . . . . . . 3,551 71 




June, 


6,518 40 




July, 


6,046 45 




August, . 


4,058 34 




September, 




4,737 30 




$63,793 48 




Amount drawn from State Treasury. 




Special Appropriation {Acts of 1895, Chapter 37), 


1895. 


— October, . 


$1,292 74 




December, 


2,420 45 


1896. 


— January, 


1,336,75 




March, . 


1,798 21 




April, 


1,244 81 




June, 


559 37 




July, 










798 81 



$9,451 14 



6$ FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Special Appropriation {Acts of 1896, Chapter 76). 

1896. — April $600 38 

July, 675 19 

$1,275 57 
Expenditures. 
Bills paid as per Vouchers at the Stale Treasury for Special Appropriation 



1896. 



October, 


$1,292 74 


December, 


2,420 45 


January, . . . 


1,336 75 


March, 


1,798 21 


April, 


1,244 81 


June, 


559 37 


July, 


798 81 



$9,451 14 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
{Acts of 1896, Chapter 76). 

1896. — April, $600 38 

July, 675 19 



$1,275 57 



Expenditures for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1896. 



Salaries of officers and employees, . 
Wages of others temporarily employed, 



$25,332 66 
1,385 58 



$26,718 24 



Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Ammonia, $5 50 

Butter, 1,044 31 

Brawn, 20 33 

Beef, 1,619 79 



Beans, .... 

Biscuit, 

Bath brick and sand, . 

Board of annex officers, 

Boiled cider, 

Blacking, . 

Bovinine, . 

Brushes, 

Corn meal, . 

Crackers, . 

Cheese, 

Celery, 



324 31 


15 


4 15 


53 99 


2 75 


2 40 


2 00 


3 10 


45 20 


50 50 


232 59 


2 64 



Amounts carried forward, 



$3,413 71 $26,718 2^ 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT 

Amounts brought forward, 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 
Coffee, . 
Cereal coffee, 
Cream tartar and soda 
Cocoa, . 
Candles, 
Cranberries, 
Corn starch, 
Candy, 
Curry, . 
Eggs, . 
Extracts, 
Flour, . 
Fish, . 
Fowl, . 
Fly paper, . 
Fruit and canned goods, 
Farina, 
Gelatine, 
Greens, 
Honey, 
Horse radish, 
Ice, 

Ice cream, . 
Insect powder, 
Lard, . 

Lobsters and clams, 
Mutton, 
Molasses, . 
Maple syrup, 
Milk, . 
Macaroni, . 
Malt, . 
Nuts, . 
Oatmeal, 
Oysters, 

Olive oil and oliv 
Onions, 

Pork and hams, 
Potatoes, 
Pepper, 

Paper and bags, 
Pearl barley, 
Rye flour, . 
Raisins, 

Amounts carried forward, 



No. 18. 67 

. $3,413 71 |26,718 24 



103 55 




52 26 




20 14 




34 41 




2 40 




14 50 




5 50 




13 75 




80 




125 18 




19 30 




. 1,286 75 




401 58 




145 63 




10 22 




433 77 




3 50 




17 15 




72 




90 




10 




327 04 




1 50 




1 50 




109 13 




1 62 




123 29 




369 65 




11 40 




201 06 




4 25 




2 00 




75 




44 90 




75 12 




8 93 




3 50 




78 39 




108 50 




4 20 




20 85 




1 00 




30 40 




15 30 




$7,650 10 


$26,718 24 



G8 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, .... $7,650 10 $26,718 24 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Rice, 50 75 

Sausage, 31 31 

Sugar, . . 470 14 

Salt, . 29 35 

Spices, . . 17 59 

Soap and soap powder, 228 06 

Starch and bluing, 17 40 

Stove polish, 5 76 

Split peas, . 65 88 

Sulphur, 2 99 

Sage, 30 

Shredded wheat 5 00 

Sundries (lunches), 5 27 

Tripe, 9 25 

Tea, 47 79 

Twine, . 3 40 

Veal, 9 00 

Vinegar, 1 00 

Wheatlet, 27 66 

Wheaten flour, 565 00 

Yeast, 116 58 



Furniture, beds and bedding — 

Agate ware, $ 55 16 

Ash barrels and sifters, 12 77 

Brooms and brushes, 140 46 

Baskets, . . 2 63 

Butchers' linen, ....... 7 99 

Blankets, 187 75 

Bean pots, - . . 6 90 

Bellows, . . . . . . ' . . 1 50 

Chairs, 126 58 

Coal hods, 2 25 

Cutlery 47 87 

Crockery, 87 59 

Coffee mill, 75 

Carpet paper, . . . . ... 7 50 

Celluloid, 1 20 

Casters, ........ 1 70 

Electric lamps, 68 35 

Glass ware, . . . . . . . 10 67 

Iron ware, . . 39 66 

Jar rubbers, 32 

Laundry boards, ....... 11 13 



9,362 58 



Amounts carried forward, . . . . $820 73 $36,080 82 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 69 

Amounts brought forward, .... $820 73 $36,080 82 

Furniture, beds and bedding — 

Lanterns, , 3 38 

Lamp wicks and chimneys, . . . 2 54 

Leather edging, 70 

Mirrors, 6 00 

Mattress repairs, 9 41 

Mattress pads, 19 43 

Mattress, 9 10 

Mouse traps, 5 25 

Molasses gate, 35 

Mosquito netting, 3 56 

Picture wire, 75 

Picture frames, 45 05 

Picture knobs, 25 

Refrigerators, . . . . . . . 65 83 

Rubber blankets, 30 00 

Rugs, carpets and linoleum, .... 194 15 

Rope, 1 02 

Stove furniture, 28 15 

Silver and plated ware, 3 76 

Shears, combs and brushes, .... 63 78 

Spreads, 26 40 

Sheeting, . . 119 25 

Scales, . 1 75 

Sewing machine needles, 11 05 

Soap dishes, 1 75 

Sad-iron handles, . . . . . . 1 25 

Tables, 28 50 

Tin and copper ware, 86 52 

Thermometers, 5 35 

Towels and napkins, 116 28 

Ventilating heater, 12 50 

Wooden ware, 65 81 



Clothing — 

Aprons, f 1 80 

Armlets, . 2 74 

Buttons, 50 97 

Blouses, 20 44 

Blacking, 3 00 

Braid, 05 

Cotton shirting, 86 66 

Coats, pants and jackets, 27 00 

Cassimere, 536 49 

Collars, 4 43 



1,789 60 



Amounts carried forward, . . . $733 58 $37,870 42 



70 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amounts brought forward, 



$733 58 $37,870 42 



Clothing — 

Cutting, making and trimming suits, 

Carpenters 1 aprons 

Denim, 

Darning cotton, 

Duck, . 

Drilling, 

Doe skin, . 

Extension cases, 

Elastic, 

Flannel, 

Gum tissue, 

Handkerchiefs, 

Hats and caps, 

Hospital gowns, 

Indelible ink, 

Laundry, 

Mittens, 

Needles, 

Neckties, 

New blue suits, 

Overcoats, . 

Stockings, . 

Shoe laces, 

Silesia, 

Suspenders, 

Shoes and repair 

Sample suit, 

Shirts (outside), 

Suits (outside), 

Taffeta, 

Tape, . 

Ties, . . . 

Thread, 

Underclothing, 



School supplies — 
Arithmetics, 
Bibles, 

Binding books, 
Book slates, 
Black board, 
Colored paper, 
Compasses, 
Dictionary, . 



Amounts carried forward, 



388 87 


1 80 


233 38 


2 18 


6 55 


3 12 


25 75 


87 30 


93 


82 11 


38 


33 37 


228 20 


1 80 


8 35 


20 70 


55 44 


34 


62 29 


179 68 


137 60 


84 16 


14 24 


3 55 


75 50 


1,617 81 


4 15 


109 56 


954 49 


2 12 


08 


88 


35 19 


104 45 


k oqn on 




$3 75 


64 80 


78 67 


3 65 


17 00 


10 80 


22 73 


8 50 


§209 90 $43,170 32 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



Amounts brought forward, 

School supplies — 

Drawing material, 

Drawing paper, . 

Entertainments, . 

Geographies, 

Histories, . 

Ink wells and covers, 

Ink, . 

Lead pencils, 

Library paper, . 

Miscellaneous books, 

Music, 

Mucilage, . 

Maps, . 

Manilla paper, . 

Manual training (Sloyd), 

Manual training (advanced). 

Paint brushes, and paint, 

Pens and penholders, 

Paper and envelopes, 

Penmanship paper, 

Readers, 

Rubber erasers, . 

Rulers, 

Spelling blanks, . 

School-room desks and chairs, 

Thumb tacks and fasteners, 



Ordinary repairs — 
Asphalt floor, 
Brushes, 

Brass, lead, tin, copper, 
Boiler repairs, 
Beeswax, . 
Blacksmithing, 
Brick, . 
Belting, 
Bolts, . 

Building paper, 
Blasting powder, 
Cement, 
Curtain rods, 
Chalk line, . 
Closets, 
Concreting, 

Amounts carried forward 



No. 18. 71 

. |209 90 $43,170 32 



2 80 


100 15 


9 60 


112 68 


37 32 


7 20 


5 20 


17 25 


12 48 


52 54 


5 24 


4 20 


9 00 


62 50 


264 30 


229 47 


76 72 


13 52 


24 62 


12 00 


139 83 


3 00 


12 00 


7 50 


129 80 


1 80 


$628 32 


7 34 


8 20 


72 25 


38 38 


32 03 


82 10 


1 00 


2 77 


5 84 


75 


104 70 


36 


59 


7 64 


39 49 



1,562 62 



$1,031 76 $44,732 94 



72 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, . . . . $1,031 76 $44,732 94 

Ordinary repairs — 

Calcined plaster, 20 

Chair tips, 50 

Charcoal, 90 

Casters, ........ 75 

Disinfecting, . 70 13 

Door check, 4 00 

Electric door opener, 4 00 

Eave trough, . 20 08 

Fire escape, 65 63 

Funnel, 2 00 

Flower pot, 1 75 

Fire brick, r 3 60 

Flag poles, 3 50 

Glue and cement, . . . . . . 7 13 

Glass, putty and points, 17 19 

Galvanized iron, 4 66 

Grinding knife, ........ 2 55 

Grafting wax, 44 

Grates, 21 25 

Hardware, . 15 17 

Insect powder, • 3 25 

Iron, .. 37 74 

Labor, 210 74 

Lumber, 628 53 

Locks, butts and hooks, . . . . . 135 59 

Linseed oil, 125 92 

Lubricating oil, 10 50 

Liquid disinfectant, 20 00 

Lime, 9 25 

Lasts, 5 96 

Lawn mower, 25 35 

Mortar, 3 00 

Marline, 40 

Mica, 25 

Neatsfoot oil, 3 30 

Nails, brads and screws, 51 64 

Oil of vitriol, 4 15 

Paints, • . . 188 29 

Pipe and fittings, 340 99 

Picture cord and knobs, 3 22 

Plumbing at main building, . . . . 243 00 

Plumbing material, 145 37 

Posts, 1 00 

Pine tar, 60 



Amounts carried forward, .... $3,475 23 $44,732 94 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



Amounts brought forward, 

Ordinary repairs — 

Packing, .... 

Repair of buggies and sleighs, 

Repairs of telephone, 

Repairs of harness, . 

Repairs of electric light, 

Repair of furniture, 

Repair of heel dies, 

Repair of hose, . 

Repair of stoves, 

Repair of house utensils, 

Repairing slate, 

Rivets, 

Rope, . 

Rubber tubing, . 

Rope for elevator, 

Sal soda, 

Small tools, 

Sash cord, . 

Sinks, . 

Sand and emery paper, 

Staples, 

Sash and doors, 

Shellac, 

Sand, . 

Screen doors, 

Turpentine, 

Tarred paper and naih 

Tuning pianos, 

Tin ware, 

Twine, 

Tin foil, 

Varnish, 

Whiting, 

Wire screen 

Wicks, 



No. 18. 


73 


. |3,475 23 


$44,732 94 


36 




130 27 




19 01 




42 85 




117 68 




7 01 




6 62 




1 00 




10 55 




62 35 




. 31 97 




70 




1 96 




90 




4 25 




8 00 




222 54 




60 




12 14 




12 29 




70 




33 50 




4 40 




4 20 




7 25 




133 10 




25 81 




2 00 




9 00 




20 




2 00 




4 00 




5 87 




13 32 




08 


A 41 3 71 



Fuel and lights — 

Coal, . $5,367 82 

Charcoal, . . . . . . . . 1 05 

Electric lights, 1,869 07 

Kerosene oil, 39 52 

Wood, 6 00 



7,283 46 



Amount carried forward, 



|56,430 11 



74 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amount brought foYward, 



$56,430 11 



Seeds, plants and fertilizers — 
Flower seeds and bulbs, . 
Fertilizers, .... 
Grass seed, 
Garden seeds, 
Plants and shrubs, 
Seed corn, .... 
Trees, 

Grain and meal for stock — 

Bran, 

Cracked corn, 
Corn meal, .... 
Corn, ..... 
Condition powder, 
Cabbage seed, . 
Fine feed, . . . 
Gluten, .... 
Grit, . . . . . 

Hay, 

Insect powder, . 

Linseed meal, 

Middlings, .... 

Mixed feed, 

Oats, ..... 

Oat feed, .... 

Oyster shells, 

Quincy feed, 

Rye, 

Rock salt, .... 
Straw, .... 

Wheat, .... 

Institution property — 
Democrat wagon, 
Fire extinguishers, 

Flags, 

Flag staffs, .... 
Horse blankets, . 
Harness, . . 
Ladders, .... 
Oil cover, .... 
Police badges, . 
Rubber hose, 

Skates, .... 
Watchmans' clocks, . 

Amount carried forward, 



So 69 




810 70 




137 36 




72 60 




137 65 




7 10 




10 35 






1,181 45 




810 63 




8-1 05 








4 25 




4 25 




40 




150 20 




278 99 




2 30 




23 97 




50 




91 49 




33 00 




6 80 




276 12 




64 10 




5 80 




15 00 




60 




67 




23 52 




53 35 






1,224 24 




144 00 




72 00 




39 75 




8 00 




76 50 




5 46 




2 50 




4 80 




182 25 




5 10 




109 00 






723 57 








$59,559 37 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 75 

Amount brought forward^ .... . . $59,559 37 

Transportation and travelling expenses — 

Express and freight charges, . . . $590 89 

Travelling expenses, 782 16 

1,373 05 

Live stock purchases, 340 75 

Farm fcools and repairs to same, 651 25 

Horse and cattle shoeing, 86 04 

News, Sunday-school and waste papers, 258 34 

Postage, telephone, telegraph and phonograph, . . . 494 37 

Drugs and medical supplies, 207 45 

Printing material, '. 200 69 

Stationery, 137 06 

Water, ■.'...... 430 00 

Raw material, . . .......' 21 11 

Rent, . 5 00 

Burial, . . . ... . , . . . . 29 00 

|63,793 48 



76 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



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78 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Superintendent' s 


Report of Cash Transactions. - 


- Receipts. 






Farm 


Miscel- 










Produce 
Sales. 


laneous 
Sales. 


Labor 
of Boys. 


Totals. 


1895. 












October, .... 


Received cash from, . 


$24 73 


$13 90 


$14 38 


$53 01 


November, .... 





37 10 


- 


1 50 


38 60 


December, .... 


<• •< <• 


1 75 


- 


63 14 


64 89 


1896. 












January, 




<« 


15 78 


26 42 


2 55 


44 75 


February, 




' 


25 95 


- 


85 


26 80 


March, . 




„ m 


- 


6 78 


14 58 


21 36 


April, . 




" " . 


1 00 


3 60 


217 28 


221 88 


May, 




... .. . 


90 56 


9 46 


5 35 


105 37 


June, 




.I c< <t 


42 35 


- 


80 37 


122 72 


July, 




" " " . 


1 75 


58 


24 47 


26 80 


August, 




" •« • 


68 31 


1 25 


1 80 


71 36 


September, 







7 10 


2 70 


27 58 


37 38 


Totals, 


$316 38 


$64 69 


$453 85 


$834 92 



Superintendent's Report of Cash Transactions. — Disbursements. 






Farm 

Produce 

Sales. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
Sales. 


Labor 
of Boys. 


Totals. 


1895. 












October 


Paid State Treasurer, 


$24 73 


$13 90 


$14 38 


$53 01 


November, .... 


K ii it 


37 10 


- 


1 50 


38 60 


December, . 


«i ii ii 


1 75 


- 


63 14 


64 89 


1896. 












January, .... 


<« 


15 78 


26 42 


2 55 


44 75 


February, .... 


i. 


25 95 


- 


85 


26 80 


March, 


ii <i ii 


- 


6 78 


14 58 


21 36 


April, 


„ i, i, . 


1 00 


3 60 


217 28 


221 88 


May 


., ,. .. , 


90 56 


9 46 


5 35 


105 37 


June, . 


ii ii ii 


42 35 


- 


80 37 


122 72 


July, . 


. 


1 75 


58 


24 47 


26 80 


August, .... 


i. ii ii 


68 31 


1 25 


1 80 


71 36 


September, .... 


ii <i n 


7 10 


2 70 


27 58 


37 38 


Totals, .... 


$316 38 


$64 69 


$453 85 


$834 92 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 79 



FAEMER'S REPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

I respectfully submit the following report for the year ending Sept. 
30, 1896. 

A very pleasant and successful year for us has just ended. Our 
crops have all been good and our fruit crop especially heavy. 

We have for a long time badly needed more suitable farm buildings, 
and now we seem in a fair way to obtain what we need. A new barn 
which will furnish ample and healthful accommodations for seventy- 
two cows has just been finished, and there is good prospect of our 
soon having a much-needed piggery and hen houses. In order to put 
only perfectly healthy cows into the new barn it was necessary to dis- 
pose of several and replace with new ones. About fifteen or twenty 
cows are still needed to bring the number of our herd up to what it 
should be. 

Much team work has been done in preparing for the foundation of 
the new building and in grading about it. Another pair of horses is 
really needed in order to do the large amount of team work required, 
or, if it is not thought best to have a pair, one horse could be used to 
good advantage for drawing in green crops for the cattle, for planting, 
cultivating, etc. 

I am well satisfied from my observations the past year that we could 
use considerable commercial fertilizer as top-dressing for grass, profit- 
ably ; but in order to use it economically we should have a machine for 
broadcasting it evenly. 

In conclusion, I wish to thank all for the kind support and assist- 
ance I have received. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. S. GRAHAM, 

Farmer. 



80 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



KEPORT OF THE FARMER AT BERLIN 
FARMHOUSE. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School. 

Taking into consideration that this branch was a new feature in 
every line, I think the boys have made a very good showing. 

The unavoidable delay in settling, together with the clearing up of 
the rubbish and arrangement of fixtures, took us well into the winter. 
Spring opened with lawns and roads in a bad condition, but by 
earnest and faithful work we have succeeded in improving the gen- 
eral appearance of the place. We were fortunate in having a very 
fine gravel pit on the farm, from which the boys drew no less than 
two hundred loads for the filling in of the driveways. The boys did 
all the work in connection with the spring planting, with the excep- 
tion of the ploughing, and also the haying (fifteen tons), with the 
exception of mowing. 

The crops have been good, considering the exceedingly dry 
weather. We have had an abundance of pease, beans, radishes, 
corn, tomatoes, etc., for table use, besides cucumbers enough for 
several barrels for winter use. We have dug and pitted one hundred 
and fifty bushels of potatoes, ten bushels of beets, cabbage, squash, 
etc., for winter use. 

A large asparagus bed was laid out in the spring, strawberries and 
blackberries planted, also pear, plum, quince and cherry trees 
started. The apple orchards, of about three hundred trees, have sup- 
plied eating apples since early August. The apples are particularly 
fine flavored, as is all fruit grown on the farm. The melon patch 
has been a great delight to the boys, musk-melons, cantaloupes and 
water-melons being raised in great abundance. Blueberries have 
been very plentiful ; besides all we could eat and can, more than ten 
bushels were picked ; some sent to Lyman School, five dollars worth 
exchanged for fireworks at Fourth of July. 

Aside from the regular farm work, a pond has been drained and 
dug out for the purpose of finding running water. This work was 
very hard for the boys, especially such little ones, but it was both 
well and cheerfully done. 

This being our first year, we hope to add much to our reports for 

future years. 

Respectfully submitted, 

IRA G. DUDLEY, 

Farmer. 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



81 



Summary of the Farm 


Account for the Twelve Months ending 


Sept. 30, 1896. 




Dr. 




Live stock, agricultural implements and farm 




products on hand, as appraised Sept. 30, 1895, f 8,239 28 




Board, .... fl9H| 288 90 




Farm tools and repairs, 










341 60 




Fertilizers, 










810 70 




Grain and meal, 










. 1,007 76 




Horse and cattle shoeing, 










71 08 




Labor of boys, . 










392 50 




Live stock purchases, 










340 75 




Ordinary repairs, _ . 










2 57 




Seeds and plants, 










261 75 




Wages, . . . 










886 87 




Water, 










20 00 








$12,663 76 




Net gain for twelve months, . 


1,077 83 




$13,741 59^ 


Cr. 




Asparagus, . . . . . ' . . $1 80 




Apples, 














57 38 




Beef, . 














110 32 




Beets, 














15 76 




Beet greens, 














5 00 




Blackberries, 














37 20 




Cash for pigs, . 














21 00 




Cash for fowl, . 














12 33 




Cash for pickles, 














30 72 




Cash for calves, 














20 00 




Cash for asparagus, 














138 11 




Cash for turnips, 














50 




Cash for carrots, 














1 50 




Cash for hides, . 














12 53 




Cash for onions, 














18 70 




Cash for tallow, 














8 00 




Cash for blackberries, 












16 14 




Cash for strawberries, 












37 85 




Cabbage, .... 












44 30 




Currants, . 














50 16 




Carrots, 














4 16 




Cucumbers, 














36 92 




Celery, 














8 85 




Cauliflower, 














9 08 





Amount carried forward, 



$698 31 



82 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amount brought forward, . - . . . $698 31 

Eggs, 246 76 

Fowl, 77 22 

Grapes, 58 00 

Labor for institution, 1,041 71 

Lettuce, . . . 30 84 

Milk, 2,237 48 

Musk melon, 8 05 

Onions, 86 60 

Pork, 312 56 

Potatoes, 93 39 

Pease . . . 118 20 

Radishes, 55 00 

Rhubarb, . 6 74 

Raspberries, 19 92 

Strawberries, . 109 00 

String beans, 28 88 

Sweet corn, " . 105 10 

Shell beans, ........ 42 76 

Summer squash, 14 75 

Turnips, . . . 6 55 

Tomatoes, 38 13 

Watermelon, 9 70 

Winter squash, 27 50 



Live stock, agricultural implements and farm 
produce on hand Sept. 30, 1896, , 



$5,473 15 



8,268 44 



Apples, 

Beans, 

Beets, 

Barley, 

Corn, 

Cucumber 

Cabbages 

Carrots, 

Celery, 

Citron, 

Ensilage, 

Fodder, 

Grass seed 



Produce of the Farm on Hand Oct 



$429 75 


Hay, English, 


4 00 


Hay, meadow 


53 40 


Hay and oats, 


25 00 


Onions, . 


41 60 


Potatoes, . 


1 78 


Parsnips, . 


81 71 


Pop corn, 


195 00 


Pumpkins, 


109 00 


Straw, 


4 00 


Squash, . 


910 00 


Turnips, . 


45 00 




25 60 





1, 1896. 



$13,741 


59 


$688 50 


257 


50 


187 00 


71 


00 


262 


70 


60 50 


12 


00 


12 


50 


15 


00 


56 


50 


221 


00 


$3,770 04 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



83 



Farm Sales. 



Asparagus, 
Blackberries, 
Calves, . 
Carrots, . 
Fowl, 
Hides, 
Onions, . 



$138 11 
16 14 
20 00 
1 50 
12 33 
12 53 
18 70 



Pigs, 

Pickles, . 
Strawberries, 
Turnips, . 
Tallow, . 



$21 00 


30 72 


37 85 


50 


8 00 



$316 38 



Live Stock. 



Bull, 

Cows (21), 
Calves (4), 
Ducks (7), 
Fowl (155), 
Heifers (2), 
Hogs (18), 
Horses (4), 
Horse "Jerry, 



$75 00 


1,125 00 


48 00 


3 00 


97 50 


50 00 


122 00 


500 00 


60 00 



Horse " Charlie," 
Horse " Tiger," 
Pigs (5), . . 
Pullets (140), . 
Roosters (109), 
Shoats (14), . 



$100 00 
70 00 
20 00 
84 00 
54 50 
84 00 

$2,493 50 



Summary. 

Produce on hand, $3,770 04 

Produce sold, 624 68 

Produce consumed, 4,848 47 

Live stock, 2,493 50 

Agricultural implements, 2,004 90 



$13,741 59 



Poultry Account. 
Dr. 
To fowl and feed as appraised Sept, 30, 1895, . . $160 86 

feed, 131 36 

net gain, 277 47 



$569 69 



Cr. 

By eggs used, 1104 dozen, $246 76 

fowl used, 448 pounds, 77 22 

fowl sold, 12 33 

fowl and feed as appraised Sept. 30, 1896, . . 233 38 

Average number of hens kept, 

Profit per hen, 



$569 69 

120 
$2 31 



84 



SUMMARY LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



SUMMAEY OF PKOPERTY OF THE LYMAN 

SCHOOL. 



Sept. 30, 1896. 

Real Estate. 
Forty-eight acres tillage land, 
Thirty-six acres pasturage, . 
Wilson land, seventy-two acres, 
Brady land, three-fourths of an acre, 
Willow Park land, one and one-half acres, 
Berlin farm land, 95 acres, 



$11,200 00 
1,900 00 
4,100 00 
1,300 00 
1,500 00 
2,000 00 



Buildings. 

« Wayside Cottage," f 5,500 00 

Superintendent's house, 9,500 00 

" Theodore Lyman Hall," 38,000 00 

" Hillside Cottage," . . . " . . . 15,000 00 

" Maple Cottage," 3,500 00 

» Willow Park Cottage," 5,600 00 

" Oak Cottage," . . . . . . . 16,000 00 

" Bowlder Cottage," ...... 17,000 00 

Berlin farmhouse, 2,500 00 

Berlin farm barns, 1,000 00 

Chapel, 3,700 00 

Bakery building, 8,000 00 

Forge and wood-turning shop 500 00 

"Willow Park Hall," 150 00 

Horse barn, 2,000 00 

Hay and cow barn, 11,000 00 

Store barn, . . 200 00 

Personal Estate. 

Beds and bedding, $2,936 43 

Other furniture, . 15,29193 

Carriages, 978 50 



$22,000 00 



139,150 00 



Amount carried forward, 



$19,206 86 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 85 

Amount brought forward, .... $19,206 86 

Agricultural implements, ..... 2,004 90 

Dry goods, . 1,417 46 

Drugs, medicines and surgical instruments, . . 437 50 

Fuel and oil, 2,256 02 

Library, 2,494 01 

Live stock, 2,493 50 

Mechanical tools and appliances, .... 7,893 18 

Provisions and groceries, . . . . . 1,671 93 

Produce on hand, 3,770 04 

Ready-made clothing, 7,367 48 

Raw material, ....... 888 37 

51,901 25 



$213,051 25 



PRESCOTT G. BROWN, 
JOHN H. CUMMINGS, 

Appraisers. 
A true copy. Attest : T. F. Chapin, Supt. 
Westborough, Sept. 30, 1896. 



SQ 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct, 



LIST OF SALAKIED OFFICERS NOW EM- 
PLOYED. 



Theodore F. Chapin, superintendent, . 

Mrs. Maria B. Chapin, matron, 

Walter M. Day, assistant superintendent, 

Mrs. Gertrude B. Day, amanuensis, 

Mr. and Mrs E. A. Pierce, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Meserve, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Mason, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Wilcox, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. F. U. Wetmore, charge of family 

Mr. and Mrs. I. T. Swift, charge of family, . 

Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Pettengill, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Lounsberry, charge of family, 

Annie L. Vinal, teacher, 

Emma F. Newton, teacher, . 

Avis Antill, teacher, 

Carrie Dana, teacher, 

Maude L. Gates, teacher, 

Marion L. Cole, teacher, 

Laura B. Gilpatrick, teacher, 

Flora J. Dyer, teacher, . 

Mary L. Pettit, principal, 

Anna L. Wilcox, teacher of Sloyd 

James D. Littlefield, supervisor of manual training (boards 

himself), .... 
Alliston Greene, teacher of physical drill, 
M. Everett Howard, teacher of printing, 
Mrs. Edith Howard, nurse, . 
Fannie S. Mitchell, seamstress, 
Mary E. Greeley, assistant matron, 
Susie E. Wheeler, assistant matron, 
Sarah E. Goss, assistant matron, . 
Jennie E. Perry, assistant matron, 
Mabel G. Moore, assistant matron, 
Mabel B. Mitchell, assistant matron, 
Margaret J. Ord, assistant matron, 
Pearl G. Smith, assistant matron, . 
Mrs. Hannah M. Braley, housekeeper superintendent's house, 



$2,000 00 


400 00 


800 00 


300 00 


800 00 


800 00 


800 00 


800 00 


800 00 


800 00 


800 00 


800 00 


300 00 


400 00 


250 00 


400 00 


350 00 


250 00 


250 00 


350 00 


700 00 


700 00 


1,000 00 


800 00 


400 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 


250 00 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



87 



Aarorr R. Morse, charge of storehouse, $500 00 

Mrs. Emma M. Howe, charge of bakery, 300 00 

James W. Clark, engineer, 900 00 

Albert R. King, carpenter, 400 00 

Charles S. Graham, farmer (boards himself) , 700 00 

George M. Ross, teamster, 300 00 

John H. Cummings, truant officer, 500 00 

John T. Perkins, driver, 400 00 

John E. Goddard, watchman, . . • . . . . . 400 00 

Mrs. Emily L. Warner, charge of Berlin Cottage, . . . 600 00 

Mr. and Mrs. Ira G. Dudley, assistants at the Berlin Cottage, . 650 00 

Francis E. Corey, physician, ........ 300 00 






88 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct, 



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1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 89 

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90 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



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1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



91 



SUPEKINTENDESTTS. 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES 




Date of 
Retirement. 




1848, 


William R. Lincoln, . 










1853. 




1853, 


James M. Talcott, 










1857. 




1857, 


William E. Starr, . 










1861. 




1861, 


Joseph A. Allen, 










1867. 




1867, 


Orville K. Hutchinson, 










1868. 




1868, 


Benjamin Evans, 










May, 1873. 


May, 


1873, 


Allen G. Shepherd, . 










Aug., 1878. 


Aug., 


1878, 


Luther H. Sheldon, . 










Dec, 1880. 


Dec. 


1880, 


Edmund T. Dooley, . 










Oct., 1881, 


Oct., 


1881, 


Joseph A. Allen, 










April, 1885. 


July, 


1885, 


Henry E. Swan, 










July, 1888. 


July, 


1888, 


Theodore F. Chapin, . 










Still in office, 



92 



TRUSTEES LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



TRUSTEES. 



Names, Residences, Commissions and Retirement of the Trustees of 
the State Reform School, from the Commencement to the Present 
Time. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Residence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1847, 


Nahuni Fisher,* . . . | Westborough, . 


1849 


1847, 


John W. Graves, . 




Lowell, . 


1849 


1847, 


Samuel Williston, 




Easthampton, . 


1853 


1847, 


Thomas A. Green,* 




New Bedford, . 


1860 


1847, 


Otis Adams,* 




Grafton, . 


1851 


1847, 


George Denney,* 




Westborough, . 


1851 


1847, 


William P. Andrews,* 




Boston, . 


1851 


1849, 


William Livingston,* 




Lowell, . 


1851 


1849, 


Russell A. Gibbs,* 




Lanesborough, 


1853 


1851, 


George H Kuhn . 




Boston, . 


1855 


1851, 


J. B. French,* . 




Lowell, 


1854 


1851, 


Daniel H. Forbes, 




Westborough, . 


1854 


1851, 


Edward B. Bigelow,* 




Grafton, . 


1855 


1853, 


J. W. H. Page,* . 




New Bedford, . 


1856 


1853, 


Harvey Dodge, . 




Sutton, 


1867 


1854, 


G. Howland Shaw,* 




Boston, 


1856 


1854, 


Henrv W. Cushman,* 




Bernardston, . 


1860 


1855, 


Albert H. Nelson,* 




Woburn, . 


1855 


1855, 


Joseph A. Fitch, . 




Hopkinton, 


1858 


1855, 


Parley Hammond, 




Worcester, 


1860 


1856, 


Simon Brown, 




Concord, . 


1860 


1856, 


John A. Fayerweather 




Westborough, . 


1859 


1857, 


Josiah H. Temple, 




Framingham, . 


1860 


1858, 


Judson S. Brown, 




Fitchburg, 


1860 


1859, 


Theodore Lyman, 




1 Brookline, 


1860 


1860, 


George C. Davis,* 




Northborough, 


1873 


1860, 


Carver Hotchkiss, 




Shelburne, 


1863 


1860, 


Julius A. Palmer, 




Boston, 


1862 


1860, 


Henry C nickering, 




Pittsfield, 


1869 


1860, 


George W. Bentley, 




Worcester, 


1861 


1860, 


Alden Leland, 




Holliston, 


1864 


1861, 


Pliny Nickerson, . 




Boston, 


1868 


1861, 


Samuel G. Howe,* 




Boston, 


1863 


1862, 


Benjamin Boynton,* 




W'estborough, . 


1864 


1863, 


J. H. Stephenson, 




Boston, 


1866 


1863, 


John Ayres, 




Charlestown, . 


1867 




* ] 


3eceas< 


jd. 





1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



93 



Names, Residence, etc., of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Residence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1864, 


A. E. Goodnow, . 


Worcester, 


1874 


1864, 


Isaac Ames, .... 


Haverhill, 


1865 


1865, 


Jones S. Davis, . 


Holyoke, . 


1868 


1866, 


Joseph A. Pond,* 


Brighton, . 


1867 


1867, 


Stephen G. Deblois, 


Boston, . 


1878 


1868, 


John Ayres, 


Medford, . 


1874 


1868, 


Harmon Hall, 


Saugus, . 


1871 


1868, 


L. L. Goodspeed, . 


Bridgewater, . 


1872 


1869, 


E. A. Hubbard, . 


Springfield, 


1877 


1871, 


Lucius W. Pond, . 


Worcester, 


1875 


1871, 


John W. Olmstead, 


Boston, 


1873 


1872, 


Moses H. Sargent, 


Newton, . 


1877 


1873, 


A. S. Woodworth, 


Boston, . 


1876 


1873, 


Edwin B. Harvey, 


Westborough, . 


1878 


1874, 


W. H. Baldwin, . 


Boston, . 


1876 


1875, 


John L. Cummings, 


Ashburnham, . 


1879 


1876, 


Jackson B. Swett, 


Haverhill, 


1878 


1877, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester, 


1879 


1877, 


Milo Hildreth,* . 


North borough,. 


1879 


1878, 


Lyman Belknap*, 


Westborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Franklin Williams,* . 


Boston, 


1879 


1878, 


Robert Couch, 


Newburyport, . 


1879 


1879, 


John T. Clark, . 


Boston, . 


1879 


1879, 


M. J. Flatley, 


Boston, 


1881 


1879, 


Adelaide A. Calkins, . 


Springfield, 


1880 


1879, 


Lyman Belknap, . 


Westborough, . 


1884 


1879, 


Anne B. Richardson, . 


Lowell, . 


1886 


1879, 


Milo Hildreth,* . 


Northborough,. 


1891 


1879, 


George W. Johnson, . 


Brookfield, 


1887 


1879, 


Samuel R Heywood, . 


Worcester, 


1888 


1880, 


Elizabeth C. Putnam, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1881, 


Thomas Dwight, . 


Boston, 


1884 


1884, 


M. H. Walker, . 


Westborough, . 


Still in office. 


1884, 


J. J. O'Connor,* . 


Holyoke, . 


1889 


1886, 


Elizabeth G. Evans, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1887, 


Chas. L. Gardner, 


Palmer, . 


1891 


1888, 


H. C. Greeley, 


Clinton, . 


Still in ofiice. 


1889, 


M. J. Sullivan, . 


Chicopee, 


" « 


1891, 


Samuel W. McDaniel. . 


Cambridge, 


CI tt 


1891, 


C. P. Worcester, . 


Boston, 


it tc 



* Deceased. 



94 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



EEPOKT OF THE SUPEKINTENDENT OF 
VISITATION. 



To the Trustees of Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

The report of last year, written, as it was, after less than three 
months of actual work, could hardly be more than a prospectus defin- 
ing principles and lines of operation. We are able this year to 
report definitely and in detail, and respectfully submit the same to 
your honorable Board. 

By reference to the report of the superintendent of the Lyman 
School you will notice on page 39 that 717 is given as the number of 
boys under twenty-one years of age in custody outside the school ; 
but analysis of this number will show that 159 of these were classified 
as died, discharged, inmates of other institutions, out of the State or 
in the army or navy, leaving the number of boys for which this depart- 
ment is responsible 558. Of this number, 50 boys are classified as 
whereabouts unknown. There were 83 such boys Oct. 1, 1895. We 
have, therefore, reduced this number during the year over 39 per 
cent. Of this 50, 18 disappeared in 1895-96, the remaining 32 being 
old cases which we found in assuming the work a little more than one 
year ago. 

We account for the boys in our charge as follows : — 

In various employments, ....... 455 

At board .... 28 

Recently released, 4 

Out of employment, ........ 17 

Invalids, 4 

Whereabouts unknown, 50 

Total, 558 

The following table shows the various employments of the 455 boys 
under twenty-one years of age either at place or with their parents, 
mentioned above, and the number in each occupation : — 



1896.] PUBLIC 


DOCUMENT — No. 18. 






95 


Armory, 


. . 1 


Laborer, 20 


Assisting parents, 






14 


Laundry, . 






3 


Bill poster, 






1 


Manager, telephone ol 


Bee, 




1 


Baker, 








2 


Mill hand, . 






41 


Bicycle factory, . 








7 


Milk wagon, 






2 


Bottling works, . 








1 


Mason, 






1 


Brass company, . 








1 


Mason's helper, . 






2 


Baggage room, . 








1 


Meat cutter, 






1 


Box factory, 








2 


Machinist, . . . 






7 


Bell boy, . 








3 


Nail factory, 






3 


Barber, 








5 


Patent roofing, . 






1 


Car shop, . 








1 


Painter, 






7 


Carpenter, . 








9 


Photographer, . 






1 


Carriage maker, 






3 


Piano factory, 






1 


Companion to cripple 


1 




1 


Paper hanger, . 






1 


Coachman (private), 






1 


Plumber, . 






4 


Canning factory, 






1 


Printer, 






5 


Clerk, 






5 


Restaurant, 






4 


Cutlery works, 








1 


Rope walk, 






2 


Expressman, 








7 


Rubber works, . 






2 


Errand boy, 








6 


School, and doing chc 


res, 




. 20 


Farming, . 








154 


Selling agent, . 






. 2 


Florist, 








1 


Spectacle shop, . 








Freight handler, 








. 2 


Sash and blind shop, 








Fireman, 








. 2 


Sailor, 








Fish peddler, 








. 1 


Selling papers, . 








Ferryman, . 








1 


Shoe shop, . 






. 27 


Fisherman, 








. 3 


Stone cutter, 








Fruit peddler, 








. 4 


Stable, 








Furniture store, 








. 1 


Tailor, 








Foundry, . 








. 2 


Teamster, . 






. 17 


Glass works, 








. 2 


Telegraph messenger 


Pi 






Hatter, 








. 2 


Train boy, . 








Ice wagon, . 








. 2 


Tanner, 








Iron works, 








. 7 


Vegetable peddler, 








Job wagon, 








.. 1 


Watch factory, . 






. 2 


Janitor, 








. 2 


I: 









An analysis of this table shows that about 33-J per cent, are on 
farms ; 9 per cent, employed in mills, either cotton or woolen ; 5 per 
cent, are employed in shoe shops ; 2 per cent, are carpenters ; 18 
per cent, are in various mechanical pursuits not mentioned above ; 
4i per cent, are self-supporting and attending school, either high or 
common, the entire year ; 4 per cent, are teamsters ; 3 per cent, are 
assisting parents, and 21 per cent, may be classed as miscellaneous. 



The number of boys placed in their homes, . . in 1895 was 72 
" " placed in their homes, . . in 1896 was 87 



96 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



The number of boys placed with others, 
" " placed with others, 

" " boarded, 

" " boarded, 

" " recalled to the school, 

" " recalled to the school, 



in 1895 was 98 
in 1896 was 96 
in 1895 was 18 
in 1896 was 29 
in 1895 was 60 
in 1896 was 85 



The increased number of recalls in 1896 over 1895 may be in part 
accounted for in the fact that many boys were placed out the past 
year because they were eighteen years of age, had no homes to which 
they could be sent, and it was deemed best to give them a trial. A 
few others were placed out sooner than their merits demanded, on 
account of the crowded condition of the school the first half of the year. 

In keeping the records of the boys in our charge we use what is 
known as the card and envelope system. Each boy has an envelope 
plainly marked and kept at the Lyman School in a case made ex- 
pressly for the purpose, and the various reports of his condition and 
conduct from time to time are put therein and arranged in the order 
of his visits. The report cards are made to suit the envelope, and 
are of three distinct colors. The boys doing well are reported upon 
white cards, those whose condition is doubtful and who need especial 
attention are given a colored card, while still another color designates 
those who are doing badly. The envelopes in which these cards are 
placed are perforated, so that the color of the card and hence the 
status of the boy can be seen at a glance. We believe that this 
method not only has the advantage of convenience, but that it 
appeals to the ambition and pride of the boy, who is anxious not to 
forfeit his white card if his conduct be good, and to gain a white 
report if for any reason he has been given a colored card. 

Besides the visits made by this department, we must acknowledge 
the substantial aid which individual members of your Board have 
given in finding places for the smaller boys and in visiting and car- 
ing for them in place. Should that aid be continued, we could doubt- 
less perform the ordinary work, but should it be dropped, other 
assistance in this department would probably be required. 

In several localities where boys are placed we have voluntary help- 
ers whom we designate as " sources of information." They are 
given a blue card, containing the name of the boy whose report is 
desired and with whom he is placed. They also submit the following 
questions, which are returned to us on a specified date : — 

Is the boy in good health ? 

Is he comfortably clothed ? 

Is he contented ? 

Is he doing well ? 

Is there anything which calls for an immediate visit from us ? 

Remarks : 

(Signed) . 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 97 

This enables us to see our boys as others see them, and to learn 
their reputation in the town. These helpers are not known to be 
such in the community in which they reside, and are not given 
authority to settle disputes or even to make an official call upon 
a boy. Their reports show an active interest and a philanthropic 
spirit. 

According to the reports by the above classification, of the 508 
boys on our visiting list, 449, or 88 + per cent., are " doing well ; " 
23, or 4+ per cent., are doing doubtfully ; 19, or 4 — per cent., are 
doing badly ; 17,* or 3+ per cent., not reported. It must be under- 
stood that boys whose conduct has been so bad as to demand transfer 
to Concord Reformatory are not included in this list, as they are 
beyond our visitation. 

The total formal visits made by this department to boys and re- 
ported to the Lyman School is 1,117. Of these, 289 were to 198 
boys over eighteen years of age, and the balance, 828 visits, were to 
younger boys. This, however, does not include the informal calls, 
which are many and are not reported. 

Besides these visits, we have written in round numbers five hun- 
dred letters, mainly to boys and their employers or relatives. 

Fifty-four days have been spent at the school, interviewing the 
boys and becoming acquainted with them, attending to the weekly 
reports and correspondence, and in conference with a committee 
from your Board. 

Besides the visits to boys mentioned above, we have investigated 
and reported upon 167 homes, in cases where parents or relatives had 
made application for the release of boys from the school. The most 
of these homes had been previously reported upon by an agent of 
the State Board of Lunacy and Charity, and our chief reason for 
doing it again is that, knowing the particular boy whose release is 
under consideration, knowing his record, his characteristics and 
trend, and being held responsible for his behavior after his release, it 
is quite necessary that we should have personal knowledge also of 
the home and surroundings where it is proposed he should spend his 
probation. Thus it sometimes happens that a home considered doubt- 
ful on general principles for a boy is considered as worth trying for 
the peculiar characteristics of the particular boy. Other than the 
boys' homes, one hundred and six places have been investigated by 
this department during the year. Here, again, we think it important 
to know the people before selecting and placing the boy. The above 
number does not include our visits while seeking places, nor our 
visits to places where no formal applications have been made, but 

* Many of this number have been recently released or placed, and no report has been 
made since such release. 



98 VISITATION KEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

where we have been requested to call and for any reason have not 
placed a boy. Such cases have been numerous. 

During the year there has been collected and paid over to the 
Lyman School the sum of $1,175.87 for the services of 43 boys. 
This sum is placed in the bank to the boys' credit. 

The relation between the boys and those who visit them continues 
to be of the most friendly character. Our welcome also to the homes 
where our boys are on probation is marked, and we are regarded, as 
we wish to be, as the boys' helper and friend. 

In this connection it is proper to say that it is our opinion that we 
are doing too little rather than too much visiting. The better we 
know our boys and the more attached they become to us, the more 
readily will they take our advice and the more good we can do them. 
One or two visits a year may suffice to gather statistics, but hardly to 
understand the boy and to minister intelligently to his needs. 

In closing this report, it would be unjust not to especially mention 
the efficient service of Mr. Asa F. Howe, Visitor, whose experience, 
genius and sympathies admirably fit him for his duties. Also I wish 
to express the obligations due the superintendent of the Lyman School 
for his constant support and aid, and to the masters and other officers 
who have aided us in seeking information concerning boys under this 
charge, nor the least to your honorable Board for the most constant 
and helpful interest and counsel in our work. 

Financial Statement. 

Receipts. 
Cash on hand $12 21 

Received from State treasurer for salaries, 2,400 00 

Received from State treasurer for travelling expenses and sta- 
tionery, 1,795 16 

Total, $ 4,207 37 

Expenditures. 

Paid Walter A Wheeler, salary, $1,600 00 

Paid Asa F. Howe, salary, 800 00 

Travelling and stationery, . . 1,807 37 

Total, $4,207 37 

Respectfully submitted, 

WALTER A WHEELER, 

Superintendent of Visitation. 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 99 



Appendix 



Appended are circular forms used with parties taking boys 
as employees and as boarders : — 

The attention of those taking boys from the Lyman School is 
called, to the following directions, which it is expected will be 
faithfully observed.: — 

1. The boy is to be a real member of your family, and is in general to 
receive the care and training consequent upon such a relation. 

2. Clothing must be comfortable, suitable to the season and kept in 
good condition. 

3. Boys must be sent to school as the law requires (Massachusetts law 
requires thirty weeks each year for boys under fourteen years of age) , and 
a monthly report of the deportment, attendance and progress in school 
must be sent to the Lyman School (blanks will be furnished) . Older boys 
should attend school winters, unless there are special reasons for not so 
doing. 

4. Boys should be trained in habits of industry, doing such work as is 
suitable to the age and strength of the individual. The compensation for 
such service will be according to agreement. 

5. Obedience, honesty, strict adherence to the truth and purity in act 
and speech are to be insisted upon. 

6. Such moral and social advantages as the community affords, and are 
suitable to the boy's condition, should be allowed him, and some good 
reading furnished him. 

7. Boys should have some recreation. Your judgment is solicited as to 
the kind and time. 

8. Should the boy run away, you will use every reasonable effort to 
bring him back, and notify the school at once. 

9. Should the boy fail to do well or prove unsuitable for his place, 
communicate at once to the undersigned or to the superintendent of Lyman 
School. 

10. On no account should the boy be allowed to leave you to go to 
another place without the consent of the superintendent of the school, or 
the trustees or their agents Boys may be returned to the school by the 
order of the superintendent of the school, the trustees or their agents, or by 
the agents of the State Board of Lunacy and Charity. 

11. Letters of boys to their relatives when so requested must be sent to 
the Lyman School to be forwarded. 

12. If a boy is taken seriously ill, call in a physician and telegraph at 
once to the Lyman School, Westborough, for further instructions, 



100 APPENDIX LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. '96. 



Commonwealth of Massachl-setts, 
Lyman School for Boys. 
T. F. Chapin, Superintendent; Walter A. Wheeler, Superintendent of Visitation 
Asa F. Howe, Visitor. 

. is to-day 189 

placed at board with . 

P. 



on the following conditions. 

(Signed) 



This boy is entrusted to you that he may rjecome a member of your fam- 
ily and receive all the care and training which ought to grow out of such a 
relation. 

We desire him to be trained in habits of industry, to be instructed in 
good morals and to have the privileges of the ordinary boy in the com- 
munity. 

VTe bespeak your patience with his failings, both your love and firmness 
in his government, and at all times your kindly interest in his welfare. 

He must be punctual at school and constant in attendance. Xo cause but 
illness will justify any absence during school term. A monthly report of 
his attendance and progress must be sent to the Lyman School. 

Compensation for board will be according to above agreement, but it 
must always be understood that he shall become self-supporting as soon as 
possible, when a free home will be found for him. 

He comes to you well clothed, and except in special cases no allowance 
for clothing will be made for the first quarter. Afterward, itemized bills 
for clothing not exceeding six dollars per quarter will be honored. 
Extra bills must not be incurred without authority. 

You are expected to see that he is neatly dressed, that his clothes are 
mended as economy demands and that he is cleanly in person. 

iSo severe corporal punishment will be allowed. If he needs other than 
mild corrections, or in cases of serious misdemeanor, notify the superintend- 
ent of the Lyman School. 

He shall be allowed to write to his parents or near relatives once a 
month, but all such letters must be sent to the Lyman School to be for- 
warded. 

In case of his running away, use your best efforts to return him and 
notify the school immediately. 

If he should be taken seriously ill, call a physician, and telegraph to the 
school for further instructions. 

At the end of each quarter fill out the report card herewith inclosed and 
send it to the Lvman School. 



REPOKT OF THE OFFICERS 



State Industrial School foe Giels 



LANCASTER 



SUPEEINTBNDENT'S EEPOKT. 






To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

I submit to you a brief report of the State Industrial School for 
Girls for the year ending Sept. 30, 1896. 

On my return from my absence of several months, on account of 
illness, I was much gratified to find the school still running so 
smoothly. It appeared that each one in charge had been at her post 
of duty, that the ranks had been closed up and the march had been 
steadily onward. The officers had been faithful and loyal to the 
school, working with unity of purpose, and yet each one responsible 
for her own special good work. Experience has shown that the only 
way to secure good results is to hold each person in charge responsi- 
ble, and then leave her to work more or less in her own individual 
way. 

The various occupations which the girls are taught in the school 
have often been given in former reports ; it therefore seems useless to 
repeat it, except to say that we are trying, without any special 
method, to make good housekeepers and good citizens. The hand 
and mind must be constantly employed and interested. It is also 
important that the girls should have wholesome recreation, frequent 
and varied, in order that their lives may be made happy and not too 
monotonous, for it is " the merry heart that doeth good like a 
medicine." 

The Ling system of gymnastics, introduced last year through the 
winter months, was experimental at first, but the effect in many ways 
was so favorable that it now seems to have become a necessary part 
of the training ; even in the farm work Miss Morse finds the girls 
more prompt and wide-awake. 

The numbers in the school are larger than in former years, although 
the girls have been placed out as fast as seemed practicable. It is 
seldom wise to place a girl in a family till she has had time in the 
school for thorough discipline and training. 

Thanking you for your kind co-operation in the work, especially 
for your vigilant assistance in the care and oversight of the school 
during my absence, I am, 

Respectfully yours, 

L. L. BRACKETT, 

Superintendent. 



104 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



STATISTICS 



Number in the school Sept. 30, 1895, Ill 

Number since committed, 86 

Number in the school Sept. 30, 1896, .129 

Average number in the school, . 120 

Per capita cost of institution, . . . . . . . . $4 17 

In care of the State a year or more, but released on probation : — 

Doing well, 188 

Doing badly, 4 

Conduct unknown 25 

Transferred to Reformatory Prison for Women : — 

This year, 9 

Former years, 6 

In State Almshouse, 14 

Total in custody, including inmates, probationers and those in other 

institutions but still under twenty-one, 384 

Total who attained majority within the year, 67 

Of these 67 there are : — 

Doing well, . 47, or 69 per cent. 

Runaways, conduct unknown, . . . . 5, or 7 per cent. 

Doing badly, . . . . . . . 13, or 17 per cent. 

Unfit subjects, . . . . . . . 2, or 2 per cent. 



Of those committed this year : — 

77 could read and write. 

7 could read. 

2 could neither read nor write. 
54 born in Massachusetts. 

5 born in Maine. 

1 born in New Hampshire. 

1 born in Rhode Island. 

1 born in Connecticut. 



Both parents living, 
One parent living, 





1 born in Ohio. 




1 born in Maryland. 




1 born in Wisconsin. 




1 born in Canada. 




1 born in Ireland. 




1 born in Roumania. 




1 born in Russia. 




2 birthplace unknown 


45 


Orphans, . 


34 


Parents unknown, 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



105 



17 American parentage. 
6 English parentage. 

1 English-American parentage. 

18 Irish parentage. 

6 Irish-American parentage. 

2 Irish-English parentage. 

7 Colored parentage. 

3 Scotch parentage. 

1 Scotch-Irish parentage. 



German parentage. 
French parentage. 
French- American parentage. 
French-Canadian parentage. 
French-Irish parentage. 
English-German parentage. 



1 
7 
3 
1 
2 
2 
1 Swedish parentage. 

1 Jewish parentage. 

2 parentage unknown. 



Cash received to credit of sundry girls from Sept. 30, 1895, 

to Sept. 30, 1896, $1,603 36 

By deposit in savings bank on account of sundry girls, . . 1,603 36 

Cash drawn from savings bank on account of sundry girls 

from Sept. 30, 1895, to Sept. 30, 1896, . . . . . 2,030 24 

By paid amounts from savings bank, 2,030 24 



48 Stubbornness. 

5 Idle and disorderly. 
13 Larceny. 

5 Fornication. 

1 Drunkenness. 



3 Lewdness. 

2 Night-walking. 

7 Vagrancy and idleness. 

2 Disturbance of the peace. 



106 INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 



INVENTORY OF PROPERTY. 



State Industrial School for Girls, Lancaster, Mass., Oct. 1, 1896. 

Real Estate. 

Chapel, $6,500 00 

Hospital, . . . . . . . . . 1,500 00 

Richardson Hall, '■'.-. 15,000 00 

House No. 1, ' . 11,750 00 

No. 2, 12,000 00 

No. 4, 12,500 00 

No 5, . 4,900 00 

Superintendents house, 3,500 00 

Storeroom, 300 00 

Farmhouse and barn, 2,000 00 

Large barn, ■ . 7,275 00 

Silo 400 00 

Old barn, . . 50 00 

Holden shop, 200 00 

Ice house, .' 1,000 00 

Woodhouse, . . 600 00 

Hen house, 200 00 

Piggery, 900 00 

Reservoir house No. 1, 100 00 

Reservoir house, land, etc., No 2, . . . . 300 00 

Carriage shed, 150 00 

Water works, land, etc., . . . . . . 7,500 00 

Hose house, hose, etc., 2,000 00 

Farm, 176 acres, . 9,300 00 

Broderick lot, 12 acres, 800 00 

Wood lot, 10 acres, 200 00 

Storm windows, 40 00 

Total valuation real estate, . . . . — $100,965 00 

Personal Property. 

Produce of farm on hand, $5,383 91 

Tools and carriages, 2,115 00 

Amount carried forward^ $7,498 91 



1896.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 107 

Amount brought forward, $7,498 91 

Valuation of live stock, . . . . . . . 2,670 00 

House furnishings and supplies, .... 12,823 25 

Miscellaneous, 552 50 

Total valuation of personal estate, . . . $23,544 66 

A. J. BANCROFT, 
H. F. HOSMER, 

Appraisers. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me, 

Geo. W. Howe, 

Justice of the Peace. 
Oct, 10, 1896. 

Personal Property. 

Produce on hand Oct. i, 1896. 

Apples, 900 barrels, . $190 00 

Beets, table, 125 bushels, 62 50 

Beet seed, 2 25 

Beans, white, 21 bushels, 27 25 

Beans, cranberry, 13 bushels, 26 00 

Bedding, 4 tons, 32 00 

Cabbage, heads, 1,330, . . . . . . 79 80 

Celery, heads, 344, 17 20 

Carrots, bushels, 25, 12 50 

Clover seed, 100 pounds, . . . . . . 9 00 

Corn, ears, 450 bushels, . ... . . . 135 00 

Corn, pop, 12 bushels, 12 00 

Corn, sweet, 6 bushels, seed, 9 00 

Corn and cob meal, 1,000 pounds, .... 6 00 

Ensilage, 100 tons, . . . . . . . 800 00 

English hay, 96 tons 1,728 00 

Fruit canned and preserved, 1,848 quarts, . . 184 80 

Fodder, corn, 4 tons, 32 00 

Fodder, barley, 3 tons, . . . . . 24 00 

Fodder, oats, 12£ tons, 200 00 

Fodder, 40 bushels sweet corn, . . . . 10 00 

Hungarian, 10 tons, 180 00 

Mangolds, 20 tons, 200 00 

Middlings, 600 pounds, ...'... 4 20 

Manure, 64 cords 384 00 

Onions, 37 bushels, 18 50 

Oats, 25 bushels, 8 75 

Pumpkins, 3 tons, 45 00 

Potatoes, 1,500 bushels, 750 00 

Pickles, 372 quarts, 29 76 

Peas, 11 bushels, 22 00 

Rutabagas, 125 bushels, 50 00 



Amount carried forward, ..... $5,291 51 



108 INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amount brought forward, $5,291 51 

Shorts, 1,000 pounds, 6 00 

Salt, 19 bags, 11 40 

Vinegar, 750 gallons, 75 00 

$5,383 91 

Live Stock. 

Horses, 7, |650 00 

Cows, 26, ... 1,300 00 

Bull, 1, 25 00 

Calves, 5, 50 00 

Hogs, fat, 17 (5,950 pounds), 297 50 

Shoats, 26, 104 00 

Pigs, 41, 143 50 

Fowls, 215, 100 00 

2,670 00 

Tools and carriages, . . . . . . . 2,115 00 

Ice tools, . . . . . . . . . f 25 00 

Flour barrels, 50 7 50 

Bags and sacks, 5 00 

Phosphate, 500 pounds, 7 50 

Drain pipe, 10 00 

Iron pipe (water), 21 00 

Hay caps, 20 00 

Hay scales, 45 00 

Kettle set, 24 50 

Extinguishers, fire, . . . . . . 275 00 

Escapes, fire, 16 00 

Lamps, street, 9, 15 00 

Cider casks, 20, 15 00 

Lawn mowers, 18 00 

Stoves, 30 00 

Oil tank, 18 00 

Total miscellaneous, 552 50 

Richardson hall furnishings, $2,245 00 

Property in No. 1, . 1,246 00 

No. 2, 1,286 76 

No. 4, . .■'.'. . . . . 1,580 94 

No. 5, 1,035 60 

Superintendents house, . . . . . 985 00 

Chapel and library, 650 00 

Provisions and groceries, . . . . . . 651 50 

Dry goods, 840 00 

Crockery and hardware, . . . . . . 226 00 

Books and stationery, 150 00 

Medicine, . 15 00 

Paint and oil, . . . . ' . . . . 61 45 

Fuel, 1,850 00 

12,823 25 

f23,541 66 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



109 



Summary of Farm Account. 



To live stock, as per in- 
ventory, 1895, . 

tools and carriages as 
per inventory, 1895, 

bedding on hand Oct, 
1, 1895, . 

ensilage as per inven- 
tory, 1895, 

dressing on hand Oct 
1, 1895, . 

fodder on hand Oct 
1, 1895, . 

hay on hand Oct. 1 
1895, 

mangolds on hand Oct 
1, 1895, . 



Dr. 



$2,420 80 


2,087 00 


24 00 


600 00 


48 00 


279 32 


1,849 23 


300 00 



To black smithing, . 


$187 61 


dressing, . 


726 40 


farm tools, . 


195 42 


grain, . 


1,075 19 


labor, . 


2,369 09 


live stock, . 


742 00 


nutriotine, . 


25 00 


seeds and plants, 


61 17 


veterinary services, 


25 00 



Balance, 



$13,015 23 
1,115 78 

$14,131 01 



Or. 






apples, 


$190 00 


By manure, 




$384 00 


beans, cranberry, 


26 00 


middlings, . 




4 20 


beans, shell, 


47 00 


milk, . 




1,927 93 


beans, string, 


27 00 


muck, . 




67 00 


beans, white, 


27 25 


oats, . 




8 75 


beets, . 


62 50 


onions, 




18 50 


bedding, 


183 40 


pears, . 




31 00 


cabbage, 


79 80 


peas, . 




19 00 


cash paid State treas- 




plums, 




150 00 


urer, 


580 20 


pork . 




487 84 


carrots, 


12 50 


potatoes, 




750 00 


celery, 


17 20 


pumpkins, 




45 00 


corn, . 


147 00 


rutabagas, 




50 00 


crab apples, 


7 20 


shorts, 




6 00 


cucumbers, 


12 50 


strawberrie 


8, 


12 90 


eggs, . 


169 34 


tomatoes, 




32 00 


ensilage, 


800 00 


vinegar, 




75 00 


fodder, 


266 00 


live stock as per in 




grapes, 


14 00 


ventory, 1896, 


. 2,670 00 


hay, . 


1,908 00 


tools and carriages a; 


3 


ice, 


350 00 


per inventory, 1896 


, 2,115 00 


keeping horse foi 










school, . 


150 00 




$14,131 01 


mangolds, . 


200 00 


Balance : 


for farm, 


. $1,115 78 



110 



INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct 



Cattle, 
Old iron, 
Pigs, 



Produce sold and Receipts sent to State Treasurer. 

Produce, . . . . $25 50 



$488 20 

2 50 

64 00 



$580 20 



Produce consumed. 



Bedding, . 
Crab apples, 
Cucumbers, 
Eggs, 
Grapes, . 
Green fodder, 
Hay, . 
Ice, . 
Milk, 
Pears, 



$136 00 


Peas, 


7 20 


Pork, 


12 50 


Plums, 


169 34 


Rhubarb, 


14 00 


Shell beans, 


136 00 


String beans, 


36 00 


Strawberries, 


350 00 




1,927 93 




31 00 





$19 00 


487 84 


150 00 


15 00 


47 00 


27 00 


12 90 



$3,578 1\ 



1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



111 





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95 49 


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112 



INVENTOEY INDUSTKIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 





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$2,068 73 
1,726 48 
2,334 30 


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1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



113 



Pay-roll of Persons employed at the State Industrial School during 
the Year ending Sept. 30, 1896., 



NAMES. 


Occupation. 


Time. 


Amount 
Due. 


L. L. Brackett, 




Superintendent, 




1 year, .... 


$1,200 00 


N. C. Brackett, 




Steward, . 




1 year, .... 


650 04 


E. C.Bailey, . 




Matron, 




5 months 16 days, 


161 13 


L. D. Mayhew, 




... 




10 months 13 days, 


314 11 


L. E. Hazelton, 




. . 




11 months 24 days, 


343 33 


H.M. Staples, 




tc 




11 months 1 day, . 


321 30 


C. L. Everingham, • 




. . 




9 months 24 days, 


285 01 


A. M. T. Eno, 




■« 




6 months 13 days, 


187 41 


H. B. Parsons, 




Substitute matron, 




1 month 5 days, . 


33 95 


A. Hawley, . 




" 




13 days 


12 45 


L. E. Holder, , 




" 




1 month 19 days, . 


46 .94 


J. C. Trask, . ' . 




»i <i 




2 months, 


58 32 


G-. L. Smith, . 




" 




22 days, . . . . 


21 08 


S. E. Palmer, ... 




" 




1 month 17 days, . 


45 03 


A. L. Brackett, 




Gymnastic teacher, 




5 months, 


160 41 


E.B.Thompson, . 




Clerk,. 




1 year, . 


349 92 


A. L. Brackett, 




Substitute clerk, 




15 days, . 


14 37 


M. A. Bass, . 




Teacher, 




3 months 11 days, 


84 03 


J. C. Trask, . 




. . 




9 months 14 days, 


236 49 


A. Hawley, 




. . 




11 months 5 days, . 


278 74 


L. E. Bass, 




" 




3 months 19 days, 


90 60 


G-. L. Smith, . 




<( 




10 months 20 days, 


266 05 


E. M. Buck, . 




. . 




6 months 26 days, 


170 98 


B. E. Kneeland, . 




. . 




29 days, . 


23 81 


B.E. Eager, . . * 




Substitute teacher, 




16 days, 


13 13 


E. B.Eames, . 




« 




2 months 15 days, 


62 32 


F. L. Palmer, . 




" 




3 months 18 days, 


■89 78 


Q-. A. Whitehouse, 




" 




1 month 26 days, . 


46 35 


L. E Holder, . 




" 




5 months 9 days, . 


132 02 


B. E. Clark, . 




ci (< 




3 months, 


75 00 


E. Burnham, . 




k t< 




2 months 13 days, 


68 88 


S.E. Palmer, . 




(< (< 




15 days, . 


13 13 


E. F. Smith, . 




•« 




. 2 months, 1 day, . 


50 82 


H. E. Bailey, . 




" 




2 months, 3 days, 


52 10 


M. Torry, 




Housekeeper, . 




10 months, 18 days, 


264 40 


E. H. Knowlton, . 




'• 




2 months, 


50 00 



114 OFFICERS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 

Pay-roll of Persons employed, etc. — Concluded. 



[Oct. 



NAMES 




Occupation. 


Time. 


Amount 
Due. 


I. N". Bailey, . 






Housekeeper, . 






5 months, 4 days, 


$127 92 


H. M. Oakes, . 












9 days, .... 


7 39 


J. M. Mclntire, 












10 months, 13 days, 


260 67 


M. Voter, 












11 months, 4 days, 


277 92 


K. E. Saunders, 












6 months, 7 days, . 


155 01 


A. Woodbury, 












5 mouths, 


125 00 


A.M. T.Eno, 












2 months, 23 days, 


68 88 


L. R. Bean, . 












5 months, 21 days, 


142 43 


H. M. Mead, . 












5 months, 


125 00 


S.C.Osgood, . 






Substitute housekeeper, . 


3 months, 20 days, 


91 61 


L. E. Holder, . 






<« << 


1 month, 19 days, . 


40 60 


B. 0. Hamlin, 






<« t< 


1 month, 21 days, 


42 25 


M. V. O'Callaghan, 






Physician, . 








1 year 


208 37 


E. V. Morse, . 






Laborer, 








8 months, 13 days, 


210 30 


J. W. H. Baker, 






Foreman, 








5 months, 


225 00 


E P. Woodbury, 






" 








6 months, . . . 


270 00 


Q. K. Wight, . 






Laborer, 








11 months, 26 days, 


486 40 


D. H. Bailey, . 






<« 








2 months, 3 days, . 


67 03 


O. W. Osgood, 






" 








2 months, 20 days, 


80 76 


A. T. Saunders, 






<< 








10 months, 21 days, 


406 60 


A. L. Bean, 






" 








2 months, 18 days, 


98 14 


H. Carr, . 






<( 








10 months, 14 days, 


364 00 


N. O. Mclntire, 






" 








10 months, 10 days, 


268 16 


E. P. Woodbury, 






(« 








4 months-, 


104 00 


M. Dolphin, . 






11 








5 months, 25 days, 


211 67 


C. R. Young, . 






" 








4 months, 29 days, 


188 73 


A. L. Smart, . 






«< 








5 months, 13^days, 


206 47 


F. E. Blanchard, 






<< 








8 days 


10 16 






$11,143 90 





1896.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



115 



Persons employed at the State Industrial School. 



NAMES 



Occupation. 



Rate. 



L. L. Brackett, 
N. C. Brackett, 
L. D. Mayhew, 
L. E. Hazelton, 
H. M. Staples, 
C. L. Everingham 
A. M. T. Eno, 
E. B. Thompson, 
J. C. Trask, . 

A. Hawley, . 
G. L. Smith, . 
E. M. Buck, . 

B. E. Kneel and, 
A. L. Brackett, 
M. Tony, . 
J. M. Mclntire, 
M. Voter, . 
H. M. Mead, 

L. R. Bean, . 
K. E. Saunders, 
M. V. O'Callaghan 
E. P. Woodbury 
E. V. Morse, 
G. K. Wight, 
N. O. Mclntire, 



Superintendent, 

Steward, 

Matron, 



Clerk, 
Teacher. 



Gymnastic teacher. 
Housekeeper, 



Physician, 
Foreman, 
Laborer, . 



$ 1,200 00 
650 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
350 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
200 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
200 00 
540 00 
300 00 
504 00 
312 00 

89,306 00 



116 PHYSICIAN'S REPORT INDUS'L SCHOOL. [Oct.'!)6. 



PHYSICIAN'S KEPOET. 



To the Trustees of the State Industrial School. 

During the year we have had two cases of typhoid, — the first that 
have occurred under the present administration, — both cases among 
our officers. 

Last September the matron of Richardson Cottage, our new house, 
returned from her vacation in a weakly condition. In a short time 
typhoid symptoms developed, and the patient was quite ill for three 
months. When the disease was fully recognized, the patient was too 
sick to be removed, so we could only isolate her thoroughly. 

In January Mrs. Brackett began to show signs of breaking down. 
A trip to Old Orchard was decided upon, in the hope that change of 
air would help her ; but upon her arrival there she was stricken down 
with typhoid, and it has taken her seven months to fully recover. 

This severe illness of our beloved superintendent, which at first 
seemed so great a misfortune, has proved a blessing in disguise. 
Utterly worn out, physically and mentally, by her ten years' contin- 
uous service, a prolonged rest was imperative ; and this rest she was 
compelled to take in the weeks of slow convalescence, when she was 
too weak even to think. Then, too, it has given an opportunity of 
proving that these years of honest effort in institutional work have 
not been in vain. During her long absence of seven months, with- 
out a substitute, our school, with its varying interests, ran on without 
a jar. Every officer was loyal to duty, and our girls showed a sense 
of gratitude highly satisfactory. 

Last winter we had a long run of la grippe. In one case peritoni- 
tis set in, and the girl was transferred to a hospital, where she has 
just undergone a surgical operation. 

With the exception of these girls, the health of the school is all 
that could be desired. 

Respectfully, 

M. V. O'CALLAGHAN, M.D. 

Worcester, Sept. 30, 1896. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 18. 



THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



= Lyman and Industrial 

Schools 



(Formerly known as Trustees of the State Primary and 
Reform Schools) 



Year ending September 30, 1897. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1898, 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Trustees' Report on Lyman School, 5 

Trustees' Report on State Industrial School, 19 

Report of Treasurer of Trust Funds, 30 

Report of Superintendent of Lyman School, 37 

Statistics of Lyman School, 39 

Report of Principal of Schools of Lyman School, 50 

Report of Instructor in Manual Training, Lyman School, 53 

Report of Instructor of Advanced Manual Training, 55 

Report of the Instructor in Printing, Lyman School, 57 

Report of Instructor of Gymnastics, Lyman School, 59 

Report of Physician, Lyman School, 62 

Report of Matron of Berlin Farmhouse, 63 

Financial Statement, Lyman School, 66 

Report of the Farmer, Lyman School, 80 

Report of Berlin Farmer, ... . 81 

Farm Account, 82 

Valuation of Property, Lyman School, 85 

Schedule of Salaried Officers, Lyman School, 87 

List of Superintendents, Lyman School, 92 

List of Trustees, Lyman School, 93 

Report of Superintendent of Visitation of Lyman School Probationers, . . . 95 

Report of Superintendent of State Industrial School, 103 

Statistics and Financial Statement of State Industrial School, .... 105 
Report of Physician of State Industrial School, . . , , . . ,116 



€mnwcmto.caltIj of i|tassarjnts.etts* 



REPORT OF TRUSTEES 



LYMAN AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS, 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The undersigned, trustees of the Lyman and Industrial 
Schools, respectfully present the appended report for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1897, for the two reform schools under their 
control. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. H. WALKER, Westborough, Chairman. 
ELIZABETH G. EVANS, Boston, Secretary. 
H. C. GREELEY, Clinton, Treasurer. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston. 
M. J. SULLIVAN, Chicopee. 
SAMUEL W. McDANIEL, Cambridge. 
EDMUND C. SANFORD, Worcester. 



TRUSTEES' REPORT 

ON 

THE LYMAN SCHOOL FOE BOYS, 

At WESTBOROUGH. 



The Lyman School is a State institution, in which boys 
under fifteen years of age are received by commitment of court 
for any offence not punishable with death or imprisonment for 
life. Of the 124 new-comers received within the past year, 
81 were for offences against property, 2 for vagrancy, 3 for 
disturbing a school and 34 for stubbornness. An examination 
of the records shows that, of the boys committed as stubborn, 
8 had been guilty of stealing, 7 had been cared for by other 
charitable agencies and were turned over to the Lyman School 
because they proved unmanageable, 6 who had respectable 
homes had proved disobedient to the extent of sleeping out 
nights, consorting with bad companions, or worse, and 12 boys 
who had been similarly at fault came from wretched homes or 
in some cases were practically homeless. 

Of the 124 new-comers, 37 per cent, were born of foreign 
parents, 31 per cent, of American parents and 32 per cent, 
were unknown. More than half of the boys had been arrested 
before ; of more than one-third of them, other members of 
their families had been arrested ; and of almost one-half, one 
or both parents were known to be intemperate. Almost one- 
half of the boys were idle when arrested. 

The term of commitment is always for minority, while the 
actual length of detention is discretionary with the trustees. 
Boys released on probation remain subject to the custody of 
the school, and liable to recall for bad conduct or even to 
transfer to the Massachusetts Reformatory at Concord. 

Three points are emphasized in the methods of the Lyman 
School : (1) a system of classification, whereby the younger 
boys are from the first separated from the older ones, to be 



6 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

dealt with by somewhat informal methods ; (2) a course of 
systematic mental and physical training for boys over thirteen 
years of age ; and (3) a system of probation whereby an impor- 
tant part of the reformatory work is carried on outside the 
institution, the boy being reinstated so far as possible in 
normal relations in the community, but remaining subject to 
direction by the school, and liable, whenever it seems neces- 
sary, to be made to feel its authority. 

The various buildings at Westborough are scattered over the 
southerly slope of a hill commanding a wide view of a beauti- 
ful, rolling country. Eight cottages, each planned to accommo- 
date from 25 to 30 boys, stand so well apart from one another 
that the life of each household, both in work and play, can be 
carried on independently. The family system, thus rigorously 
applied, has been found, however, to be too serious a handicap 
in the school-room, and to secure a proper grading it has been 
customary for some years to send boys from one household to 
school in another cottage. Even so, eight widely removed 
school-rooms are an awkward arrangement, and for several 
years the trustees have recommended that the scattered school- 
rooms be replaced by a central school building. If the school- 
ing were centralized, better results could be obtained with a 
smaller corps of teachers, and the superintendent would be able 
to meet the boys in their school-rooms in a way that is now im- 
possible. Outside school hours the boys would still eat and 
sleep and work and play in family groups, and thus it is be- 
lieved that nothing valuable would be lost in the present organ- 
ization. 

Upon the methods of education, as pursued in school-room, 
workshop and physical drill classes, the superintendent has 
lavished his best attention, planning all with a full acquaintance 
with the best methods of reaching school boys such as these, 
and adopting special methods, as developed by his nine years' 
experience at this school. At the close of his first year at 
Westborough, in forecasting the lines of his work, he wrote : 
* « Hands are the only capital these boys possess with which to 
enter on the struggle for existence. They need a power of 
thinking carried to their finger tips." In accordance with this 
idea, the emphasis of the educational system as since developed 
has been laid upon manual training in its broadest sense ; i. e., 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

not simply as a training in the performance of a specialized 
task, but as a means of developing mental grasp and accuracy 
of hand and eye, such as will give a boy a full command of his 
faculties and enable him to use them to advantage, whatever 
may be his calling in life. In his second annual report the 
superintendent wrote : " The [manual training] work is planned 
with reference to its educational value alone, — to teach the boy 
to think, to judge, and to give tangible form to his judgment. 
Unless it prove a mind-awakener, a provoker of thought, the 
system will count for little more than a failure." Under the 
course as at present arranged, a new-comer during his first six 
weeks in the school receives such instruction in mechanical 
drawing as will enable him when he enters on a twenty weeks' 
course of daily lessons in the Sloyd room, to make working 
drawings from dictation of the model which is to be worked out 
in wood. Beginning with a very simple model, the course 
leads progressively and rapidly to exercises requiring a degree 
of mental grasp and of hand control quite beyond the reach of 
the beginner. The full course comprises 31 different models, 
involves the use of 35 different tools, and has over 60 different 
exercises.* Boys who show any mechanical aptitude in the 
Sloyd room are given an advanced course in wood turning and 
iron forging, planned on the same progressive principle. About 
one-quarter of the boys who pass through the school take this 
advanced manual training course. 

In both the elementary and the advanced course the model 
is some useful article, the value of which a boy can readily 
see. The finished work is always given to the pupil, if he 
wants it, and most of them prize their work as the record of 
their struggles and their triumphs. As indication of the boys' 
interest, it may be said that a pupil has very rarely to be pun- 
ished for misbehavior in these classes, that none have ever been 
suspended or expelled from the class for misbehavior or want 
of interest, and that it is an almost unheard-of event that a boy 
while in the manual training should attempt to run away from 
the school. The effect upon their general conduct and upon their 
work in the school-room is often very marked. Observing 

* " Sloyd employs more tools, more exercises, and requires greater variety of manipu- 
lation than any other course of manual training yet presented for schools." — " Sloyd for 
American Schools," by Gustaf Larsson. 



8 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

officers remark that boys who have received the manual training 
show increased power of concentration and ability to take and 
to follow directions. 

The question often arises why a course of general manual 
training is preferred at Westborough to definite trade instruc- 
tion such as is used in many reformatory institutions. To this 
question it must be answered that, considered from the edu- 
cational stand-point alone, a progressive course of manual train- 
ing has far greater value than special trade teaching. Trade 
teaching, then, which may well follow after a more general 
educational course, should not be allowed to supersede it, 
especially for boys such as these in the Lyman School, who are 
all under fifteen when they enter the institution, who are most 
of them from two to five years behind the pupils of a good pub- 
lic school in their studies, and who stay at Westborough often 
only about a year and a half and not often longer than two 
years. All the education these boys are to receive must be 
crowded into these brief months ; and to learn a trade in this 
time would necessitate the neglect of all other manual training. 
Moreover, most of the boys are too young when they leave the 
school to go to work at trades. The unions, where they have 
influence, will not allow a boy under eighteen to be taken at 
trades. Further, it is shown in the manual training classes 
that, while practically all are capable, in varying degrees, of 
being developed mentally and morally by the exercises, and 
while perhaps two-thirds or one-fourth, are competent to go 
into a shop and learn to run a machine, barely ten per cent, 
show sufficient mechanical ability to make it probable that they 
could ever follow a skilled trade with profit. From this fact 
alone it is evident that the main lines of the teaching must be 
adapted to the ninety per cent, who need general rather than 
specialized manual training. 

Meanwhile, under present methods trade teaching is not 
entirely neglected. Some of the more skilful boys are carried 
on by special instructions and become good carpenters or joiners, 
others gain skill in the shoe shop or the printing office, and a 
considerable number take a responsible part in the construction 
and the repair of buildings. Within the past two years it has 
happened that seventeen boys on leaving the school obtained 
positions distinctly because of the mechanical training at West- 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

borough. In one case an employer, offering three dollars 
a week to a green hand, paid five dollars a week to a Lyman 
School boy because of his knowledge of the use of tools. 

In discussing the question as to how far mechanical training 
may be expected to lead Lyman School boys to follow mechan- 
ical pursuits when earning their bread, the superintendent re- 
cently made an interesting analysis of the careers of twenty 
probationers who had made more than average mechanical 
progress in the school. He found that of the twenty only eight 
had obtained employment requiring any mechanical skill, and 
that of these eight only three seemed likely to stick to work 
with tools. One of the most skilful had become a canvasser 
because at that he could earn more money, two were mill hands, 
two expressmen, two clerks, two worked in shoe shops, one 
was a barber, one owned a fishing boat, one had taken to farm- 
ing and three had had a variety of occupations. Eighteen of 
the twenty had made a fair record in conduct, while two had 
been arrested. 

In commenting on these facts, the superintendent says : 
" This is a fair sample of present results. What is the inter- 
pretation? First, that any particular form of handskili is a 
very uncertain reliance, unless it is mechanical skill of a high 
order; second, that other forms of labor are frequently better 
recompensed than work in mechanical shops ; third, that the 
community and class of pursuits most in vogue in it often settle 
the question what the boy shall do for a living. Again, 
machinery cuts such a figure in almost all trades that he who 
seeks mechanical work must, in the majority of cases, learn to 
manage a machine, which makes, perhaps, only one small part 
of a finished product. What prescience will enable a boy or 
his master to foresee the circumstances that must determine his 
industrial career, so as to give him the trade instruction which 
will fit him for that ? " * 

On the other hand, a general course of manual training makes 
a boy undoubtedly more valuable in any line of work which he 
may find to do and in proportion as the work demands skill. 

It must be understood, however, that the Lyman School is 
gathering experience in this matter in a wholly tentative spirit, 

* "The Educational Value of Manual Training," by Theodore F. Chapin : "The 
Charities Review," June, 1897. 



10 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

and it is probable that in the future trade teaching in special 
cases will be added, to a far greater degree than has yet been 
found practicable, to the present manual training system. Of 
course the pros and cons of trade teaching in reformatories have 
no bearing upon the question whether trade schools may not be 
urgently needed in the community, to take the place of the 
obsolete apprentice system. 

The physical development drill in use is an adaptation of 
what is known as the Ling system, and is much more valuable 
than the military drill, which was formerly used. The exer- 
cises are arranged with a view to an all-round development of 
nervous and muscular control, and special attention is given to 
the needs of subjects who are deficient in one way or another. - 

The superintendent's unremitting labors for so many years 
have resulted in a serious break in his health, and in Septem- 
ber, at the urgent recommendation of his physician, he was 
granted a four-months leave of absence. As the corps of offi- 
cers on duty is unusually satisfactory, it is anticipated that 
everything will run on smoothly during his absence. 

The length of detention at Westborough is fixed by a mark- 
ing system. When a boy reaches his honor grade, his name 
comes before the trustees, and they, with the assistance of the 
superintendent and of the two visitors who are employed in the 
care of probationers, must determine whether the boy may 
safely go to his own home on probation or whether his chance 
of well-doing will be better if placed out with a farmer. In 
forming this decision, the character of the home, as reported 
from the personal investigation of one of the visitors, is of 
course the chief consideration ; but the boy's character is an 
important factor, too, and often a boy may be allowed to go to 
a home where the conditions are far from satisfactory, because 
on the whole it seems likely that he will do better with his own 
people than in any other opening that can be found. A com- 
mittee of the trustees meets at the school every month, to con- 
sider probation and other cases which the superintendent may 
bring before them ; and last winter 237 * cases were passed 
upon by the trustees. 

* These cases concerned 183 different boys, 46 of whom were considered twice and 83 
were considered three times. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

An analysis of the cases considered within the year shows 
that in regard to 10 boys a petition for release was refused on 
the ground that they needed further detention in the school ; 
that of 48 boys it was decided that they should be placed on 
farms (or, being already on farms, should stay there), because 
their homes were unsuitable or because it seemed unwise to 
trust them at home at present ; 33 boys were allowed to go 
home, in spite of the fact that their homes were more or less 
unsatisfactory,* 63 boys were voted to homes where the condi- 
tions seemed fairly good; 11 were voted to transfer to the 
Massachusetts Reformatory, 2 to the State Farm and 2 to the 
State Almshouse. 

While a probationary system has always nominally been a 
feature of the school, it is only since legislation in 1895 placed 
the visitation of probationers under the direction of the trustees 
that this branch of the work has been satisfactorily developed. 
No one can recognize more fully than the trustees do that an 
institution is never a good place for any human being who can 
be successfully dealt with by any less artificial method ; and the 
effort to follow up young law-breakers with steadying influences 
while restoring them to natural relations in the community is 
believed to be a notable step ahead in reformatory work. 

The care of probationers is assigned to Mr. Walter A. 
Wheeler and Mr. Asa F. Howe, both of whom have shown 
themselves admirably qualified for their work. The boys seem 
uniformly to regard them as friends, and parents welcome their 
assistance in advising and controlling their boys in cases of 
difficulty. Of course, when boys seem desirous and capable 
of standing on their own feet, it is the visitors' policy to leave 
them very much alone. 

There were 1,557 visits to probationers recorded within the 
year, and 683 investigations of homes and places. The report 
of the superintendent of visitation, on page 99, will give 
detailed information as to this department. 

While it is manifestly proper that this branch of public work 

* Of these, 4 were boys with marked mechanical ability, whose tastes would have 
been injuriously thwarted on a farm; 6 were boys who were otherwise unsuited to farm 
life; 2 were boys who had been tried on farms, and who would not stay there; 3 were 
defective boys, who could not be placed out; and the rest were boys whose homes were 
on the border line and whom for various reasons it was judged best to give a trial with 
their own people. 



12 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

should be subject to supervisory inspection by a central board, 
just as the interior workings of public institutions are in- 
spected, the trustees believe that an undivided responsibility 
for the selection of places and the proper care of probationers 
should be thrown upon those in direct charge of the work, and 
that the supervisory board should be trusted to inspect the 
work for probationers according to any methods that its own 
experience may dictate. As it is, under a law framed to meet 
wholly obsolete conditions, a Lyman School boy may never 
be placed until, in addition to the investigations of the Lyman 
School visitors, the place has been reported on by the State 
Board of Lunacy and Charity ; and every boy outside the 
institution must, however often he may have been visited by 
visitors of the school or by the trustees, be likewise visited 
once a year by an agent of said State Board. These provisions 
entail a wholly unnecessary expenditure of public money, and 
hamper both the Lyman School and the State Board in a 
proper discharge of their functions. The trustees therefore 
renew their recommendations that the law be so revised as to 
free the former from cumbersome restrictions and to allow the 
latter to exercise a wise discretion in its method of inspecting 
this branch of Lyman School work. 

Of the 124 new-comers received within the year at West- 
borough, 28 boys ranging from nine to thirteen years of age 
were placed in the branch cottage situated in the town of Ber- 
lin, some seven miles away. The methods of the Berlin family 
are very different from those of the main institution. An edu- 
cational system, such as is possible in a large school, is im- 
possible for a little group of ungraded scholars ; but this is to 
be the less regretted, as many of the boys stay too short a time 
at Berlin to profit by an extended system of training, and even 
where this is not the case the advantage of being wholly re- 
moved from the associations of a large reformatory institution 
is so great as to offset all counterbalancing disadvantages. 

For all except the most depraved the Berlin discipline has 
been successful beyond expectation. The matron, Mrs. Warner, 
has an extraordinary faculty of finding out everything that is 
good in a boy's nature, arousing his interest, winning his 
affections and commanding the implicit obedience of those who 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

have apparently never obeyed any one in their lives before. The 
boys attend school morning and afternoon, and do the work in 
the house and about the barn and farm ; but a liberal measure 
of playtime is allowed each day, and in the evenings are games 
and story books and singing. The whole life is singularly free 
from constraint, and punishments are almost unknown. Of 
course the knowledge that Westborough, with its strict dis- 
cipline will be the lot of any boy who is wilfully bad, as well 
as of those who misconduct when they go out on their proba- 
tion, allows a far milder discipline at Berlin than would be 
otherwise possible. 

Among the little boys assigned to Berlin have been some 
with such very bad records that it was thought probable they 
would have to be transferred to Westborough. Some of these 
responded so readily to good influences that they were retained 
at Berlin, but for a longer term than was expected would be 
the case when the cottage was planned. Other boys, who were 
found to have good homes to which they might properly return 
on their release, were kept longer than would have been neces- 
sary had they been sent out to places. Boys who have gone 
home or to free places from Berlin this year have all been in 
the school about a year ; boys who have been boarded have 
varied to from three and one-half to eleven months. The pro- 
portion of boys who could be very soon placed out has been 
decidedly smaller than a year ago. 

The total number cared for at Berlin within the year has been 
46, the largest number present at any one time was 22 and the 
smallest number was 16. Six boys have within the year been 
released to parents, 11 have been placed at board, 4* have 
gone to free places, 2 were transferred to the State Almshouse 
(one as an epileptic and one as underwitted), 2 were sent back 
to Westborough as unfit subjects for Berlin, 2 others who ran 
away a few days after their arrival were captured and returned 
to Westborough, and 19 remained at Berlin on Sept. 30, 1897. 

The experiment of boarding out young juvenile offenders was 
initiated f by the trustees in August, 1895, when, as a conse- 
quence of the closing of the State Primary School, numbers of 



* One of these places proved unsatisfactory, and the boy was recalled to Berlin, 
t It had long been the policy of the State to board out children of the neglected and 
dependent class, but even for these the boarding line was drawn at ten years of age. 



14 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

boys such as had formerly been received at that institution came 
nocking into Westborough. 

Boarding out has the great advantage over placing without 
board, that, whereas a home where a child of eleven or twelve 
is required to earn his way is not always a place where his 
interests will be sufficiently considered, the payment of board, 
attracting a large number of applications, enables those who 
place the children to make a careful selection of homes, to in- 
sist upon a full course of schooling, which it is otherwise often 
impossible to secure, and in general to prevent the children 
from being used as little drudges. Also, the supply of good 
free homes is very limited, while so far the supply of boarding 
places has been well up to the demand ; but how long this will 
continue to be the case, now that the practice of boarding out 
is growing so rapidly, experience alone can show. 

The trustees have followed the boarding experiment with the 
closest scrutiny, realizing the possibility that it might affect the 
community injuriously, and also that its benefits for certain chil- 
dren were at least an open question. As regards the com- 
munity, it can be stated that a number of these little Lyman 
School boys have made themselves eminently welcome in their 
new surroundings, others have been simply neutral, while a few 
have caused anxiety and have needed careful watching, and in 
some cases have been recalled to the school. As a class, 
juvenile offenders do not seem to be any more harmful than the 
neglected and dependent children whom it has long been the 
State's policy to introduce into country districts, and who on 
the whole are eagerly received there. As regards the devel- 
opment of the boys, it will not be till they have grown to man- 
hood that the results of the system can be fully passed upon ; 
but the signs, meantime, are full of encouragement. 

Up to date 53 boys have been boarded, of whom 23 are still 
at board, 11 are in free homes, 9 have been returned to parents 
or relatives, 8 * are in the Lyman School and 1 is a runaway, 
whereabouts unknown. Of the 9 in the school, 2 are abnormal 
children, and 6 are unusually bad boys. These 53 boys passed 
an average of 21 weeks in the school before being boarded out. 
The shortest time in the school was 12 days, — the circum- 
stances in this case were exceptioDal, — the longest 10J- months. 

* Six others were recalled to the school and placed out again. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

Twenty-eight of the boys have been in but one place, 18 have 
been in two places, 5 in three places and 2 in four places. 
Most of the changes were made in order to secure a free home. 
The rates paid for the present boarders are : — 

$ 2.00 and clothing, 4 

2.00, no clothing, 1 

1.50 and clothing, 16 

1.00 during school term, . . 3 

The ages of the boys now at board are : — 

10 years old, 1 

11 years old, 2 

12 years old, 10 

13 years old, 10 

14 years old, 1 

Several of the thirteen-year-old boys are very incapable chil- 
dren physically, and the fourteen-year-old boy is to go home 
as soon as he proves himself more trusty, and meanwhile he is 
so unattractive that it would be very difficult to fit him into a 
free place. 

Besides the boarded boys, there have been 8 others placed 
out from Berlin within the year in free homes, and 10 who went 
to their own homes. Of the former, 5 are still in place and 
3 (who were recalled for a season to Westborough) are now at 
home. Of the boys who went to their homes direct from Berlin, 
7 are so far doing well, but several of these have been home but 
a few weeks ; 2 who are unsteady are liable to recall (1 of these 
is somewhat weak-minded) ; and 1 was returned by his mother 
to Westborough. It is realized that the risk of sending boys 
home is very much greater than in sending them out to places, 
and they are therefore watched with very great anxiety. An 
effort is always made to so secure the co-operation of parents 
that they will report if their children go wrong, and in several 
instances when parents have done so, a timely word has brought 
the boy back to good behavior. In one case a mother asked 
that a weekly report on her boy might be required of her. 

Valuable experience is being gathered as to the kind of child 
whom it is desirable to place at board ; as to the degree to 
which it is well to teach the rudiments of obedience, cleanli- 



16 TRUSTEES' EEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

ness. courtesy, etc.. before placing out; as to the age at which 
it is practicable to make the boys self-supporting ; and as to 
the circumstances under which it is safe to return young boys 
to their parents. 

Because the visiting force has been short-handed, the trustees 
have taken a more immediate responsibility for the younger 
probationers than would otherwise have fallen upon them, or 
indeed, than they desire to carry right along ; but as an experi- 
ence, these personal relations with the boys out in places or 
in their own homes has given them an insight into the work 
that they could never otherwise have obtained. 

From the knowledge which the trustees have thus gathered 
of this group of their younger wards, an approximate answer 
can be given to the question so often asked as to the causes why 
boys are sent to a reform school. Taking together the whole 
group who have been at Berlin and the boys boarded out shortly 
before Berlin was opened, we have a total of 99 boys, who may 
be classified as follows : — 

Average children, with both good and "bad possibilities, but 

most of them very easily led. 55 

Uncommonly promising, 17 

Decidedly bad, i. e., bad by disposition, 10 

II : re or less under par mentally, 17 

T:tal, 99 

Three of the nicest of these boys come from notably bad 
stock. There seems no reason why this group may not be 
taken as representative. It is intended that the histories of 
these boys shall be especially followed up from year to year. 

These young Lyman School boys, it must be borne in mind, 
are not the only little juvenile offenders in the care of the State, 
for all the milder cases that come before the courts are com- 
mitted to the care of the State Board of Lunacy and Charity. 

The Lyman School opened the year with 268 inmates and 
closed with 257. The whole number of individuals in the 
school within the year was 431 : the average number was 261. 
The number committed was 124, and the number returned was 
63 ; 10 runaways were likewise returned. The number placed 
out on probation was 181, of whom 97 went to their own peo- 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

pie, 73 to be self-supporting in places and 11 were boarded. 
There were 11 transfers to the Massachusetts Reformatory. 

The total number of boys whose names were upon the books 
of the school on September 30 as under twenty-one years of 
age is 1,002 ; of these, 257 were in the school and 535 were 
probationers, subject to visitation,* while 167 are beyond prac- 
tical control, — out of the State, subject to other institutions, 
whereabouts unknown, etc., and 44 others are discharged from 
custody or dead. 

On pages 40-41 will be found statistical tables relative to the 
whole number of boys outside the school. In comparing these 
tables with those of a year ago, it is encouraging to note that, 
with an increase of 27 in the number subject to visitation, there 
has been a decrease of over 27 per cent, in the number returned 
to the school, an increase of 7 per cent, in the number doing 
well when they attained their majority, a decrease of 5 per 
cent, in those attaining their majority who had been in prison, 
and a decrease of 3 per cent, in those whose whereabouts and 
condition were unknown when they attained their majority. 

The appropriations for the past year were : for salaries, 
$27,000; for current expenses, $35,975, — a total of $62,975 
for the institution ; to be expended in behalf of probationers, 
$5,000 for visitation, $4,000 for boarding and $576 for tuition 
fees to towns. The expenditures in behalf of the institution 
from Oct. 1, 1896, to Sept. 30, 1897, was $64,446, and in be- 
half of probationers was $8,022.83. f The gross per capita cost 
of the school was $4.73, and $840.95 was turned into the State 
treasury, making a net per capita of $4.67. A table on page 
78 gives an itemized daily per capita expense for the institu- 
tion. The per capita cost of visitation was about 19 cents a 
week. The whole sum spent in behalf of the boys under the 
active care of the school, either as inmates, probationers or 
boarders, was $72,468.83, or approximately a per capita of 
$1.78 a week. 

The total cost of the Berlin cottage, counting the salaries of 
the three officers employed there, the food, clothing and fuel 

* One of these, who is outside the State, is reported on by letter. 

t This sum includes $312 paid under chapter 382, Acts of 1896, to towns for tuition in 
public schools for placed-out Lyman School boys, which money, however, is disbursed 
direct from the State treasury. 



18 TRUSTEES' EEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

consumed there, and repairs and other incidental expenses, but 
excluding any allowance for its share of the general adminis- 
tration, is estimated at $2,813.95, giving a per capita for its 
inmates of $2.84. These figures show a large saving to the 
State above what a similar institution would cost if independ- 
ently organized, and practically no increased expense is entailed 
in the administration of the main institution. The original 
outlay for the Berlin property, including house, repairs, fur- 
niture, and nearly one hundred acres of land, was $8,500. 

The appropriations to be asked this year are the usual ones 
for current expenses and salaries, for boarding and for visiting 
and schooling, and a special appropriation of $25,000 for the 
desired schoolhouse. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 



TRUSTEES' REPORT 

ON THE 



STATE INDUSTKIAL SCHOOL FOE GIKLS, 



At LANCASTER. 



The State Industrial School for Girls at Lancaster has nearly 
completed forty years of work, which may well be described as 
the work of bringing a clear stream to flow beside a muddy 
one ; bringing the influence of intelligent, earnest women to 
bear, day by day, upon young lives which have become more 
or less soiled by contact with evil in their own poor or broken 
homes. And if ever there is need for the well-directed work 
of such women, it is in carrying on such a school, and in con- 
tinuing its work in behalf of each girl who goes out from it to 
earn her living. 

The question is often and very properly asked, whether the 
good influences of the school, with its quiet yet busy household 
and out-of-door life, can in a year and a half be made effective 
enough to counteract the danger arising from bringing the girls 
together, even in groups of twenty-five ; whether, in fact, the 
work is worth its cost to the State. 

To give an exhaustive answer to this question it would be 
necessary to examine into the conditions of each girl's life 
before her commitment ; to discover whether the school and 
the care of the girls outside had always been kept up to their 
best possibilities ; and then to follow up the history of each of 
the two thousand girls who have passed through the school, — 
an impossible task. 

During the past six years, however, the annual reports have 
shown the exact number and proportion of those who, when 
discharged from the school's custody at twenty-one years of 
age, or in a few cases earlier, have become honestly self- 
supporting or well married. These figures stand as follows : — 



20 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Total behaving well at last accounts (i.e., for the most 
part within the current year mentioned), and passing out of 
the care of the school: in 1892, 72 per cent.; in 1893, 63 
per cent. ; in 1894, 6S per cent. ; in 1895, 71 per cent. ; in 

1896, 67 per cent. ; in 1897, 65 per cent. Total behaving 
badly : in 1892, 18 per cent. ; in 1893, 11 per cent. ; in 1894, 
11 per cent. ; in 1895, 10 per cent. ; in 1896, 17 per cent. ; in 

1897, 10 per cent. To this 65 per cent, behaving well when 
recently heard from, there might be added at least 3 per cent, 
who, having been transferred to Sherborn Prison, are known 
to be now respectable. The table on page 106 shows 9 per cent, 
to have been mentally defective or deranged. The 9 per cent, 
who have left their places are by no means to be yet counted as 
failures. Meantime, the success of the school in preparing 
girls to become honestly self-supporting in private families has 
been greatly increased. In 1876, when the school had been in 
working order for nearly twenty years, the average number 
in the school was 121, while only 40 were earning their way 
in families. This year the number self-supporting in private 
families exceeds the average number within the school, i.e., 
146.* 

The energy and effective co-operation of Migs Jacobs and 
Miss Beale, the officers of the State Board of Lunacy and 
Charity, who have charge of the visitation of these girls, is 
heartily appreciated by all connected with the State Industrial 
School. But the trustees would again state their belief that the 
local work of the volunteer auxiliary visitors of the State Board 
of Lunacy and Charity cannot be kept up to its highest efficiency 
without throwing a full measure of responsibility upon each 
visitor and then holding her to a strict account for her in- 
vestigation of homes and care of the girls in her district. The 
best work of these volunteers for the girls has been beyond 
price, but it rests with those who appoint them to secure from 
them their best work. Their patient and helpful interest in the 
girls they have befriended has often borne fruit which at the 
time was not hoped for. 

An analysis of the conditions to which the last one hundred 
girls were subjected before commitment serves to show how 

* Those on probation with their own relatives are not included, nor those married or 
at board. For details see tables on pages 27, 23, 29, 105 and 106. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 21 

little there was in their homes to keep them out of mischief and 
how much opportunity there may be for improvement under 
more encouraging influences. The question how to set about 
earning a living confronts even the best working girl, just 
leaving school, as a difficult problem ; how much more difficult, 
where the home life is degrading. While we find on the list 
of parents "fireman," " police detective," " weaver," " brake- 
man," " engineer," we find that nine-tenths of the homes have 
been either made miserable by the misconduct of one or both 
parents or broken up by the death of one or both, the survivor 
obliged to go to his daily work, too often leaving the children 
under second or third rate care. The list runs : — 

Mother good, father bad ; living mostly apart. 

Home good, but mother ill. 

Mother bad ; stepfather drinks. 

Mother dead ; father had. been under arrest for crime. 

Mother of uncertain character. 

Father dead ; home good. 

Father dead ; mother bad. 

Father's whereabouts unknown ; mother dead. 

Father bad ; mother good. 

Orphan. 

Mother dead ; home fairly good. 

Father temperate ; girl had been nagged by mother, who is 

intemperate. 
Father intemperate. 
Father unknown ; mother been insane. 
Home good, but mother away at work all day. 
Mother good, father intemperate ; both go out to work. 
Father dead ; mother had to go out to work. 



The trustees would again remind all interested in the welfare 
of a wayward girl of the importance of removing her from evil 
experiences as early as possible ; of putting her under control 
and good influences during girlhood, lest she drift into a 
depraved womanhood. The capacity to respond to better in- 
fluences does not depend so much upon whether she is fourteen 
or sixteen as upon whether she is becoming hardened by asso- 
ciating with dangerous companions during the easy-going, 
let-alone decision of friends or of the court to postpone the 



22 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

complaint or to continue the case. In comparing the actual 
reasons for the arrest and commitment of the girls sent to the 
school this year with those of fifteen years ago, when the lists 
were analyzed in the same manner, it is found that the pro- 
portion of those known to have become unchaste is this year 
smaller by nearly ten per cent. No one can watch the register- 
ing of the girls' histories or the girls themselves when brought 
by an officer from the court without a sense of discouragement, 
and nothing but long experience with the latent good in those 
whose appearance is so discouraging can teach the observer to 
hope for good results. Shiftlessness, vanity, aimlessness may 
be said to be traits common to nearly all, while the exceptions, 
girls w T ho are spirited and wilful, are, perhaps, the most hopeful 
subjects for the school to deal with. There is found in most 
instances a lamentable ignorance of anything which could be 
available to make a home decent for themselves or for any one 
else ; some knowledge of factory work or of table tending, 
but little of making or mending, of cooking or of keeping a 
house tidy; much knowledge of evil, with little knowledge of 
or faith in goodness. 

On coming to the school the girls are classified with all the 
care and judgment the superintendent can exercise in so im- 
portant a matter, and are not promoted from house to house, 
but except in rare instances are continued under the care of the 
same officers during their stay at the school. Several girls of 
low tendencies and defective intellect have been removed to 
the State Almshouse ; two have been transferred to Sherborn 
Prison, one because she had fallen back into a life of degrada- 
tion outside; the other because unmanageable in the school. 
It has since proved that this girl is insane enough to be removed 
from Sherborn Prison to the Hospital at the Almshouse. 

There are now in the school at Lancaster 144 girls, and, at 
the risk of repeating an old story, a short account of the meth- 
ods employed there will be given. 

First comes a gradual insistence upon obedience to rules, 
allowance being made for the «' new girl." Next, the difficult 
task of teaching some girl who has never before had a clean 
little room of her own, or perhaps has never used a thimble or 
a knitting needle, to take an interest and improve her work 
day by day. The aim of the superintendent is to secure good 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

order and systematic training, without too much routine ; to 
secure practical application by the girls of whatever they are 
taught. In the sewing class, as in the cooking, the object is 
not so much to show a perfect bit of work every time as to 
make each girl able to plan and carry out her plan for making 
out of a piece of cloth a well-cut, well-fitted, well-basted and 
well-sewed garment. While many fail to attain this degree 
of skill, the matrons are requested to throw the responsibility 
upon each girl, after teaching her the first steps, even at the 
cost of a few yards of cotton wasted in learning by making 
mistakes. The justification of this method is found in the in- 
creasing number of girls who when placed out in families can cut 
and make their own dresses well and tastefully. One of them 
writes : " I never did appreciate the school and what I learned 
there as I do now I am entering young womanhood, and need 
every talent that I can press into use. Now I can do any kind 
of dressmaking and all parts of housework, and can read and 
write fairly well, and I want to study book-keeping this win- 
ter if I can push through ; and what did I know before I was 
sent to you? — absolutely nothing." 

The superintendent has become more and more convinced 
that it is not only desirable but also practicable to secure good 
discipline by inducing the girls to look forward rather than 
backward, and to this end to hold before them the hope of 
prompt recognition and reward rather than fear of disgrace or 
of other punishment. Those who finish a pair of stockings 
within the month sometimes get an outing under the biggest 
elm in Worcester County ; and, after gathering in and topping 
beets and carrots and turnips, all will take part in the harvest 
corn roast. 

The girls have been especially interested this year in study- 
ing plants with the simplest of Gray's botanical text books, under 
the direction of their teachers, and in observing birds after lis- 
tening again to Mrs. Tryon's illustrated lecture. If there comes 
a day when the sky is blue and the leaves bright with autumn 
red and yellow, the sewing is laid aside for an hour or two, 
and the girls taken on a walk for asters and gentians. 

Although the two new houses occupy rather more ground 
space, in order to provide sleeping-rooms for all the girls upon 
the same floor, and are more tastefully finished in some respects, 



24 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

their appointments are as simple as in the older brick buildings, 
even to the avoidance of set tubs and other such luxuries as 
might not be found in the plain farmhouses where some of the 
best homes are to be found for girls when they first leave the 
school. It is hard to dispense with modern improvements to 
which one has become accustomed, but very easy to adopt such, 
if, on proving reliable, the girls advance to places where, for 
a higher grade of housework, they would find more household 
conveniences and earn higher wages. 

The earliest schools for juvenile offenders in France and 
England, which served as models for ours in Massachusetts, 
were originally proposed as an alternative to the prisons or 
houses of correction where boys and girls must associate with 
adult criminals and thenceforth bear the prison stigma. Objec- 
tion was at first made to the reform-school scheme, lest" these 
boys and girls should be " coddled" and vice thus be encouraged 
among them. To meet this objection as well as the actual 
necessity of economy where money was but grudgingly allowed, 
all was arranged upon the simplest plan. At Mettray, in the 
west of France, the " house brothers " received little more than 
maintenance and clothing, sharing with the pupils a life of self- 
denial and toil ; and there, as well as at Hardwicke, near 
Gloucester, England, many of these primitive customs still pre- 
vail. In the former the boys sleep in hammocks, wear wooden 
shoes and drink from tin cans ; in the latter they still bring all 
their water in barrels from the river. These boys were thus 
prepared to earn their living on the sea or among the peasants 
or other small farmers, cobblers or tailors of neighboring dis- 
tricts, who would take them as bound apprentices, giving them 
a home in exchange for services actual or prospective. In New 
England and under present conditions such excessive simplicity 
is unnecessary, because here the employers themselves are bet- 
ter housed and fed. 

But while boys, especially those committed from cities and 
manufacturing towns, may often be safely and with advantage 
placed with their relatives and so find means of livelihood in 
some trade or other occupation for which a good manual train- 
ing has equipped them, the girls such as come to the Lancaster 
school can rarely be safely returned direct from the school to 
the surroundings from which they were taken ; can never be 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 25 

placed directly at a trade where they must board or lodge 
amonsf strangers. Their work is most in demand and their safe- 

© © 

keeping best secured among the plain, country families, in 
whose houses neither steam heat nor set tubs are to be found. 

Believing, then, that the school is made for the girls, not the 
girls for the school, we must, in planning for the industrial 
training we are to give them and for the habits we are to en- 
graft upon their ill-regulated minds, look forward to their going 
out; imagine them at their daily work in a farmhouse, with its 
well-sweep or kitchen pump, with wash tubs and milk pans to 
be kept clean by their labor. 

We have at the State Industrial School officers as devoted to 
the reformatory work of these days as were those founders of 
the system at Mettray or Red Hill ; women who, believing in 
the need of working in the spirit of true service, are willing, 
for the girls' sake, to forego many comforts to which they have 
been accustomed, in order to ensure a cheerful acceptance of 
conditions so important to the girls. These women, accustomed 
to plain living and high thinking, teach the girls by example as 
well as by precept that refinement is to be sought not in hands 
soft and unused to work, but in conduct, dress and manners 
becoming a right-minded, self-respecting girl. For such as are 
capable of intellectual advancement they try to find oppor- 
tunities for working for board and schooling, as seven of our 
girls are already doing. 

The trustees desire to record their cordial appreciation of the 
valuable services of Mrs. Brackett, who, aided by the zealous 
co-operation of her assistants, has maintained this high standard 
of reformatory work at the Girls' Industrial School. 

The trustees are convinced of the need and growing demand 

© © 

for this State Institution. There seems to be nothing in the 

© 

industrial conditions of the past year to account for the increase 
in number of commitments, and they venture to hope that this 
steady increase from year to year is to be accounted for not 
by an increase in vice ; not only by a more enlightened interest 
on the part of the community, but also by a general recognition 
of the results of the school work as shown in the conduct of 
the girls, more than two-thirds of whom are known to have be- 
come at attainment of majority honestly self-supporting or 
respectable members of the community. 



26 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

From whatever cause, the number of commitments has been 
doubled within the past five years, there having been in 188 1— 
82, 50 ; in 1896-97, 100. Without using the attics as sleeping- 
rooms, a practice condemned by the State inspectors during the 
season when artificial heat is used, the new house, to be finished 
this autumn, will provide for no larger number than is already 
on the grounds ; and yet there are only 58 who were in the 
school a year ago or preceding that time. To place a girl out 
before she is fitted to take a place in a well-regulated family 
is short-sighted policy, too often resulting in failure to meet 
requirements and her return to the school as unsatisfactory. 
The agents of the State Board of Lunacy and Charity have 
within the year found at the courts only about 11 girls fit for 
placing directly in families, and they fully believe in the advan- 
tage of a year or two of training before placing out. In view 
of these considerations, the trustees recommend further provi- 
sion for such girls, either by organization of a new industrial 
school, upon a small scale, in another location, to be grouped 
with the present Industrial School, under the charge of the 
Lyman and Industrial Schools trustees; or both schools to be 
placed under the charge of a separate board of trustees having 
no other duties than those connected with the girls belonging 
to these two schools ; or, if the Legislature should so decree, 
by increase of accommodation upon the present grounds. 

We now expect that the new house will be furnished and 
ready for occupancy by Jan. 1, 1898. It has been constructed 
upon substantially the plans of the Anne B. Richardson cottage, 
which has proved very satisfactory. 

The trustees of the Maine School for Girls, of which institu- 
tion a former matron at Lancaster is superintendent, have visited 
Lancaster for the purpose of examining this building, and were 
so well pleased that they have secured duplicate plans from the 
architects, J. Thissell & Son of Clinton, for their use. 

The increasing numbers at Lancaster require a larger supply 
of milk. To meet this need our herd of cows will have to be 
increased. Enough hay and fodder is produced from the farm 
to feed them, but there is need of enlarged quarters for cows 
and the storage of farm products. More than twenty tons of 
hay cut the present season has been stacked outside the barn. 



1897. J 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



27 



To provide for this the trustees think it needful to build a cattle 
shed, using the space now occupied by the cows for storage 
purposes. The cellar of such a building could be profitably 
used for the storage of vegetables and fruit, and a shelter for 
the farm tools and carts. We shall ask for an appropriation 
for such an addition to our barn. 

A committee has under consideration the subject of a change 
in the method of lighting the buildings and grounds. At 
present kerosene is used. The superintendent has asked the 
Board to plan for a change, as the fire inspector considers its 
use attended with much danger to both life and property. The 
trustees will ask for an appropriation to provide a new method 
of lighting the houses. 

The average number of girls in the school has been 138. The 
appropriation for salaries and current expenses was $27,775. 
The total expenditure from Sept. 30, 1896, to Sept. 30, 1897, 
has been $28,256.64; the amount sent the State treasurer, 
$343.05; the gross per capita cost per week, $3.93 ; net, $3.89. 
In addition to this, there has been appropriated for tuition of 
girls under school age in towns where they are placed, $125. 







Appropriation 
allowed 

from Jan. 1 to 
Jan. 1. 


Average 


Number of 


Number 


Weekly 


Total Actual 

Cost 
from Sept. 30 
to Sept. 30. 




Number in 
School. 


Com- 
mitments. 


at Work in 
Families. 


Per Capita 
Cost. 


1866, . 


$20,000 


144 


59 


53 


$3 30 


824,753 


1876, 






28,300 


121 


53 


40 


4 05 


25,653 


1890, 






20,000 


94 


56 


90 


4 08 


20,000 


1891, 






21,000 


89 


46 


98 


4 38 


21,000 


1892, 






20,000 


89 


50 


118 


4 46 


21,329 


1893, 






21,500 


95 


77 


109 


4 02 


19,856 


1894, 






25,385 


117 


78 


111 


3 49 


21,617 


1895, 






27,750 


116 


72 


120 


4 62 


28,801 


1896, 






27,775 


120 


86 


120 


4 17 


26,049 


1897, 






27,775 


138 


100 


146* 


3 93 


28,256 



Summary of Commitments and Discharges. 



Total in custody at beginning of year, 
New commitments, 
Attained majority, 
Discharged by trustees, 

Died, 

Total who passed out of custody, . 



Net increase, 



1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


272 


283 


313 


353 


365 


384 


50 


77 


78 


72 


86 


100 


36 


44 


36 


53 


58 


51 


1 


3 


2 


5 


6 


6 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


- 39 


- 47 


— 38 


— 58 


— 67 


— 58 



11 



30 



40 



14 



19 



42 



* Includes the 7 girls earning their schooling. 



28 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 



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1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No 18. 



29 



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30 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



TRUST FUNDS OF LYMAN AND INDUS- 
TRIAL SCHOOLS. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

State Reform School, Lyman Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Lyman Fund. 

1896. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance of former account, 

2. Dividend Citizens' National Bank, . 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Interest on Worcester Street Railroad bonds, 
Interest on Old Colony Railroad bond, . 

State tax refunded, 

Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 





31. 


1897. 


Jan. 


15. 


Feb. 


8. 


Mar. 


31. 


April 


1. 


June 30 


July 


16. 


Sept. 


23 



30. 



Dividend Fitchburg Railroad, . 
Interest on Old Colony Railroad bond, . 
Interest on Worcester Street Railroad bonds, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Citizens' National Bank, . 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Fitchburg Railroad, . 
Interest on Old Colony Railroad bond, . 
Interest on Worcester Street Railroad bonds, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Payment of Old Colony Railroad bond, . 



$1,712 18 


120 00 


286 00 


200 00 


60 00 


82 16 


286 00 


184 00 


30 00 


100 00 


286 00 


120 00 


286 00 


184 00 


30 00 


100 00 


286 00 


1,000 00 



$5,352 34 

1896. CR. 

Oct. 1. Lecture, Charlotte M. Howes, . . . . . f 15 00 

7. C. G. Bancroft, 5 00 

9. Services at Berlin, 24 00 

L. J. Chace, entertainment, 15 00 

Dec. 4. Magic lantern, etc., 95 75 

29. Deposit Fall River Five Cents Savings Bank, . . 500 00 

Deposit Franklin Savings Institution, . . . 500 00 

Deposit Worcester North Savings Institution, . 500 00 

Amount carried forward, $ 1 ,654 75 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



Amount brought forward, 



1897. 






Jan. 


2. 


Telephone poles, 






Entertainments, 






9. 


Services at Berlin, 






15. 


Entertainments, 




Feb. 


8. 


Extra reports, . 

Tools for T. O'Brien, 

Scientific instruments, 

Books, 

Telephone plant, Berlin, 

Lantern slides, . 




May 


25. 


Skates, etc., 

Books, 

Sunday services, Berlin, 

Entertainments, 

Measuring instruments, 




June 


9. 


July Fourth, celebration, 






21. 


Tools for school- boy, 




July 


17. 


Services at Berlin, . 






28. 


Calcium Light Company, 




Aug. 


1. 


A. Lundgren, special teacher, 
A. Lundgren, special teacher, 


Sept. 


9. 


Alliston Greene, 




23. 


Measuring instruments, . 






Balance forward, 







31 


$1,654 


75 


215 


35 


21 


75 


26 00 


15 


80 


100 00 


7 


90 


140 


60 


200 


00 


1,108 85 


2 


35 


13 


70 


7 


60 


26 


00 


72 


30 


6 


10 


50 00 


10 00 


26 


00 


6 


00 


35 71 


15 


71 


16 


66 


5 


00 


1,568 


21 



Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$5,352 34 



State Reform School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 



1896. 


Oct. 


1. 


Oct. 


2. 


Dec. 


31. 


1897. 


Mar. 


31. 


June 30. 


Sept. 


30. 



Dr. 

Balance of former account, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 

Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 



Cr. 



Balance forward. 



Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E C. Sanford. 



$327 93 
12 00 
12 00 

12 00 
12 00 
12 00 

$387 93 
$387 93 



32 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



Industrial School, Mary Lamb Fond. 

Henry C. Gkeeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 

1896. Dr. 

Oct, 1. Balance of former account, $79 72 

Oct. 2. Dividend Boston National Bank, .... 26 00 

Dec. 29. State tax refunded, 15 77 

1897. 

April 3. Dividend Boston National Bank, .... 26 00 

$147 49 

1896. CR. 

Nov. 30. Christmas, . $30 00 

1897. 

June 9. Independence Day, 20 00 

Sept. 24. Prizes, 10 07 

Balance forward, 87 42 

$147 49 
Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved: M. H. "Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



Industrial School, Fay Fund. 
Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Fay Fund. 

1896. Dr. 

Oct. 31. Interest Chelsea Savings Bank, .... $40 40 

1896. CR. 

Oct. 31. Mrs. L. L. Brackett, for best girls, .... $40 40 

Sept. 30, 1*97. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Saneord. 

Inventory of Lyman School Investments. 

Lyman Fund. 
143 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, 



92 shares Fitchburg Railroad stock, . 

40 shares Citizens 1 National Bank, 
4 $1,000 Worcester Street Railroad bonds 
Deposit Monson Savings Bank, 
Deposit Ware Savings Bank, 
Deposit Palmer Savings Bank, 
Deposit Hampden Savings Bank, . 



Par Value. Market Value. 

$14,300 00 $28,600 00 

9,200 00 6,900 00 

4,000 00 4,800 00 

4,000 00 4,000 00 

1,332 54 1,332 54 

1,356 96 1,356 96 

1,330 71 1,330 71 

1,319 38 1,319 38 



Amounts carried forward, .... $36,839 59 f 49,639 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



33 



Amounts brought forward, 



Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 
ings, 
Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 
Deposit 



Springfield Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Springfield Institution for Savings, 
People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Worcester County Institution for Sav- 



Westborough Savings Bank, . 
Amherst Savings Bank, . 
Worcester Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Franklin Savings Institution, . 
Worcester North Savings Institution, 
Fall River Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Clinton Savings Bank, 
Clinton First National Bank, , 



Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved : M. H. "Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 

Mary Lamb Fund. 

6 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, . 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 

Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



Par Value. 


Market Value. 


$36,839 59 


$49,639 59 


1,319 38 


1,319 38 


1,195 06 


1,195 06 


1,303 34 


1,303 34 


1,296 71 


1,296 71 


1,306 42 


1,306 42 


1,301 31 


1,301 31 


1,290 55 


1,290 55 


1,073 06 


1,073 06 


1,073 06 


1,073 06 


1,070 66 


1,070 66 


1,126 14 


1,126 14 


1,568 21 


1,568 21 



$51,763 49 $64,563 49 



$600 00 


$1,200 00 


647 94 


647 94 


387 93 


387 93 



$1,635 87 $2,235 87 



Inventory of Industrial School Investments. 

Mary Lamb Fund. 

13 shares Boston National Bank stock, . . . $1,300 00 $1,300 00 

Deposit Clinton First National Bank, ... 87 42 87 42 



Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$1,387 42 $1,387 42 



Fay Fund. 
Deposit in Chelsea Savings Bank, 

Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



Rogers Fund. 
One State of Maine 6 per cent, bond, in custody 
of State Treasurer, $1,000 00 

Sept. 30, 1897. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$1,020 00 $1,020 00 



$1,000 00 



EEPORT OF THE OFFICERS 

OF THE 

LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS 

AT 

WESTBOROUGH. 

1896-97. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

I herewith submit for your consideration the annual report for the 
year ending Sept. 30, 1897. 

Our average number has been 3 less than in 1896. You will notice, 
we have received less new commitments than any year since 1891, — 
nearly 14 per cent, less than 1896 and 2 per cent, less than 1895. 

The number of boys returned from probation has been less than in 
1896. Eighteen boys have been returned from their homes, of whom 
1 has been allowed to return to his home again, 5 have been placed 
in other homes, 1 transferred to the Massachusetts Reformatory, 1 
transferred to the State Farm and 10 still remain here. Forty-one 
boys have been returned from places, of whom 16 have been placed 
again, 6 have been transferred to the Massachusetts Reformatory, 1 
transferred to the State Farm, 2 returned to their homes and 16 re- 
main here. 

The labor of the boys has been utilized in making improvements 
about the school grounds. A large amount of grading has been done 
about the barn. A small addition, made necessary when the old cow 
barn was taken down, has been made to the horse barn, a building 
erected to protect the hay scales and for the storage of the fire 
apparatus, and two old buildings are being moved together to be 
made into a piggery, — all done by boys' labor, under direction of 
their masters. 

A number of boys were instructed in cabinet making by the master 
of Hillside cottage the past year. Several nice chamber sets, two 
large office desks, a filing cabinet and several bookcases were made. 
This, together with a considerable amount of carpenter work, has 
been quite a saving to the institution. 



38 SUPT.'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Our new cow barn has enabled us to keep more cows, so that the 
milk production was 66 per cent, greater than 1896, and in conse- 
quence milk has entered more largely into the boys' diet than formerly. 

The health of the boys has been excellent. The reports of the 
heads of the various departments show about what work has been 
done in each department. 

The statistical tables will be found interesting. 

Respectfully submitted, 



WALTER M. DAY, 

Acting Superintendent* 



* The superintendent, Mr. Theodore F. Chapin, is away from the school on a four- 
months leave of absence. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



39 



Table No. 1. 

Showing the Number received and released, and the General Condition 
of the School for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1897. 

Boys in school Sept. 30, 1896, 268 

Received. — Since committed, 124 

Returned from places, 57 

Returned " boarded-out " boys, .... 3 

Returned Berlin boys, not " boarded out," . . 2 

Recommitted, 1 

Runaways recaptured, 10 

197 

Whole number in school during the year, *465 

Released. — On probation to parents, 97 

On probation to others, 73 

Boarded out, 11 

Transferred to Massachusetts Reformatory, . .11 

Runaways, 9 

Discharged as unfit subjects, 2 

Delivered to local court, 1 

To State Farm, Bridgewater, 2 

To State Almshouse, Tewksbury, .... 2 

208 

Remaining in school Sept. 30, 1897, 257 



Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number discharged and Average Number 

for Each Month. 



MONTHS. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average No. 


October, 


17 


11 


274.85 


November, 














16 


17 


274.40 


December, 














13 


14 


272.64 


January, . 














17 


8 


275.80 


February, 














14 


25 


276.43 


March, . 














17 


21 


264.38 


April, 














15 


30 


257.56 


May, 














15 


20 


247.86 


June, 














15 


10 


247.56 


July, . 














11 


12 


251.67 


August, . 














17 


17 


249.43 


September, 














30 


23 


249.86 


Totals, 














197 


208 


261.87 



* This number represents 431 individuals. 



40 STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Table No. 3. 

A. Showing the Status of All Boys under Twenty-one whose Names 

were on the Books of the Lyman School Sept. 30, 1897. 

In the school, 257 

Released from the school, but still subject to its control : — 

With parents (281 known to be self-supporting), . . 333 

With others, 128 

For themselves, 33 

At board, 23 

Have been in penal institutions other than the Massachu- 
setts Reformatory, 17 

534 

Still legally in custody, but beyond practical control : — 

Lost sight of : — 

This year, 19 

Previously, 15 

Runaways from school, . . . . . .7 

41 

Released to go out of the State, 13 

Left the State, .16 

In United States Navy, . . 2 

In State Almshouse, 2 

Massachusetts Reformatory (sent this year, 11; in former 

years,* 81), 92 

166 

Discharged from the care of the school : — 

Returned to court as over age limit, 12 

Discharged as unfit subjects, to parents, .... 9 
Discharged as unfit subjects, to State Board of Lunacy and 

Charity, 3 

In Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, .... 5 

Dead, . . . 15 

44 

Total, 1,002 

B, Showing Condition by Ages of All Boys Outside the School, but 

Subject to its Custody. 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation up to Oct. 1, 1897 : — 

Doing well, 503 or 71 per cent. 

Not doing well, 14 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . Ill or 16 per cent. 
Out of the State, . . . . . . . . 32 or 5 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 41 or 6 per cent. 

Total, 701 

* Most of those seat la former years have beea released oa tickets of leave. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 



Table No. 3 — Continued. 

Condition of boys under twenty-one on probation one year or more : — 
Doing well, ....... 

Not doing well, 

Have been in other penal institutions, . 

Out of the State, 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, 



Total, 



881 or 68 


per cent. 


7 or 1 


per cent. 


105 or 19 


per cent. 


29 or 5 


per cent. 


38 or 7 


per cent. 



503 



Condition of boys under twenty-one on probation two years or more : — 

Doing well, 275 or 64£ per cent. 

Not doing well, . . . . . . . 7 or 1£ per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, ... 95 or 22£ per cent. 

Out of the State, 22 or 5 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 28 or 6£ per cent. 

Total, " . . .427 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
nineteenth year before Oct. 1, 1897 : — 

Doing well, 85 or 65£ per cent. 

Not doing well, 2 or 1£ per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 30 or 23 per cent. 

Out of the State, 8 or 6 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 5 or 4 per cent. 

Total, 130 

Conditions of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
twentieth year before Oct. 1, 1897 : — 

Doing well, 70 or 59 per cent. 

Not doing well, . . ... . . . 2 or U per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 33 or 28£ per cent. 

Out of the State, 5 or 4 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 9 or 7 per cent. 

Total, 119 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one who complete their twenty-first 
year before Oct. 1, 1897 : — 

Doing well, 

Not doing well, 

Been in some other penal institution, . 

Released to go out of the State, . 

Lost track of, 

Doing well at last accounts, ... 7 

Not doing well at last accounts, . . 4 

11 or 11 per cent. 

Total, 98 



52 or 53 


per cent. 


2 or 2 


per cent. 


29 or 30 


per cent. 


4 or 4 


per cent. 



42 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 3 — Concluded. 

C. Visitation of Probationers. 

Visits made by agents of the school, 1,462 

Visits made by trustees, 95 

Of the 1,557 visits, 635 were to 289 boys over eighteen years, 

and 922 to boys under eighteen. 
Whole number of names on visiting list for the year, 

Investigation of homes by agents, 130 

Investigation of homes by trustees, ...... 7 



Investigation of places by agents, 
Investigation of places by trustees, 



22 
6 



$960.37 have been collected in behalf of 32 boys. 



1,557 



683 



137 



28 



Table No. 4. 

Showing the Commitments from the Several Counties the Past Year 

and Previously, 



cou 


<rriES 




Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Barnstable, 












- 


56 


56 


Berkshire, 












6 


244 


250 


Bristol, . 












19 

I 


642 


661 


Dukes, 














17 


17 


Essex, 












11 


1,113 


1,124 


Franklin, . 












- 


55 


55 


Hampden, 












9 


439 


448 


Hampshire, 












3 


86 


89 


Middlesex, 












25 


1,317 


1,342 


Nantucket, 












- 


17 


17 


Norfolk, . 












5 


465 


470 


Plymouth, 












3 


138 


141 


Suffolk, . 












27 


1,493 


1,520 


Worcester, 












16 


801 


817 


Totals, . 


124 


6,883 


7,007 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



43 



Table No. 5. 
Showing Nativity of Parents of Boys committed during the Year. 

Fathers born in the United States, 16 

Mothers born in the United States, 15 

Fathers foreign born, 12 

Mothers foreign born, 11 

Both parents born in the United States, 23 

Both porents foreign born, 34 

Unknown, 24 

One parent unknown, 32 

Per cent, of American parentage, 31 

Per cent, of foreign parentage, 37 

Per cent, unknown, 32 



Showing Nativity of Boys committed daring the Year. 

Born in the United States, . . . . . 

Foreign born (6 in Canada), . 

Unknown, 



103 

20 

1 



Showing Nativity of Parents of Boys committed during the Past Ten 

Years. 





ao 
ao 
ao 


si 

30 

ao 


© 

00 


H 
Si 

ao 


Si 

3D 


M 

Si 

ao 


<* 
& 

30 


IS 

Si 

ao 


ao 


ao 


Fathers born in United States, 


29 


7 


7 


10 


12 


7 


15 


18 


13 


16 


Mothers horn in United States, 




32 


13 


4 


10 


7 


8 


17 


11 


14 


15 


Fathers foreign bom, 




63 


11 


5 


18 


5 


10 


9 


7 


8 


12 


Mothers foreign born, 




58 


9 


9 


5 


12 


8 


17 


25 


6 


11 


Both parents born in United State* 


> • 


20 


29 


22 


20 


22 


24 


18 


31 


27 


23 


Both parents foreign born, 




48 


71 


52 


53 


54 


70 


59 


61 


51 


34 


Unknown, .... 




13 


13 


11 


7 


23 


20 


32 


34 


34 


24 


One parent unknown, 










8 


16 


19 


20 


25 


23 


32 


Per cent, of American parentage, 




29 


35 


28 


29 


25 


23 


24 


29 


28 


31 


Per cent, of foreign parentage, 




64 


54 


60 


60 


50 


56 


50 


42 


40 


37 


Per cent, unknown, 




9 


11 


12 


11 


25 


21 


26 


29 


32 


32 



Shoiving Nativity of Boys committed during the Past Ten Years. 



Is 

ao 


05 

ao 
ao 


o 
a 
ao 


H 
Si 

ao 


Si 

ao 


M 
C5 

ao 


Cs 
30 


Si 

ao 


& 

Si 

ao 


ao 


Born in the United States, 

Foreign born, 

Unknown, 


89 
10 


105 

17 

2 


77 
14 

1 


86 
23 


105 

19 

1 


110 
36 


110 
32 


130 

35 

2 


115 
29 


103 
20 

1 



44 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 6. 

Showing by what Authority the Commitments have been made the Past 

Year. 



COMMITMENTS. 

By district court, 

municipal court, . . 

police court, 

superior court, 

trial justices, 

State Board of Lunacy and Charity, . 

Total 



61 

22 

31 

1 

4 

5 



124 



Table No. 7. 

Showing Age of Boys when committed. 



AGE. 


Committed 

during 
Past Year. 


Committed 
Previously. 


Totals. 


Six, 


- 


5 


5 


Seven, 


- 


25 


25 


Eight 


- 


120 


120 


Nine, 


2 


236 


238 


Ten, 


2 


465 


467 


Eleven, 


6 


687 


693 


Twelve, 


21 


948 


969 


Thirteen, 


28 


1,257 


1,285 


Fourteen, 


62 


1,407 


1,469 


Fifteen, 


2 


960 


962 


Sixteen, ....... 


1 


531 


532 


Seventeen, 


- 


181 


181 


Eighteen and over, 


- 


17 


17 


Unknown, 


- 


44 


44 


Totals, 


124 


6,883 


7,007 



Average age of boys when committed, 13.31 years. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



45 






Table No. 8. 

Showing the Domestic Condition of the 124 Boys who have been com- 
mitted to the School during the Year.* 

Had parents, 62 

no parents, 8 

father 30 

mother, 2o 

step-father, 9 

step-mother, . . . .12 

intemperate father, . ... . . . . . .51 

intemperate mother, 2 

both parents intemperate, . 6 

parents separated, 4 

attended church, 122 

never attended church, 2 

not attended school within one year, . . . . . . 16 

not attended school within two years, 8 

not attended school within three years, 2 

been arrested before, . .64 

been inmates of other institutions, . . ... . . .36 

used intoxicating liquor, 13 

used tobacco (mostly cigarettes), .88 

Were employed in the mill or otherwise when arrested, ... 28 
Were attending school, . . . . . . . . . .36 

Were idle, 60 

Could not read or write, 8 

Parents owning residence, . . . . . . . . .17 

Members of the family had been arrested, 47 



Table No. 9. 

Showing the Length of Time the 199 Boys who have left the Past 
Year have spent in the School since committed. 



3 months or less, ... 7 


1 year 2 months, 


4 


4 months, . 






o 


1 year 3 months, 


. 3 


5 months, . 






5 


1 year 4 months, 


9 


6 months, . 






2 


1 year 5 months, 


9 


7 months, . 






3 


1 year 6 months, 


11 


8 months, . 






2 


1 year 7 months, 


9 


9 months, . 






3 


1 year 8 months, 


15 


10 months, . 






4 


1 year 9 months, 


12 


11 months, 






6 


1 year 10 months, 


10 


1 year, 






3 


1 year 11 months, 


7 


1 year 1 month. 






6 


2 years, .... 


7 



* These facts are gathered for the most part from the boys' testimony. 



46 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct, 



Table No. 9 — Concluded. 



2 years 1 month, ... 3 


3 years 


2 months, 


_ 


2 years 2 months, 




7 


3 years 


3 months, 






- 


2 years 3 months, 




8 


3 years 


4 months, 






1 


2 years 4 months, 




1 


3 years 


5 months, 






3 


2 years 5 months, 




10 


3 years 


6 months, . 






- 


2 years 6 months, 




2 


3 years 


7 months, 






1 


2 years 7 months, 




4 


3 years 


8 months, 






1 


2 years 8 months, 




2 


3 years 


9 months, 






- 


2 years 9 months, 




6 


3 years 


10 months, . 






1 


2 years 10 months, 




3 


3 years 


11 months, . 






1 


2 years 11 months, 




. 2 


4 years or more, 






- 


3 years, 




2 









3 years 1 month, 




2 


Total, . 


. 199 


Average time spent in the insti 


Aition, 


, 


. 


21 months. 


Average time spent in the insti 


tntion of boarded boys, . 


11.2 months. 


Average time spent in the institutio 


n of probationers not 




boarded released 


for the fii 


-st tim 


e, . 


. 


22.4 mo 


nths. 



Table No. 10. 

Comparative Table, showing Average Numbers of Inmates and Num- 
ber of New Commitments, etc., for a Period of Ten Years. 





Average 
Number. 


New Com- 
mitments. 


Returned 

for 
Any Cause. 


Placed on 
Probation. 


Discharged 
Otherwise.* 


1887-88, 


127.24 


99 


38 


91 


22 


1888-89, 










168.23 


124 


39 


93 


19 


1889-90, 










186.46 


92 


18 


89 


16 


1890-91, 










183.96 


109 


21 


99 


16 


1891-92, 










203.88 


125 


30 


120 


16 


1892 93, 










226.05 


146 


49 


122 


31 


1893-94, 










228.00 


142 


53 


124 


75f 


1894-95, 










246.73 


167 


79 


188$ 


28f 


1895-96, 










264.61 


144 


88 


212§ 


16 


1896-97, 










2)1.87 


124 


73 


170|| 


38 


Average 


fori 


;en y 


3a rs, 


209.7 


127.2 


48.8 


130.8 


27.7 



* This includes boys transferred to any other institution, returned to court, discharged 
as unfit subjects, runaways, etc. 

t The large number of these two years was due to the fact that numbers of young 
boys were trans- fei red to the State Primary School. 

X Eighteen of th se were boarded. § Twenty -nine of these were boarded. 

II Eleven of these were boarded. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



47 



Table No. 11. 
Showing Commitments by Months for Ten Years. 





1888. 


1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


October, . 


4 


16 


6 


8 


13 


17 


18 


18 


10 


10 


November, 


7 


13 


4 


5 


5 


12 


11 


9 


6 


10 


December, 


14 


15 


15 


2 


4 


13 


9 


7 


11 


9 


January, . 


3 


13 


5 


4 


13 


6 


16 


5 


9 


8 


February, 


7 


4 


3 


6 


7 


5 


8 


10 


7 


9 


March, . 


5 


10 


8 


6 


10 


13 


16 


14 


15 


11 


April, 


2 


3 


8 


17 


5 


6 


9 


18 


10 


11 


May, 


11 


12 


10 


10 


12 


14 


15 


12 


9 


. 7 


June, 


13 


8 


7 


12 


15 


6 


13 


22 


13 


6 


July, 


9 


8 


5 


15 


17 


10 


4 


20 


23 


9 


August, . 


8 


13 


9 


14 


16 


17 


12 


16 


23 


13 


September, 


16 


9 


12 


10 


8 


27 


11 


16 


8 
144 


21 


Totals, . 


99 


124 


92 


109 


125 


146 


142 


167 


124 



Table No. 12. 

Offences with which Boys committed the Past Year have been 

charged. 

Breaking, entering and larceny, 30 

Larceny, 46 

Stubbornness, 34 

Assault, 4 

Burning building, 1 

Vagrancy, 2 

Disturbing a public school, 3 

False pretences, .1 

Obstructing railroad, 1 

Unlawfully taking and using a horse, 2 

124 



48 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 13. — Some Comparative Statistics. 

A. Showing the Average Age of Boys released on Probation for 
the Past Ten Years. 



1888, . 


. 14.96 


1893, . 


. 14.81 


1889, . 


. 15.17 


1894, . 


. 14.94 


1890, . 


. 15.1 


1895, . 


. 15.49 


1891, . 


. 15.48 


1896, . 


. 15.17 


1892, . 


. 15.63 


1897, . 


. 15.15 



B. Showing the Average Time spent in the Institution for the Past 

Ten Years. 



1888, . 


17.58 months. 


1893, . . 


. 19.4 months. 


1889, . 


17.3 months. 


1894, . 


. 16.95 months. 


1890, . 


18.38 months. 


1895, . 


. 21.17 months. 


1891, . 


22.6 months. 


1896, . 


. 18.03 months* 


1892, . 


22.1 months. 


1897, . 


. 21.0 months. 



C. Showing the Average Age of Commitment for the Past Ten Years. 



1888, . 


. 12.92 


1893, . 


. 13.39 


1889, . 


. 13.07 


1894, , 


. 13.87 


1890, . 


. 13.15 


1895, . 


. 13.44 


1891, . 


. 13.89 


1896, . 


. 13.63 


1892, . 


. 13.73 


1897, . 


. 13.31 



D. Shelving the Number of Boys returned from Place for any Cause 

for Ten Years. 



1888, . 


34 


1893, . 


35 


1889, . 


20 


1894, . 


33 


1890, . 


14 


1895, . 


60 


1891, . 


21 


1896, . 


. . 87f 


1892, . 


30 


1897, . 


73f 



* Shorter average is due to the number of young boys boarded out. 
t Increase partly because of closer supervifaion of probationers, partly because of 
larger number on probation. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



49 



Table No. 14. 
Report of Sewing Room for Year ending Sept. 30, 1897. 



Articles made. 


Articles repaired. 


Aprons, . . . . 131 


Aprons, 17 


Blue jackets, 








16 


Blankets, | 








8 


Bean bags, 








30 


Braces, . 








92 


Coffee bags, 








1 


Coats, 








119 


Curtains, 








10 


Caps, 








45 


Coverings, 








1 


Comforters, 








1 


Coats, 








1 


Curtains, 








4 


Dish cloths, 








108 


Cut patterns, 








6 


Dish towels, 








101 


Drawers, 








82 


Holders, . 








35 


Handkerchiefs 


i 






2 


Napkins, . 








515 


Jackets, . 








40 


Night shirts, 








41 


Mittens, . 








24 


Pants, 








572 


Mats, 








4 


Pillow slips, 








414 


Napkins, 








63 


Pillow ticks, 








26 


Night shirts, 








52 


Sheets, . 








257 


Pants, 








558 


Shirts, . 








459 


Pillow slips, 








41 


Sleeve holders, 






45 


Pillows, . 








3 


Spreads, . 






3 


Sheets, . 








74 


Strips for labels, 






29 


Shirts, 








477 


Sausage bags, 






32 


Spreads, . 








3 


Table cloths, . 






7 


Slippers, . 








2 


Towels, . 






419 


Table cloths, 








23 


White aprons, 






6 


Towels, . 








95 


White jackets, 






8 








White frock, . 






1 


1,835 










3,268 













Average number of boys employed in sewing room, 
Number of different boys employed, . 



4.33 
10 



Laundry Work for the Tear ending Sept. 30, 1897. 

Number of pieces washed, 293,180 

Number of pieces ironed, 207,074 

Number of pieces starched, 15,506 

Average number of boys employed in laundry work, . . . 34.6 

Number of different boys employed, 104 



50 PRINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



KEPORT OF PRINCIPAL OF SCHOOLS. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

As will be seen by reference to the tables giving a summary of the 
past year's work, instruction has been given to 431 different boys. Of 
this number, eight could neither read nor write when they entered the 
school, and several of these were able only imperfectly to understand 
or make use of the English language. Such cases have required 
much patience and considerable tact on the part of the teacher ; but 
with the methods employed, marked progress has been made, as 
some of these boys can now read understanding^ in the First 
Readers and can write brief reports of talks on different subjects, 
being aided only in their spelling of such words as they have not yet 
learned. This shows conclusively that there has been great gain in 
their command of a language not their own. 

Even more attention than formerly has been paid to reading in all 
the grades ; and do doubt the interest in this line has been increased 
by having books in the play -rooms, where boys may have access to 
them during play-hours. In this way, some boys have read a large 
number of books during the year, from which, we believe, have been 
received thoughts and impulses which will prove ennobling. A daily 
newspaper also has been placed within their reach for a few months 
past, that they may know current events and also learn history as it 
is being made in the world. Once a week they have given in their 
own language the items which have especially interested them. 

Being desirous to give all needed drill in language and memory 
exercises, we have required the boys to give reports of sermons, 
talks on geographical and astronomical subjects, travels, etc. ; and 
the results have been very satisfactory. Boys, whose reports at first 
were very meagre, are now able to give pages, in language well 
chosen, and many of them take delight also in illustrating their 
papers. From this we see that some boys at least have learned to 
concentrate their attention ; and thus their powers of thought have 
been strengthened, as by their gymnastic exercises their muscles 
have gained vigor. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 51 

The improvement in penmanship has been quite noticeable, espe- 
cially in the lower grades. 

In arithmetic, history, etc., the results have been uniformly good, 
various methods having been used, according to the classes. 

Considerable progress has been made in drawing, one class having 
taken up designing for wood carving. In this work they have used 
conventional forms of leaves, flowers and fruit. 

The boys are always ready for their singing exercise ; and it is 
pleasant to know that many of them prefer hymns and songs in which 
are the most tender strains, — words and music which breathe forth 
most of soul. One has truly said, " A school song in the heart of 
a child will do as much for his character as a fact in his memory, or 
a principle in his intellect." One boy, who returned for a visit after 
nearly a year's absence, remarked that he liked the songs he learned 
while here, but he did not like "show songs," such as his brother 
sings. 

While we have striven to teach, from books, lessons that will prove 
helpful all through life, we have been even more earnest in turning 
the attention of the boys to the vast book of nature which is spread 
before them. The volume is so immense that we can never hope to 
reveal half which it contains ; yet by turning a leaf here and there 
we feel confident that we arouse in the boys a deep, abiding interest, 
and an earnest desire to learn more of its contents ; and many a boy, 
because of his training here, will find as did Shakespeare, — 

" Tongues in trees, books in running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

Believing with John Burroughs that " one throb of love of nature 
which you can awaken in the child's heart is worth any number of 
dry facts which you can put into his head," we have aimed to teach 
that which will develop in the boy the power to read intelligently 
the lines on nature's pages, and thus greatly enhance his enjoyment 
of life, render him more gentle, more sympathetic, more reverent, 
more loving and compassionate. 

No boy, however averse to the study of books, remains listless and 
inattentive when we place before him the many-hued butterfly, the 
delicately colored, fragrant flower, the leaves and fruits of trees which 
he soon learns to know as familiar friends. But the beautiful song- 
sters of the grove seem to appeal to him as do none of these, and he 
is ever ready to respond to their call. The boys have greatly enjoyed 
making observations of the birds out of doors and noticing their habits 
and traits under natural conditions. They have become familiar with 
their songs, many of which they imitate quite well. They have gath- 
ered facts concerning the wanton destruction of singing birds, and then 



52 PRINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

have drawn their own conclusions as to the necessity of caring for 
them and of practising kindness towards them. They have learned 
their uses to man and also to the vegetable kingdom. Living speci- 
mens have likewise been brought into the school- room, where still 
closer observations have been taken, after which comparisons have 
been drawn and a record of what each boy has noticed has been made 
by means of written language and illustrations. 

The different anniversary exercises of the year have, as heretofore, 
been appropriately observed, with the addition of "bird day," which 
proved a far greater success than we anticipated. The boys entered 
very heartily into the work of preparation ; and music, recitations, 
readings, all concerning birds, were very creditably rendered. As 
"the birds are the poet's own," there was no difficulty in finding 
many a bird immortalized by the favorite authors of the boys, who 
will long and pleasantly remember the poems memorized for this 
occasion. 

To our superintendent, several members of the trustees, Drs. Cabot 
and Emerson of Boston, and other friends of the institution, we are 
under obligations for an unusual number of instructive and entertain- 
ing lectures and talks on various topics during the year. Others 
have also favored us with fine musical entertainments. For all such 
encouragement and helps in our arduous work, and for your own 
continued kindness, I am sincerely grateful. 

MARY L. PETTIT, 

Principal. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 53 



EEPOET OF THE INSTRUCTOR OP SLOYD. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

During the past year there have been four classes, of twenty-five 
boys each, working in the Sloyd room. Each class was given ten 
hours per week for twenty- two weeks. 

The number of pieces made by one class amounted to nine hundred. 
Five boys completed the entire course. One boy, a more rapid 
worker, completed the course in two hundred and twenty-five hours. 

The boys have taken very good care of their tools and benches. 
The tools broken have been few, not exceeding a half dozen. 

At the close of the school year, some questions were presented to 
the boys, to test the impression made upon each, as he had made use 
of various tools. I will quote a few answers ; " The plane needs an 
eye to watch it carefully, and a hand to guide it. ,, "The plane 
makes you take time to think ; if you do not, the wood will tell of 
you." Another answer was, "The tools make us honest." When 
asked how, the reply was, " In end squaring the knife or block plane 
will break the wood, if I use them wrong, and the augur bit does 
too." These characteristic answers show, first, that the boy realizes, 
in his consciousness, that to his work he must give self-control, atten- 
tention and concentration ; the second answer shows that exactness 
and accuracy have been developed ; and the third, that a pride in and 
love for, honest work have been aroused. 

When one of the new classes had entered the Sloyd room and taken 
their seats, they immediately began to look around. "What inter- 
ests you most?" I said. The majority replied, "The Swede boys.'' 
This interpreted meant the twelve pictures upon the wall, which 
clearly show the hygienic positions of boys using various tools. Tool 
work has been criticised on account of the non-hygienic positions 
assumed. These cuts, of well-proportioned, symmetrical boys, doing 
every kind of tool work without assuming ungainly and awkward 
attitudes, are a continual admonition and appeal to their pride not to 
deform their bodies through bad positions thoughtlessly taken in 



54 SLOYD REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

working over the bench. The boys have their attention called to 
these pictures when different exercises are given, and they may be 
seen quietly studying them from time to time, and then correcting 
their own positions* Thus we feel that the boys strive not only to do 
their work well, but in a hygienic manner. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ANNA L. WILCOX, 

Sloyd Teacher. 






1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 55 



REPORT OF INSTRUCTOR OF ADVANCED 
MANUAL TRAINING. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The following report brings us to the close of our third year in 
advanced manual training, which has been a part of the educational 
system of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The present age is essentially an industrial age, and the natural 
training of man should commence with the perceptive powers. Draw- 
ing, the first step in manual training and the basis of all mechanical 
work, particularly educates this faculty, and causes one to look about 
and accurately note the peculiarities of all objects. The work in 
wood and iron also encourages this observation and investigation. 
The boy learns in the wood work the various kinds of wood, and 
wherein they are valuable or worthless for the objects in view. In 
the iron work he learns the different purposes for iron, and how one 
kind of iron differs from another. It teaches him that all things have 
their good and their bad qualities and a use. 

Manual training is a mental discipline, and it is a moral discipline 
as well. It leads the boys to look into themselves and discover their 
deficiencies, and, when they commit an error in their work, they must 
acknowledge the error as their own ; realizing that it will affect their 
entire work, they endeavor to rectify it. We can all readily see the 
educational value here, for is not the ability to see an error and the 
determination to rectify it the corner-stone for all true mental and 
moral discipline? and good qualities are but natural results. The 
boy learns to have courage with a difficult piece of work and to have 
perseverance in failure. It is the constant aim of our school to send 
forth boys of this stamp. 

As we start in with our class in wood turning and carpentry, the 
boy first makes his drawing. There were thirty-five boys who derived 
the benefit of our course during the past year. Each boy devotes 
four hours a week to wood-turning carpentry and drawing, in iron 
work or forging he devotes eight hours a week ; he can complete the 



56 MANUAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

entire course in twenty-two weeks. In forging, the model is made 
from a blue print with which he is provided. The forging commences 
with simple designs in drawing out, bending, etc., gradually working 
up to the welding, which requires increased knowledge and skill. 
During the past year, outside of the regular course, as an incentive 
to those boys capable of undertaking a project still more difficult, we 
have allowed them to execute some special work, and the andirons 
and five-o'clock-tea standards were particularly worthy of note. The 
same idea of extra work was carried into the wood -working class, 
such as making a hat tree, hall coat rack, towel rack, etc. Consider- 
able time was expended, aside from class work, upon general repairs 
and turning table legs, fencing foils, milking stools and many varied 
articles useful to the school. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES D. LITTLEFIELD, 

Instructor of Advanced Manual Training. 






1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 57 



REPORT OF THE INSTRUCTOR OF THE 
CLASS IN PRINTING. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

A most encouraging report we bring of the boys and their work. 
One of oar boys is in a printing office in Fall River. The Lyman 
school printing office was his starting-point in life. It was here he 
received the desire, the ambition to be a printer. He has had money 
left him since he left the school, and is perfecting himself in the 
" art preservative," with the intention of owning and managing a 
printing office some day. Another boy, who left us not a great while 
ago, has a position in a printing office also. This boy gives great 
promise of not only becoming a good printer but also a worthy citizen 
of the State, — one object of which we never lose sight. Another 
boy who left us this month is in a printing office near Boston for the 
present, and has a good prospect of a permanent situation in an office 
soon to be started by an uncle in another State. Another of our 
older boys, who went home about two years ago, where he worked in 
a printing office until July, when he was laid off on account of dull 
times, has been near us for a year or so, studying and working in a 
small printing office, and his record would be no discredit to any one. 
It is a record of reform in the truest sense of the word ; and is not 
this of the greatest importance ? To simply educate and make more 
skilful a bad boy, it seems to us, is not what we most desire. We 
must touch the heart and cultivate in them the desire for right doing, 
because it is right. 

We have struggled along through the year with but little help, and 
some very poor help, as you well know ; but our eight years' experi- 
ence as teachers of printing in this school has taught us that it is not 
the most important how much we do, as how well we do it. 

Our force was reduced at one time to only three boys, and for a> 
long time we had only four. One boy set all the type on the " En- 
terprise " this month, September, and, after printing, distributed it. 
Another boy set the Sunday-school lessons in two versions, alone, in 
one week, or five hours a day. 



58 PRINTING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The purchases for the office have been only $65.93 for the year, 
as it will be necessary soon to buy paper for the "Enterprise," 
wrappers, programmes, etc. "There is no great loss without some 
small gain." The paper bought for one year lasted two, by the un- 
avoidable omission of several issues of the " Enterprise," and not 
having to use it for other jobs. 

Fourteen boys in all have been in the printing office during the 
past year, six being the largest number at any one time. Doubtless 
the work of the office has been done to your entire satisfaction, 
judging from the kind words of appreciation you have given us at 
different times during the year, for all of which we most sincerely 
thank you. 

Very respectfully yours, 

M. E. HOWARD, 

Teacher of Printing. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 59 



PHYSICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The annual report of the department of physical training is re- 
spectfully presented. 

As far as is known, this school is the pioneer among institutions 
of like character in its use of a system of gymnastics alone for the 
physical training of its inmates. The wisdom of the trustees in per- 
mitting gymnastics to supersede military training finds ample justi- 
fication in the opinion of such men as Drs. Hartwell and Hamilton D. 
Wey. It seems appropriate to give the opinion of Dr. Hartwell for 
successfully meeting the demands of a physical education : — 

1 . It must have a direct and large effect upon the health of the 
pupils. It must build up vitality. The large muscular groups of 
the body, the muscles of the back, the waist, the chest, the thighs, 
must be made to contract with vigor a large number of times. It is 
through such vigorous contraction of these large groups that the 
heart is strengthened, the lungs are brought to their best condition 
of development and the digestive system is stimulated to more per- 
fect action. Upon the satisfactory working of these three systems 
health and vigor largely depend. 

2. There should be that training which will confer skill in handling 
the body. The hands, arms and body should be trained to act with 
skill and activity. A high degree of co-ordination should be rendered 
easily possible. The muscles of the trunk and the nerve centres 
governing them must be brought into that condition of discipline 
which will enable them to act with the greatest readiness and 
freedom. The lack of developement of the nerve centres is in- 
timately connected with many nervous diseases. 

3. There should be secured that control of the body which we 
call good carriage, graceful, vigorous action, not merely in walking, 
but in all other of the positions and exercises which are required 
of men. 

4. The psychological elements, courage, coolness, self-control and 
self-reliance, should be prominently brought out. 



60 PHYSICAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The results of six years' persistent effort here are in harmony with 
the opinion expressed above. The past year has shown more than 
ever the value of this kind of training, when classes of two hundred 
or more have been presented to visitors, without previous rehearsal, 
and have carried themselves with honor. It needs but a casual glance 
at the set-up of the boys when in line for gymnastic drill to show the 
change in general bearing. The boys themselves make the compari- 
son between the new-comer and those who have served their appren- 
ticeship. In the first case there is the customary flat chest, drooping 
shoulders, the awkward, shambling gait and general clumsiness. In 
the second case the chest is round, the shoulders back, the step is 
firm and elastic. This statement, while it may seem stereotyped, is 
true, nevertheless, and is applicable to the large majority. There are a 
few cases, however, who fail to respond to the exercise. It is doubt- 
ful if any form of training could reach them. They are the results of 
malformation, accidents and arrested development. Every boy has 
had a twenty-minutes lesson each school day, with a few exceptions. 
The exercises have been conducted with the idea of progression 
always in mind, and the object has been to instruct, to interest, to 
develop self-control, to fix attention, to teach the necessity of per- 
sonal purity, to create a proper regard for the truth and the rights 
of others. 

Every effort which has been made in this department has had for 
its ultimate design a better equipment of the boy. For this reason 
a step in the direction of a study of the boys from the modern psy- 
chological stand-point has been taken. Sufficient progress has not 
been made to admit of any report, but, with the valuable help and 
suggestion of Dr. Sanford, the outlook is encouraging for experi- 
ments along this line which will react upon many for their good. 
Some tests and measurements have already been taken for experi- 
mental purposes only, as an introduction to future work. 

I am indebted to you and the trustees for the privilege of attending 
Clark University summer school. The fund of information and 
suggestion received there will be used to good advantage the coming 
year. 

Some attempt has been made at classification in gymnastics. A 
class of new-comers, for instance, has an exercise independently from 
the other classes. Another class of young boys of low grade, who 
are not responsive to the regular work in gymnastics, are given half 
an hour twice a week devoted entirely to games. Games of recog- 
nized educational value, aiming at the functions in which the little 
fellows are weak, are used. A new game is presented each time, or 
some new feature of an old game, and the progression is in accord- 
ance with ability to grasp the idea of the game . 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 61 

Field sports were held again on July fourth. The day was more 
successful than on any previous occasion, in that all participants were 
satisfied that the prizes were secured by the best boys in each class. 
The list included half and quarter mile runs, hurdle race, putting 
sixteen-pound shot, running high and broad jumps, throwing base 
ball at target, potato race and base ball. 

The theory advanced by -some, that, in teaching this class of boys 
to climb a rope and to use their legs to good advantage, they are 
instructed in more successful methods of escape from the law, does 
not seem to hold good. Sluggish circulation is a characteristic of the 
adult criminal, and by improving this function of the body the youth 
is given an opportunity to remove at least one criminal ear-mark. 
It is a good omen when it can be said that the most manly among the 
boys are those who present the best appearance in gymnastic drill, 
and I have found it so. 

Very truly yours, 

ALLISTON GEEENE, 

Instructor. 



62 PHYSICIAN'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



PHYSICIAN'S EEPOKT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The hospital report for the year ending at this date is brief. 

The diseases with which we have contended have been generally 
mild and of short duration ; one case each of pneumonia, scarlet-fever 
and tuberculosis have been of a dangerous character. 

Rogers of Hillside, whose cabinet work has done him so much 
credit, by voluntary overwork and confinement at his bench so ex- 
hausted his system that he became subject to a marked manifestation 
of tuberculosis ; he was taken from the shop to the garden and em- 
ployed in the open air all summer, which with medicine and a few 
weeks' confinement in the hospital has restored him to fairly good 
health. 

Treatment has been rendered 758 different cases of all sorts of ail- 
ments, and the hospital has been occupied by 94 boys 548 days, 
making a much shorter average confinement than last year. 

A list of the various diseases so resembles that of the other years 
and has so little requiring special notice that it will not be specified ; 
inflammation of the throat and digestive disorders were, as usual, the 
principal troubles. 

The several houses are in excellent sanitary condition, and with 
few exceptions are all that can be desired. 

The limited air space in the school-room and dormitory at Maple 
Cottage is to be deplored, but so far it has not been productive of 
disease that could be traced to its effects. 

The disposal of the sewage from some of the houses is not entirely 
satisfactory, and may require modification in the near future. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANCIS E. COREY, 

Physician. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



63 



RBPOET OF THE MANAGER OF BERLIN 
FARM-HOUSE. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys, 

One year ago we felt that we were treading on new and untried 
ground, the stability of which time alone could prove, but to-day we 
walk with more assurance, for the year has proved that our expecta- 
tions were not groundless, and, if our hopes have not all been 
realized, neither have our fears. 

The average number of boys in our care has been greater than it 
was last year, although the number received has been somewhat less. 
We began the year with 18 boys, and we close with 19, having in the 
meantime received 28 and dismissed 27, as will be seen by the sub- 
joined monthly statement. 



Received. 


Dismissed. 


Retained 


1 


2 


17 


2 


3 


16 


3 


- 


19 


1 


- 


20 


3 


2 


21 


2 


1 


22 


3 


3 


22 


1 


5 


18 


2 


1 


19 


2 


4 


17 


3 


1 


19 


5 


5 


19 



October, 

November, 

December, 

January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, . 

September, 



64 FARM-HOUSE REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Of the boys dismissed, 5 were transferred to Westborough, 6 were 
returned to parents and 16 have been placed in families. 
The average time of detention was : — 

For all boys dismissed, .... 220 days, or 31 -f- weeks. 

For those transferred, .... 25 days, or 3 -J- weeks. 

For those returned to parents, . . 369 days, or 52 -j- weeks. 

For those placed in families, . . 230 days, or 33 -j- weeks. 

The same general plan has been followed this year as last, viz., 
to make the farm, as far as possible, a home in which while here the 
boys shall be interested, and for which when they have gone from it 
they will cherish a kindly remembrance. 

The work of house, farm and garden has been done, and well done, 
without extra help except for ploughing and mowing. 

The most encouraging fact connected with this work is that, while 
to most of the boys farm work was at first distasteful, yet it has 
been so managed that all have taken pride in it and many have 
learned to love it. 

A boy once tried to teach his dog to " bring and carry," using an 
ear of corn as the object carried. For years thereafter, on seeing an 
ear of corn, the dog would run and hide. Too often a boy's life on 
a farm has been so devoid of pleasure that he has felt like running 
away at the mere mention of being sent to live with a farmer. It is 
easy to see the mistake made in both cases. If a bone had been 
given the dog to carry, and later he had been given the same to 
gnaw, in all probability the lesson would have been a success. So, 
if a boy, while weeding the potatoes and cultivating the corn, can 
be led to picture " corn and potato roasts " as following in the wake 
of Harvest time, or to enjoy in anticipation the long winter evenings 
when " apples and pop-corn " make the hours pass merrily, how easy 
the work will seem. So changed is the attitude of the boys who came 
here with a prejudice against farm work, that now many look for- 
ward with pleasure to being trusted with a farmer. 

No doubt the cheerful letters received from many so placed, which 
the boys hear read, has had a tendency to foster this feeling. No 
record has been kept of such letters received or of the letters written 
by us, but considerable time has been given to this correspondence ; 
for we cannot run the risk of any boy's drifting in dangerous waters 
without feeling always the pull of an anchor. So we write cheery, 
kindly home letters to all boys leaving us, until we feel assured that 
some strong influence for good has taken the place of that by which 
they were guided while here. 

Much credit for the management must be given to the farmer, 
Mr. Dudley, who from the first has shown a special aptitude for his 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 65 

work. The matron has been alike helpful, being ready at all times 
to second any plan suggested for forwarding the work. 

We live as one family, each officer coming in close contact with 
each boy, and realize that, if the best results are to be obtained, 
unity of plan and action is a necessity. Recognizing this fact, the 
three officers have, from the first, worked as one, with no friction, and, 
so far as known, no difference of opinion as to the guidance and con- 
trol of the boys. Finding that a disobedient boy yielded as readily 
to words as to blows, the whip has never been used. To the argu- 
ment that a stubborn boy deserves a flogging, we answer, he deserves 
whatever will best advance his reformation ; and, believing that one 
act of willing obedience is worth more than ten obtained by compul- 
sion, we prefer to exercise any amount of patience while the way- 
ward one is learning to know and do the right. The will to do right 
is at first weak ; but with use it will grow stronger, and, as this 
strength is gained, we look for a constant growth of self-respect, 
honor, and indeed all the characteristics of a reformed boy. 

Respectfully submitted, 

EMILY L. WARNER. 



66 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



1896. — October, received from the State Treasurer, 




$7,128 49 


November, 


«t i 










5,548 86 


December, 


u t 










8,419 30 


1897. — January, 


CC ( 










6,178 11 


February, 


tl ( 










4,414 35 


March, 


(( I 










5,556 48 


April, 


<( t 










4,847 93 


May, 


It i 










5,394 84 


June, 


tl ( 










4,931 59 


July, 


It t 










3,870 02 


August, 


" 










4,041 68 


September, 


It t 










4,115 13 






$64,446 78 


Bills paid 


as per Vouchers at the State Treasury. 


1896. — October, 


$7,128 49 


November, 


5,548 86 


December, 


8,419 30 


1897. — January, 


. . 6,178 11 


February, 


4,414 35 


March, . 


5,556 48 


April, 


4,847 93 


May, 


5,394 84 


June, 


4,931 59 


July, . 


3,870 02 


August, . 


4,041 68 


September, 












4,115 13 



f 64,446 78 



Amount drawn from State Treasury. 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1896, Chapter 118). ■ 



1896.— November, 



$166 75 



Special Appropriation (Acts of 1896, Chapter 76). 

1896. — October, $536 62 

1897 —January, 778 44 



$1,315 06 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 67 

Special Appropriation {Acts of 1897, Chapter 112). 

1897. — April, $645 81 

July 603 08 

$1,248 89 

Expenditures. 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropria- 
tion (Acts of 1896, Chapter 118). 
1896. — November, $166 75 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the Stale Treasury for Special Appropria- 
tion (Acts of 1896, Chapter 76). 

1896. — October, $536 62 

1897. — January, 778 44 

$1,315 06 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropria- 
tion (Acts of 1897, Chapter 112). 

1897. — April, $645 81 

July, 603 08 

$1,248 89 

Expenditures for the Year Ending Sept. 30, 1897. 

Salaries of officers and employees, . . . $25,853 02 

Wages of others temporarily employed, . . 1,090 35 

. $26,943 37 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Apples, $69 00 

Ammonia, 5 40 

Butter, 968 07 

Brawn, ........ 4 17 

Beef 1,716 31 

Beans, ........ 153 37 

Bath brick and sand, , 4 05 

Bon Ami, 2 50 

Corn meal, 46 50 

Crackers, 119 09 

Cheese, . . ■ 230 74 

Coffee, 55 43 

Cereal coffee, 39 45 

Cream tartar soda, and baking powder, . . 50 90 

Cocoa, . 9 90 

Cider barrels, 38 50 

Cranberries, ....... 9 50 

Amounts carried forward, .... $3,522 88 $26,943 37 



68 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, .... $3,522 88 $26,943 37 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Cork stoppers, 25 

Candy, walnuts, peanuts, 28 25 

Cocoanut, 9 45 

Candles, . . 2 52 

Capers, 75 

Celery seed, . 07 

Celery, . . . • . . . . 2 30 

Dried apple, . . . . , . . . 30 00 

Eggs, . 58 89 

Extracts, . . . . . . ' . . 46 40 

Fowls, 170 73 

Flour . . . 1,462 65 

Fish, ' . . 439 23 

Fruits and canned goods, . . . . ' ." 183 22 

Fly paper, . 2 55 

Glass jars, ........ 5 00 

Gelatine, . . ... . ■ . . 17 40 

Ice, . . . . ' 529 54 

Insect powder, 7 00 

Lard, 140 67 

Lobsters, . . . . . . . . 5 76 

Mutton, ........ 167 34 

Molasses, 337 23 

Maple syrup, . . . . . . 18 51 

Milk, ......... 192 87 

Malt, ......... 5 00 

Making cider, 67 08 

Macaroni, 1 35 

Mineral water, 85 

Oatmeal, 63 20 

Oysters, ......... 76 89 

Onions, . 3 00 

Olives and olive oil, ...... 7 78 

Pork and Hams, . . . . . . 72 33 

Potatoes, ........ 115 72 

Pepper, . . 4 38 

Paper and twine, 13 07 

Pork barrels, . . . . . . 2 50 

Rye flour and meal, 9 00 

Raisins, 61 77 

Rice, ......... 96 23 

Sausage, . . . . .... 27 24 

Sugar, 728 39 

Salt 35 70 

Spices, . . . .... . . 16 46 



Amounts carried forward, .... $8,789 40 $26,943 3; 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 69 

Amounts brought forward, * . . . . $8,789 40 $26,943 37 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Starch and bluing, 9 00 

Shredded wheat, 20 00 

Split peas, 44 30 

Stove polish, 11 28 

Sardines, 1 80 

Sausage dressing, 80 

Soap and soap powder, 185 35 

Tripe, 5 10 

Tea, 50 77 

Tapioca, . . 3 99 

"Vinegar, 5 81 

Wheaten flour, 317 75 

Wheatena, 31 57 

Yeast, 141 84 



Furniture, beds and bedding — 

Agate ware, ... . . ... $15 19 

Brooms and brushes, 171 16 

Baskets, . 37 68 

Blankets 4 85 

Brass kettle, . . . . • . . . 1 00 

Bleached gauze . . . . ' . . 3 78 

Chairs, 85 43 

Couch, . 29 00 

Cutlery, . . 20 40 

Crockery, . . . . . . . . - 137 82 

Cotton batting, 58 

Cotton flannel, . . . . . . 13 

Curtain rods, 3 32 

Carpet cleaning, 7 71 

Draperies for Berlin, 9 26 

Draperies, 6 27 

Electric lamps, . . . . . . 38 00 

Enamel cloth, .*.'.-. . . . 9 30 

Feather dusters, 4 91 

Flags, 85 



Fruit press, . 
Flower pots, 
Glass ware, 
Hair clippers, 
Iron ware, . 
Jar rubbers, 



2 35 

60 

. ". 1 10 

. . . 10 50 

. 23 97 

. .... 42 

Laundry boards, 26 25 

Laundry machinery and repairs, ... 13 05 

Lumber and material for furniture, . . . 265 84 



9,618 76 



Amounts carried forward, .... $930 72 $36,562 13 



70 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, .... $930 72 $36,562 13 

Furniture, beds and bedding — 

Mattresses and ticking, 8 95 

Needles, 1 28 

Pillows, 16 25 

Pails, 5 00 

Picture wire, 50 

Rat traps, 6 00 

Repairs for sewing machines, . . . 2 18 

Rugs, carpets and carpet paper, ... 52 75 

Rubber blanket, 85 

Razor, 1 50 

Stoves and stove furniture, .... 2 64 

Silver and plated ware, ..... 203 73 

Shears, combs and brushes, . . . . 80 01 

Sheeting, 194 84 

Scales, 25 

Sewing machine needles, 65 

Strainer linen, 7 30 

Stand cover and piano spread, .... 2 16 

Spring balances, 3 00 

Table,. . 1 75 

Tin and copper ware, 88 65 

Towels and napkins, 158 68 

Turkey red cloth, . 50 

Table padding, 33 00 

Wardrobe, 12 50 

Wicking, 7 31 

Wire clothes line, 6 00 

Wooden ware, . . . . . . . 37 48 



Clothing — 

Buttons, ........ $5 42 

Blankets, 18 60 

Cassimere, . 33 85 

Cotton, ■ 73 35 

Collars, 24 70 

Drilling, . . ■ 6 17 

Denim, . . 151 92 

Darning cotton, 6 32 

Extension cases, . . . . . . 43 20 

Elastic, 50 

English jean, 3 60 

Flannel, ........ 16 28 

Gum tissue, 37 

Handkerchiefs, . 27 31 

Hats and caps, . 210 30 

Hickory stripe, 21 72 



1,866 43 






Amounts carried forward, .... $643 61 $38,428 56 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 71 

Amounts brought forward, .... $643 61 $38,428 56 

Clothing — 

Indelible ink, . 5 40 

Lasting, 46 58 

Laundry aprons, 7 50 

Laundry, 12 52 

Mittens, ... ■ . ' 53 50 

Needles 76 

Neckties, . . ■ 18 75 

Overcoats, 200 50 

Rubber boots, ... . . . . . 98 98 

Stockings, . . 71 56 

Shirts, . 234 85 

Suits, 528 01 

Shoes and repairs, . . . . . 1,230 26 

Shoe laces, 30 12 

Suspenders, 191 63 

Thread, . 24 77 

Tape, 98 

Towels, ........ 7 50 

Underclothing, . , . . . . . . 194 98 

3,602 76 

School supplies — 

Advance manual training supplies, . . . $407 03 

Bibles, 16 50 

Binding books, ' . . 73 95 

Book slates, ....... 9 72 

Blackboard cloth, 2 56 

Blue prints, . . . . . . . 2 00 

Band of mercy registers, 64 

Colored paper, 4 80 

Compasses, . 14 87 

Crayon, 3 60 

Clay, 15 50 

Drawing paper and materials, .... 77 78 

Examination paper, 24 50 

Entertainments, 3 45 

Geographies, 64 00 

Geometries, 14 40 

Globe, 12 00 

Histories, 67 06 

Heavy paper, 17 86 

Holly, 75 

Ink wells, 4 73 

Lead pencils, 15 80 

Library paper, 9 60 

Mucilage and glue, 9 75 

Amounts carried forward, .... $872 85 $42,031 32 



12 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amounts brought forward, 

School supplies — 
Manilla paper, . 
Maps, . 
Music, 

Miscellaneous, . 
Paint and brushes, 
Portrait, 

Pens and pen holders 
Paper and envelopes, 
Penmanship paper, 
Royal scroll, 
Rubber erasers, 
Sloyd materials, 
Spelling blanks, 
Slates, 

Slate pencils, 
Thumb tacks, 
Tools, . 

Ordinary repairs — 

Artificial stone floor, 

Adamant, . 

Awnings, . 

Brushes, 

Brass, lead, tin and copper 

Boiler repairs, . 

Beeswax, . 

Borax and ammonia 

Blacksmithing, . 

Boiler for Wayside, 

Brackets, . . 

Bricks, 

Building paper, . 

Barn addition, . 

Barn door hangers, 

Bread pans, 

Cement and lime, 

Castors, 

Charcoal, . 

Cotton waste, 

Carpenters' chalk, 

Concrete work, . 

Chimney cap, 

Curtain repairs, . 

Copper boiler, . 

Clothes dryer, . 

Amounts carried forward, 



$872 85 $42,031 32 



30 82 


10 00 


28 


89 


67 


22 


22 80 




85 


13 


75 


5 


00 


12 


00 


8 50 


8 


10 


90 


14 


7 


50 


8 


25 




36 


1 


39 


213 


46 



. $820 80 


6 25 


43 00 


8 56 


33 21 


237 36 


46 46 


21 14 


27 15 


210 90 


90 


66 90 


6 48 


175 45 


89 19 


14 08 


58 75 


60 


1 80 


2 25 


39 


247 28 


6 00 


94 50 


78 00 


9 00 


. $2,306 40 



1,401 88 



$43,433 20 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT 


— No. 18. 73 


Amounts brought forward, .... $2,306 40 $43,433 20 


Ordinary repairs — 


Cane, . 3 60 


Chain, 








55 


Dowels, 








1 60 


Elevator repairs, 








2 00 


Emery cloth, .... 








62 


Fatal food, .... 








3 60 


Fence wire, .... 








14 94 


Grinding knife, .... 








1 25 


Grates, 








33 00 


Galvanized iron, 








26 06 


Glass, putty and points, 








115 02 


Glue and cement, 








10 50 


Hardware, .... 








1 59 


Hooks, 








1 38 


Iron rods, .... 








47 32 


Iron, 








8 74 


Iron gratings, . . . . 








5 00 


Labor, 








260 53 


Lumber, .... 








1,405 60 


Locks, butts and hooks, 








100 89 


Linseed oil, .... 








97 38 


Lubricating oil, . 








12 10 


Land plaster, 








6 50 


Lime, 








1 80 


Liquid slating, .... 








6 00 


Mica, 








30 


Nails, brads and screws, . 








150 65 


Nickel numbers, 








7 35 


Overhead hitches and trough, 








22 65 


Paints, . . ' . 








165 16 


Pipe and fittings, 








236 40 


Painters 1 falls, . 








21 06 


Packing, .... 








1 15 


Pulleys, .... 








59 


Posts, .... 








4 40 


Pump, .... 








6 15 


Repair of buggies and sleighs, 








121 05 


Repair of harnesses, 








35 79 


Repair of electric lights, . 








218 22 


Repair of house utensils, . 








28 06 


Rivets and bolts, 








2 35 


Refrigerator remodelling, 








107 44 


Repair of organs and pianos, 








8 25 


Rope, 








15 22 


Rubber hose, 
Amounts carried forward, 




, 




60 45 


. $5,686 66 $43,433 20 



74 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amounts brought forward^ 

Ordinary repairs — 
Sal soda, 
Small tools, 

Steam piping at Wayside 
Stove repairs, 
Sash cord, . 
Shellac, 
Staples, 
Sash weights, 
Sand paper, 
Sand, . 
Screen door, 
Telephone repairs 
Turpentine, 
Varnish, 
Venetian blinds, 
Ventilator, . 
Whiting, 
Window screens 
Wash trays, 
Wall paper, 
Window gratings 
Wire clothes line, 
Zinc, . 



Fuel and lights — 

Coal, $3,277 27 

Electric lights, . 1,947 07 

Kerosene, 37 22 

Wood, 22 00 

Seeds, plants and fertilizers — 

Fruit trees, % 16 50 

Flower seeds and bulbs, 26 84 

Fertilizers, . 736 50 

Flowers, 1 20 

Garden seed, 65 79 

Grass seed, 40 99 

Plants and shrubs, 69 24 

Rye, 1 00 

Seed corn, 5 10 

Seed potatoes, . 68 75 

Seed oats, . . . . . . . 3 75 

Salt, 5 00 

Tobacco, . 20 

Whale oil soap, 4 80 



$5,686 66 $43,433 20 



12 00 


133 49 


283 52 


39 65 


2 05 


24 71 


10 


4 03 


8 95 


1 50 


1 50 


94 43 


183 38 


93 75 


65 00 


6 60 


7 95 


22 80 


36 00 


10 95 


3 64 


2 00 


1 35 



6,726 01 



5,283 56 



1,045 66 



Amount carried forward 



$56,488 43 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 75 

Amount brought forward, $56,488 43 

Grain and meal for stock — 

Bran, $9 80 

Barley, 2 40 

Cracked corn, 99 79 

Corn, 2 84 

Corn meal, 73 73 

Fine feed, 23 60 

Gluten 470 18 

Hay, 50 00 

Keeping stray cow, 75 

Mixed feed, ■ . 45 15 

Middlings, 22 76 

Mace grit, 1 85 

Meat meal, 3 70 

Oats, 407 94 

Oil meal, . 90 00 

Oyster shells, 3 15 

Provender, . . . . . . . . 35 00 

Peatmoss, 301 00 

Quincy feed, 60 00 

Rock salt, 1 90 

Shorts 15 60 

Sugar barrels, . 80 

Shavings, 20 68 

Standing grass, 28 00 

Scraps, : . 1 80 

Sponges, . . 92 

Wheat 135 68 

1,909 02 

Institution property — 

Balls and bats, $60 00 

Clock dials, 9 00 

Fly net, 2 50 

Harness, 30 00 

Iron, 7 18 

Ladders, 34 70 

Lap robes, 9 75 

Whip, 1 75 

154 88 

Transportation and travelling expenses — 

Express and freight charges, .... f 629 86 

Travelling expenses, 499 54 

1,129 40 

Live stock purchases, 1,941 25 

Farm tools and repairs, 1,052 95 

Amount carried forivard, $62,675 93 



76 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amount brought forward, 

Horseshoeing, 

News, Sunday-school and waste papers, 

Postage, telephone and telegraph, . 

Drugs and medical supplie 

Printing material, 

Stationery, . 

Water, 

Raw material, . 

Rent, . 



Total, $64,446 78 



|62,675 


93 


96 


95 


265 


95 


542 


64 


219 


12 


65 93 


142 


81 


. . 430 00 


2 


45 


5 00 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



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78 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



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1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



79 



Superintendent's Report of Cash Transactions. — Receipts. 







Farm 


Miscel- 










Produce 
Sales. 


laneous 
Sales. 


Labor 
of Boys. 


Totals. 


1896. 












October, .... 


Received cash from, . 


$264 19 


$7 57 


$26 05 


$297 81 


November, .... 


. 


26 00 


4 65 


1 20 


31 85 


December, .... 


« . 


7 50 


12 55 


75 22 


95 27 


1897. 












January, .... 


" • 


17 90 


2 07 


22 24 


42 24 


February, .... 


<c << k 


- 


2 00 


29 20 


31 20 


March 


. 


27 51 


- 


36 31 


63 82 


April, ..... 


<i (i (i 


16 00 


28 38 


- 


44 38 


May, . . . 


<< <t <( 


37 94 


5 17 


11 41 


54 52 


July, 


<( «< << 


48 50 


3 85 


90 89 


143 24 


August, 


<< it it 


7 96 


8 60 


- 


16 56 


September 




1 50 


1 54 


17 02 


20 06 


Totals 


$455 00 


$76 38 


$309 57 


$840 95 



Superintendent's Report of Cash Transactions. — Disbursements. 





Farm 


Miscel- 










Produce 
Sales. 


laneous 
Sales. 


Labor 
of Boys. 


Totals. 


1896. 












October, .... 


Paid State Treasurer, 


$264 19 


$7 57 


$26 05 


$297 81 


November, .... 


<< t< t< 


26 00 


4 65 


1 20 


31 85 


December, .... 


it it i< 


7 50 


12 55 


75 22 


95 27 


1897. 












January, .... 


it ii it 


17 90 


2 07 


22 24 


42 24 


February, .... 


ii ii ii 


- 


2 00 


29 20 


31 20 


March, 


i« ,i 


27 51 


- 


36 31 


63 82 


April 


i« ., „ . 


16 00 


28 38 


- 


44 38 


May, 


ii ii ii 


37 94 


5 17 


11 41 


54 52 


July 


,. ,. „ # 


48 50 


3 85 


90 89 


143 24 


August, 


„ „ «, . 


7 96 


8 60 


- 


16 56 


September, .... 


ii it ii 


1 50 


1 54 


17 02 


20 06 


Totals 


$455 00 


$76 38 


$309 57 


$840 95 



80 FAEMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



FAEMER'S EEPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

I respectfully submit the following report for the year ending Sept. 
30, 1897. 

I consider the year past an exceedingly successful one. 

Our herd of twenty-five or twenty-six cows of a few years ago, 
which was kept with some difficulty on the feed produced by the farm, 
has been increased to forty-two head of grown cattle and eleven head 
of young stock for which we shall have an abundance of food. In 
1892, during the ten months beginning December 1, and ending 
September 30, the farm produced 4,749 cans of milk; in 1897, dur- 
ing the same ten months, the farm has produced 16,383 cans of milk. 
Our pasturage is barely sufficient to keep the young stock ; for this 
reason the milch cows have been kept in the barn-yards during the 
day time, and fed in the barn almost entirely, upon green forage 
brought to them. We have grown, among other things, about eighty 
tons of English hay, 180 tons of ensilage, about 20 tons of mangolds 
and 140 bushels of onions. It is my purpose and endeavor to build 
up our herd of cattle both in number and quality. I have attempted 
each year to try one or more new crops as experiments. This year 
I tried a new forage crop, a variety of Japanese millet, and consider 
it a grand success. Sown about the 15th of June, after a crop of 
rye had been taken from the piece, in seven weeks it had headed 
and was fit to cut, much of it being more than six feet tall. From 
this piece of millet, which included about three-fourths of an acre, 
thirty-two cows were enabled to be fed sixteen days. 

As usual, a large amount of time has been spent on improvements 
to drives and lawns. All spare time has been used in improving land 
already under cultivation and in preparing new land for cultivation. 

Two new poultry houses have been built, an addition to our horse 
barn has been made, and a piggery is now in process of construction. 

Under the able management of Mr. Swift, our poultry has been 
very successful and profitable. 

Thanking all for their kind co-operation and assistance, I am, 

Yours respectfully, 

C. S. GRAHAM, 

Farmer. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 81 



EEPOET OF THE FAEMER AT BERLIN 
FAEM-HOUSE. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School. 

In this our second annual report of the farm at Berlin, we can 
say we are much better satisfied with the results of this year com- 
pared to last. 

Becoming better acquainted with the land, we have been able to 
raise an exceptionally good crop for the season, a large increase being 
made over last year in the amount of hay and vegetables produced. 
To our last year's stock of small fruit we have added raspberries, 
a new strawberry bed, and we hope by another year to have added 
a grapery. The abundant crop of melons has been a source of pleasure 
to the boys. Each boy has cultivated a garden of his own, in which 
he has raised vegetables according to his individual taste. 

A new root cellar has been built, which will prove a profitable addi- 
tion to the place. 

Our dam at the pond affords a place to keep us occupied when farm 
work is not pressing, while a chair shop takes the balance of spare 
time in winter. The pond not only affords a most excellent bathing 
place for the boys, but has also supplied our ice. 

The water supply is abundant, and we hope the day is not far dis- 
tant when pipes will be laid to conduct water to the house. 

The appearance of the place has been much improved by the paint- 
ing of the buildings and the clearing away of old fences, trees, etc. 

A telephone connects us with the main school at Westborough, 
which is a source of great convenience. 

The work done by the boys has been a credit to them, a spirit of 
cheerfulness and willingness being displayed in performing duties at 
first distasteful to them. 

I wish to thank you, as also our manager here, for your kind 
co-operation, which has enabled me to accomplish much which other- 
wise I could not have done. 

Respectfully submitted, 

IRA G. DUDLEY. 



82 



FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct, 



Summary of the Farm Account for the Twelve Months ending 

Sept. 30, 1897. 

Dr. 
Live stock, agricultural implements and farm 

products on hand, as appraised Sept. 30, 1896, $8,239 28 



Board, 

Farm tools and repairs, 

Fertilizer, . 

Grain and meal for stock, 

Horseshoeing, . 

Incidentals, 

Labor of boys, . 

Live stock purchases, 

Seeds and plants, 

Wages, 

Water, 



Net gain for twelve months, 



Asparagus, 
Apples, 
Beef, . 
Beans, shell, 
Beans, string, . 
Beet greens, 
Beets, 

Blackberries, 
Cider, 
Cucumbers, 
Cash for cattle, . 
Cash for calves, 
Cash for apples, 
Cash for pigs, . 
Cash for use of tools 
Cash for onions, 
Cash for cabbage, 
Cash for hides, . 
Cash for asparagus, 
Cash for strawberries, 
Cash for eggs, 
Cash for pease, 
Cherries, . 
Carrots, 
Cabbage, . 
Currants, . 



Amount carried forward. 



Cr. 



156 00 

935 84 

741 50 

1,711 02 

68 22 

23 92 

391 25 

1,821 25 

165 60 

999 96 

20 00 



|49 58 


26 50 


94 64 


15 90 


28 90 


4 06 


16 13 


1 12 


76 00 


59 99 


267 00 


26 20 


5 69 


26 00 


50 


25 91 


30 


16 00 


62 01 


21 40 


40 


3 59 


60 


14 30 


16 00 


39 50 


. |898 22 



$15,303 00 
716 61 

$16,019 61 



1897.] 


PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 


18 




83 


Amount 


brought forward, 






$898 22 




Cauliflower, 


, , , , 






3 55 




Eggs, 


. 












383 64 




Fowl and chickens, 












189 26 




Gooseberries, 














6 80 




Institution wor 


k, 












998 10 




Lettuce, 














30 32 




Milk, . 














3,719 23 




Melons, 


. 












15 00 




Onions, 


. 












110 80 




Potatoes, . 


. 












293 45 




Peas, . 


. 












59 70 




Pork, . 














300 42 




Raspberries, 














50 




Rhubarb, . 














6 73 




Radishes, . 














22 93 




Sweet corn, 














89 00 




Spinach, 














75 




Squash, 


. 












4 00 




Strawberries, 


. 












74 22 




Turnips, . 


. 












31 48 




Tomatoes, . 


. 












55 15 




Teal, . 


, 












19 90 












$7,313 15 






Live stock, agricultural implemen 


ts and farm produce on 




hand Sept. 3( 


), 1897, 


• 


8,706 46 




$16,019 61 


Produce of 


the Far 


m on Hand Oct. 1, 1897. 




Apples, . 




$33 25 


Hay, meadow, . 


$105 00 


Beans, 






114 75 


Hay and oats, 






97 50 


Beets, 






218 50 


Onions, . 






110 45 


Corn, 






6 30 


Potatoes, . 






129 01 


Cucumbers, 






25 00 


Parsnips, . 






15 20 


Cabbage, . 






50 50 


Pop-corn, 






10 28 


Carrots, . 






111 20 


Pumpkins, 






23 75 


Celery, 






19 00 


Squash, . 






17 00 


Ensilage, . 






800 00 


Turnips, . 






143 98 


Foddpv 






24 00 






-A- vUUCt • • 

Grass seed, 






20 69 




$3,512 36 


Hay, English, 






1,437 00 








Fan 


n Sales. 




Apples, . 


$5 69 


Onions, . 


$25 95 


Asparagus, 






62 01 


Pigs, 


26 00 


Cattle, . 






267 00 


Pease, 


3 59 


Calves, . 






26 20 


Strawberries, . 


21 40 


Cabbage, 






30 








E £gs, 






40 




$454 54 


Hides, 






] 


L6 00 












■ 



84 FARMER'S 


REPORT 


' LYMAN SCHOOL 


. [Oct. 




Live Stock 




Bull, 


$85 00 


Horse " Jerry," 


m oo 


Cows (43), . 


2,130 00 


Horse " Charlie,*' . 


80 00 


Ducks (7), 


4 20 


Horse " Bess," 


125 00 


Fowl (207), . 


115 80 


Pullets (245), . 


122 50 


Heifers (10), . 


200 00 


Roosters (174), 


87 00 


Hogs (12), 


24 00 








Horses (5), 


520 00 




§3,543 50 



Summary. 

Produce on baud, § 3,512 36 

Produce sold, 454 54 

Produce consumed, . . 6,858 61 

Live stock 3,543 50 

Agricultural implements, 1,650 60 

§16,019 61 
Poultry Account. 
Dr. 
To fowl and feed, as appraised Sept. 30, 1896, . $233 33 

feed, 189 88 

net gain, 416 59 

$839 85 

Cr. 

By eggs used, 1,483 dozen, $313 89 

fowl and chicken used, 992 pounds, . . . 189 26 
fowl and feed, as appraised Sept. 30, 1897, . 36 70 

- §839 85 

Average number of hens kept, 200 

Profit per heu, §2 08 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



85 



SUMMARY OF PEOPEETY OF THE LYMAN 

SCHOOL. 



Sept. 30, 1897. 

Real Estate. 
Forty-eight acres tillage land, 
Thirty-six acres pasturage, . 
Seventy-two acres Wilson land, . 
Three-fourths of an acre Brady land, 
Willow Park land, 
Berlin land, 



Hay and cow barn, 

Horse barn, . 

Wayside Cottage, 

Hillside Cottage, . 

Maple Cottage, . 

Oak Cottage, 

Boulder Cottage, . 

Willow Park Cottage, . 

Theodore Lyman Hall, 

Superintendent's house, 

Chapel, 

Bakery building, . 

Armory, 

Berlin house, 

Berlin barn and sheds, 

Piggery building, 

Scale house, . 

Four hen houses, . 

Ice house, 



Buildings. 



$11,200 00 
1,900 00 
4,100 00 
1,300 00 
1,500 00 
2,000 00 



$11,000 00 

2,600 00 

5,500 00 

15,000 00 

3,500 00 

16,000 00 

17,000 00 

5,600 00 

38,000 00 

9,500 00 

3,700 00 

8,000 00 

500 00 

2,500 00 

1,000 00 

350 00 

600 00 

380 00 

20 00 



$22,000 00 



140,750 00 



Amount carried forward, $162,750 00 



86 



SUMMARY LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Amount brought forward, 

Personal Estate. 

Beds and bedding, $3,448 57 

Other furniture, 17,227 23 

Carriages, 911 00 

Agricultural implements, 1,650 60 

Dry goods 746 80 

Drugs and surgical implements, .... 433 75 

Fuel and oil, ....... 1,472 50 

Library, 2,664 17 

Live stock, 3,543 50 

Mechanical tools and appliances, . . . 6,773 87 

Provisions and groceries, ..... 1,680 44 

Produce on hand, . . . . . . . 3,512 36 

Ready made clothing, ...... 6,309 49 

Raw material, ....... 1,889 66 



$162,750 00 



52,263 94 



$215,013 94 

PRESCOTT G. BROWN, 
JOHN H. CUMMINGS, 

Appraisers. 



A true copy. Attest ; Walter M. Day, Acting Superintendent. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



87 



LIST OF SALAEIED OFFICEKS NOW 
EMPLOYED. 



Theodore F. Chapin, superintendent, 

Mrs. Maria B. Chapin, matron, . 

Walter M. Day, assistant superintendent, . 

Mrs. Gertrude B. Day, amanuensis, . 

Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Pierce, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Meserve, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Hallier, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. Wiri. J. Wilcox, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. F. U. Wetmore, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. I. T. Swift, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs W. L. Pettengill, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Bullock, charge of family, 

Mrs. Emily L. Warner, charge of Berlin Cottage, . 

Mr. and Mrs. Ira G. Dudley, assistants at Berlin Cottage 

Annie L. Vinal, teacher, . 

Emma F. Newton, teacher, 

Stella M. Osgood, teacher, 

Aimee Lundgren, teacher of drawing and carving, . 

Edith V. Braley, teacher, 

Marion L. Cole, teacher, 

Laura B. Gilpatric, teacher, ..... 

Flora J. Dyer, teacher, 

Mary L Pettit, principal, 

Anna L. Wilcox, teacher of Sloyd, .... 
James D. Littlefield, supervisor of manual training 

himself), . . . 

Alliston Greene, teacher of physical culture, . 
M. Everett Howard, teacher of printing, . 

Mrs. Edith Howard, nurse, 

Fannie S. Mitchell, seamstress, 



(boards 



12,000 00 
400 00 
800 00 
300 00 
800 00 
800 00 
600 00 
900 00 
800 00 
800 00 
800 00 
500 00 
600 00 
800 00 
325 00 
400 00 
250 00 
500 00 
250 00 
300 00 
300 00 
400 00 
700 00 
800 00 

1,000 00 
800 00 
400 00 
250 00 
250 00 



88 OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Mary E. Greeley, assistant matron, $ 250 00 

Susie E. Wheeler, assistant matron, 250 00 

Sarah E. Goss, assistant matron, 250 00 

Jennie E. Perry, assistant matron, ...... 250 00 

Mabel G. Moore, assistant matron, 250 00 

Mabel B. Mitchell, assistant matron, . 250 00 

Margaret J. Ord, assistant matron, . 250 00 

Lenora S. Day, assistant matron, ...... 250 00 

Ida M. Burhoe, assistant matron, 250 00 

Mrs. Hannah M. Braley, housekeeper superintendent's house, 300 00 

John H. Cummings, charge of storehouse, .... 600 00 

Mrs. Mary E. Brown, charge of bakery, ..... 300 00 

Prescott G. Brown, watchman, . . . . . 400 00 

James W. Clark, engineer, ....... 900 00 

A. Russell King, carpenter, ....... 450 00 

Charles S. Graham, farmer (boards himself), .... 700 00 

George M. Ross, teamster, ......... 300 00 

John T. Perkins, driver, 400 00 

Francis E, Corey, M.D., . . . , " . . , . 300 00 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18 



89 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



91 



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92 SUPERINTENDENTS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct, 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 



Date of 
Appointment. 


names. Dateof 

Retirement 




1848, 


William R. Lincoln, . 










1853. 




1853, 


James M. Talcott, 










1857. 




1857, 


William E. Starr, . 










1861. 




1861, 


Joseph A. Allen, 










1867. 




1867, 


Orville K. Hutchinson, 










1868. 




1868, 


Benjamin Evans, 










May, 1873. 


May, 


1873, 


Allen G. Shepherd, . 










Aug., 1878. 


Aug., 


1878, 


Luther H. Sheldon, . 










Dec, 1880. 


Dec, 


1880, 


Edmund T. Dooley, . 










Oct., 1881. 


Oct., 


1881, 


Joseph A. Allen, 










April, 1885. 


July, 


1885, 


Henry E. Swan, 










July, 1888. 


July, 


1888, 


Theodore F. Chapin, 










Still in office. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



93 



TRUSTEES. 



Names, Residences, Commissions and Retirement of the Trustees of 
the State Reform School from the Commencement to the Present 
Time. 



Date of 






Date of 


Commission. 


NAMES. 


Residences. 


Retirement, 


1847, 


Nahum Fisher,* . 


Westborough, . 


1849 


1847, 


John W. Graves, . 




Lowell, . 


1849 


1847, 


Samuel Williston, 




Easthampton, . 


1853 


1847, 


Thomas A. Green,* 




New Bedford, . 


1860 


1847, 


Otis Adams,* 




Grafton, . 


1851 


1847, 


George Denney,* 




Westborough, . 


1851 


1847, 


William P. Andrews, 




Boston, . 


1851 


1849, 


William Livingston,* 




Lowell, . 


1851 


1849, 


Russell A. Gibbs,* 




Lanesborough, 


1853 


1851, 


George H. Kami, 




Boston, 


1855 


1851, 


J. B. French,* 




Lowell, . 


1854 


1851, 


Daniel H. Forbes, 




Westborough, . 


1854 


1851, 


Edward B. Bigelow,* 




Grafton, . 


1855 


1853, 


J. W. H. Page,* . 




New Bedford, . 


1856 


1853, 


Harvey Dodge, . 




Sutton, 


1867 


1854, 


G. Howland Shaw,* . 




Boston, . 


1856 


1854, 


Henry W. Cushman,* 




Bernardston, . 


1860 


1855, 


Albert H. Nelson,* 




Woburn, . 


1855 


1855, 


Joseph A. Fitch, . 




Hopkinton, 


1858 


1855, 


Parley Hammond, 




Worcester, 


1860 


1856, 


Simeon Brown, . 




Concord, . 


1860 


1856, 


John A. Fayerweather 




Westborough, . 


1859 


1857, 


Josiah H. Temple, 




FYamingham, . 


1860 


1858, 


Judson S. Brown, 




Fitchburg, 


1860 


1859, 


Theodore Lyman, 




Brookline, 


1860 


1860, 


George C. Davis,* 




Northborough, 


1873 


1860, 


Carver Hotchkiss, 




Shelburne, 


1863 


1860, 


Julius A. Palmer, 




Boston, 


1862 


1860, 


Henry Chickering, 




Pittsfielcl, . 


1869 


1860, 


George W. Bentley, 




Worcester, 


1861 


1860, 


Alden Leland, 




Holliston, 


1864 


1861, 


Pliny Nickerson, . 




Boston, . 


1868 


1861, 


Samuel G Howe,* 




Boston, 


1863 


1862, 


Benjamin Boynton,* 




Westborough, . 


1864 


1863, 


J. H. Stephenson, 




Boston, 


1866 


1863, 


John Ayres, 




Charlestown, . 


1867 



* Deceased. 



94 



TRUSTEES LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct, 



Names, Residences, etc., of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 






Date of 


Commission. 


NAMES. 


Residences. 


Retirement. 


1864, 


A. E Goodnow, . 


Worcester, 


1874 


1864, 


Isaac Ames, .... 


Haverhill, 


1865 


1865, 


Jones S. Davis, . . 


Holyoke, . 


1868 


1866, 


Joseph A. Pond,* 


Brighton, . 


1867 


1867, 


Stephen G. Deblois, . 


Boston, . 


1878 


1868, 


John Ayres, 


Medford, . 


1874 


1868, 


Harmon Hall, 


Saugus, . 


1871 


1868, 


L. L. Goodspeed, . 


Bridgewater, . 


1872 


1869, 


E. A. Hubbard, . 


Springfield, 


1877 


1871, 


Lucius W. Pond, . 


Worcester, 


1875 


1871, 


John W. Olmstead, 


Boston, . 


1873 


1872, 


Moses H. Sargent, 


Newton, . 


1877 


1873, 


A. S. Woodworth, 


Boston, . 


1876 


1873, 


Edwin B. Harvey, 


Westborough, . 


1878 


1874, 


W. H. Baldwin, . 


Boston, . 


1876 


1875, 


John L. Cummings, . 


Ashburnham, . 


1879 


1876, 


Jackson B. Swett, 


Haverhill, 


1878 


1877, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester, 


1879 


1877, 


Milo Hildreth,* . 


Northborough,. 


1879 


1878, 


Lyman Belknap,* 


Westborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Franklin Williams, 


Boston, . 


1879 


1878, 


Robert Couch, 


Newburyport, . 


1879 


1879, 


John T. Clark, . 


Boston, 


1879 


1879, 


M. J. Flatley, 


Boston, . 


1881 


1879, 


Adelaide A. Calkins, . 


Springfield, 


1880 


1879, 


Lyman Belknap, . 


Westborough, . 


1884 


1879, 


Anne B. Richardson, . 


Lowell, . 


1886 


1879, 


Milo Hildreth,* . 


Northborough,. 


1891 


1879, 


George W. Johnson, . 


Brookfield, 


1887 


1879, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester, 


1888 


1880, 


Elizabeth C. Putnam, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1881, 


Thomas Dwight, . 


Boston, . 


1884 


1884, 


M. H. Walker, . 


Westborough, . 


Still in office. 


1884, 


J. J. O'Connor,* . 


Holyoke, . 


1889 


1886, 


Elizabeth G. Evans, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1887, 


Chas. L. Gardner, 


Palmer, . 


1891 


1888, 


H. C. Greeley, . 


Clinton, . 


Still in office. 


1889, 


M. J. Sullivan, . 


Chicopee, 


" " 


1891, 


Samuel W. McDaniel, . 


Cambridge, 


Ct It 


1891, 


C. P. Worcester, . 


Boston, . 


1897 


1897, 


E. C. Sanford, . 


Worcester, 


Still in office. 



* Deceased. 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



95 



EEPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OP 
VISITATION. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

During the year closing Sept. 30, 1897, there have been subject 
to the visitation of this department 683 * probationers from the 
Lyman school. Of these, 115 boys have either become of age or 
have been transferred to other institutions during the year, leaving 
568 boys on our visiting list Sept. 30, 1897. An analysis of this 
number shows : — 

460 boys in various occupations. 

23 boys at board. 

18 boys released so recently that occupation cannot be given. 

4 invalids. 

12 not employed. 

17 in other penal institutions. 

34 boys whose whereabouts are unknown. 

The 460 boys given above as in various occupations are engaged 
in seventy-one different employments, as follows : — 



Assisting parents, 






10 


Envelope shop, . 


1 


Blacksmith, 






6 


Expressman, . . 


9 


Baker, 






3 


Electric lamp factory, 


1 


Building mover, 






2 


Errand boy, 


2 


Bicycle factory, . 






7 


Farmer, .... 


144 


Brass works, 






3 


Fireman, assistant, 


1 


Bell boy, . 






8 


Freight handler, 


1 


Box factory, 






4 


Fish peddler, 


1 


Barber, 






2 


Fish market, 


1 


Confectioner, 






1 


Fisherman, 


3 


Carpenter, . 






9 


Fruit peddler, . 


1 


Car shop, . 






1 


Furniture store, . 


2 


Coachman, . 






. 1 


Glass works, 


3 


Clerk, 






10 


Hostler, .... 


5 


Engraver, . 






. 1 


Harness shop, . 


. 1 



* One of these, who is out of the State, is reported on by letter. 



96 



VISITATION EEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Iron works, 
Job wagon, 
Laborer, 
Lumber yard, . 
Mill hands (textile), 
Milk wagon, 
Masons, 

Moulders (iron), 
Meat cutter, 
Machinists, 
Nail factory, 
Newsboy, . 
Oil works, . 
Office boy, . 
Peddler (miscellaneo 
Painter, 

Photographer, . 
Plumber, . 
Paper-mill, 
Printer, 



us), 



2 
2 

29 
1 

41 
5 
1 
2 
3 
7 
2 
2 
1 



Porter, 






. 1 


Restaurant, 






. 1 


Rope-walk, 






. 5 


Rubber works, . 






. 1 


School and chores, 






25 


Selling agent, . 






1 


Sash and blind shop, 






1 


Sailor, 






. 2 


Saw-mill, . 






1 


Shoe shop, . 






. 21 


Stone cutter, 






1 


Street paver, 






1 


Toy shop, . 






1 


Trunk factory, . 






1 


Teamster, . 






6 


Telegraph messenger 






4 


Tanner, 






2 


Vegetable peddler, .. 






7 


Wire-mill, . 






3 


Whip shop, 






1 



It may be of interest to note that of the boys given in the above 
table 31 per cent, are employed on farms ; 9 per cent, are employed 
in mills (textile) ; 6 per cent, are classed as laborers ; 5 per cent, are 
employed in shoe shops ; 5 per cent, are attending school and doing 
chores ; 3 per cent, are peddlers of various kinds ; 2 per cent, are 
clerks ; and the remaining 39 per cent, may be classed as miscella- 
neous. 



1896. 



1897. 



The number of boys placed in their homes, . 
The number of boys placed with others, 
The number of boys boarded, .... 
The number of boys recalled to school, . 



87 


97 


96 


73 


29 


11 


85 


63 



To properly place those boys who have no homes of their own suita- 
ble to receive them, to relocate those who would be benefited by such 
a change, to visit and encourage those who are weak, to command the 
wavering and stubborn, and to recall the unruly, — these are some of 
our duties toward our charges. 

We also visit boys in their own homes, assisting by our authority 
those parents whose control over their children is weak. Such parents 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 97 

always welcome us, relying upon our aid and counsel. We endeavor 
to do our work quietly and judiciously, never obtruding our authority 
except where absolutely necessary, and using special care with those 
boys who are approaching their majority and are at work for them- 
selves. 

If such boys are ever visited at their work no employer or comrade 
ever learns from us the object of our call ; and while keeping our- 
selves informed of the conduct of such boys and being in communi- 
cation with them, we, like the best teachers, try to make ourselves as 
useless as possible. 

Fifteen hundred and fifty-seven visits upon probationers have been 
made by this department during the year. This number includes 
about one hundred visits made by individual members of your Board, 
mainly to the boarded boys, or boys from the Berlin School. This 
service has been most beneficial to the little boys and a well-nigh 
indispensable assistance to our work. 176 boys have received but 
one visit each during the year, 55 of this number because so near 
twenty-one years old, and 121 either because placed very recently 
or remaining in place but a very short time before return or leaving 
place, or because their whereabouts were unknown during a part of 
the year. 

The average time such boys remained in place having received but 
one visit each was less than three months. 

Forty-four boys have not been visited this year ; 10 because within 
a few months of twenty-one years of age Oct. 1, 1896 ; 25 because 
placed within a few weeks, and the remaining 9 because their where- 
abouts »were unknown or they were returned to school or other insti- 
tutions within a very short time after release. To the remaining 462 
boys we have paid 1,381 visits, or an average of 2j^ 9 q visits to each 
boy. 

Besides these visits to boys we have investigated 207 homes and 
made a written report thereon. We have investigated also the homes 
of 66 applicants for boys, either to board or for employment. We 
have made 17 special calls and personally conducted 47 boys to their 
places. We have relocated 24 boys, recalled 18 to the school and 
transferred two. 

We have spent 36 days at the Lyman School consulting in regard 
to boys and interviewing the boys themselves, and each month have 
spent one evening at the regular committee meeting of your Board. 
The sum of the above data added to the previously reported 1,557 
visits makes a grand total of 1,936 calls upon our time, over territory 
covering all six of the New England States, — a year's record we 
can never exceed nor with our present force do we expect to equal. 

The same classification of conduct of probationers has been made 



98 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

as last year, with perhaps this difference, that the lines have been 
drawn much sharper than formerly and the reports are more up to 
date than last year, which probably accounts for the increase of 
doubtful cases. 

There has been collected and paid over to the Lyman School the 
sum of $960.37 for the service of 32 boys. This sum is placed in the 
bank to their credit. This amount, while less than last year, is 
nevertheless a larger sum relatively, as quite a proportion of the 
money collected last year was for service rendered during previous 
years. 

As the number of probationers increases and as we become more 
intimately acquainted with our boys the calls upon us are more 
frequent and the work of this department enlarges. During the first 
15 months of our work in this department we had considerable help 
from Mr. J. H. Cummings, an officer of the school, in emergency cases 
and in escorting boys to and from their places, but within the last 
six months Mr. Cummings's duties have been such that we have been 
unable to call upon him as heretofore, and the visiting department 
has been hard pressed to meet the demands upon it. It will be neces- 
sary that our force be in some way supplemented if the work is to 
be satisfactorily carrie4 on. 

Among the many problems which we meet as our experience 
grows in this work the most perplexing is the unruly — not to say 
criminal — boy of from eighteen to twenty-one years. A few of this 
class are sure to develop every year. At present writing there are 
probably eighteen or twenty of these boys. Without being actual 
thieves or drunkards, they are on the sure road to one or both. Of 
course we can return such boys to the school ; but this way-wise evil- 
minded and unruly probationer has no proper place in the institution, 
where he has an opportunity to poison all the boys who come in con- 
tact with him, filling their minds with stories of his wrong-doing, 
either real or imaginary, while a probationer. 

Having no actual criminal record against them such boys are hardly 
subjects for the Concord Reformatory, but there is urgent need of 
steady work and restraint for them till they have learned their les- 
son, be it for a longer or a shorter time. 

A house, at or near the Lyman School and under its management, 
where such boys could be employed and disciplined and yet be 
isolated from the school itself, would, in our judgment, be the proper 
solution of this problem. Such a plan would tend to deter the older 
probationer from misbehavior and would also be an object lesson for 
the younger ones. 

It may be said here that we are often solicited by parents to return 
unruly boys, fast going to the bad, but for whom we know there can 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 91) 

be no place at the school. Is it wise, philanthropic or economical 
to allow such boys to become actual criminals or tramps before they 
reach their majority? 

Financial Statement. 
Walter A Wheeler, salary, . . . . . . $1,600 04 

Asa F. Howe, salary, 1,100 01 

Travelling expenses and stationery, .... 2,446 83 



$5,U6 88 



In closing this report we renew our expressions of obligation to 
your honorable Board for constant interest and wise counsel, to the 
superintendent and other officers of the Lyman School for their ever- 
ready help, and to those helpers, who, scattered over New England, 
take an interest in our boys and render much assistance by occasional 
reports. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WALTER A. WHEELER, 

Superintendent of Visitation. 

ASA F. HOWE, 

Assistant. 



EEPOET OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE INMSTEIAL SCHOOL FOE GlELS 



LANCASTER 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

There have been no special changes in the work and management 
of the State Industrial School during the past year; the work has 
been along the same lines of industrial training and moral education. 
The number of commitments to the school have been larger than in 
former years, making the families too large for doing our best work, 
but considering this difficulty, it is gratifying to see how well dis- 
posed the girls seem, and with what little trouble good discipline has 
been maintained. In the course of a few weeks we shall hope to 
occupy the new cottage, which will, for a while, remedy the over- 
crowding. The school is so well classified in the five separate fami- 
lies that we believe there is very little danger of contamination. 
The more innocent girl can receive no harm, as she is constantly 
under the best of influences through the good care and oversight of 
those having her under their special charge ; the personal work done 
for these girls by the household officers of each family cannot be too 
highly commended by your board of trustees. 

To be ruled and governed by kindness is what few of the girls have 
ever known before in their lives, coming from such degraded places 
as they call homes ; ignorant of all that is pure or good ; not able to 
read or write their own names, perhaps ; knowing nothing about the 
keeping of a well-ordered home. It is, therefore, surprising to see 
how soon they become interested in all that goes on about them, and 
how soon they yield to higher influences. So far as sympathy may 
be demanded for this class of girls on account of their previous con- 
dition, that sympathy comes to them from those who have their best 
interest at heart ; but above it and beyond it there has come and 
abides with us a sense of justice to each individual girl, which only 
comes through love for humanity and for the work of uplifting those 
who have been less favored than others. The more we work in the 
spirit of Him who gave himself and became servant to all, the more 
good results we may expect for the future. 



104 SUPT.'S REPORT INDUS'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Some of the girls who are out in families have returned for a week 
or ten days' vacation, and those who have been ill have returned to 
us for care and recuperation ; others have come to spend the holidays, 
always enjoying the good time that holidays bring to the girls in the 
school. 

The girls who are at work outside of the school have altogether 
this year saved $1,885.59, which has been deposited for them till they 
become of age. The following statistics will give an idea of the work 
accomplished. 

L. L. BRACKETT, 

Superintendent. 

Lancaster, Sept. 30, 1897. 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 105 



STATISTICS 



Number in the school Sept. 30, 1896, . . . . - . . .129 

Number since committed, 100 

Number in the school Sept. 30, 1897, 144 

Average number in the school, . . 138 

Per capita cost of institution (weekly), $3 93 

There were in the custody of the Industrial School, i.e , in the school 

and on probation, etc., Sept. 30, 1896, 384 

New commitments, 100 

There passed out of the care of the school : — 

By attaining majority, . . . . . . . . 51 

Discharged by trustees, 6 

Died, .1 

Total passing out of the school's custody, 58 

Net increase in the custody of the school, 42 

Remaining in custody of the school Sept. 30, 1896, .... 426 

These 429 girls are distributed as follows : — 

In the school at Lancaster, 144 

At board in families, 10 

• Transferred to Reformatory Prison for Women or House of 

Correction : In former years, 9 ; this year, 1, . . . . 10 

Hospitals for insane, 3 

Convalescent home or hospitals, 3 

State or other almshouses, 18 

Total still maintained by the State, 188 

Of the remaining 231, who are no longer supported by the State, — 

There have left their places, 14 

With relatives, on probation, 38 

At work in other families, 139 

At work elsewhere, 1 

At academy or other school, self-supporting, .... 7 

Married, but subject to recall for cause, 39 

238 

Deducting those who have left their places, 14 

Total honestly self-supporting or married, 224 



106 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



There were recalled to the school during the year 76 girls, but only 
7 of these for seriously bad conduct and 10 for leaving their places. 
The rest came back for no serious fault, and most of them have 
either been placed out again or, in case of illness, have been tem- 
porarily placed in the State Almshouse or other hospitals. 

Of the 58 girls who this year attained majority, or were otherwise 
discharged from the custody of the State Industrial School, one 
died, having long been an invalid. Of the rest, there were : — 
Behaving well, including 2 who had been discharged 

from the Reformatory Prison for Women, ... 67 per cent. 

Behaving badly, 10 per cent. 

Feeble-minded or otherwise unfit subjects for the school, 9 per cent. 
Left their places and out of knowledge, .... 14 per cent. 



Of those committed this year : — 

95 could read and write. 1 born in Pennsylvania. 

1 could read. 2 born in Virginia. 

4 could not read or write. 1 born in South Carolina. 

62 born in Massachusetts. 1 born in Michigan. 

3 born in Maine. 3 born in Canada. 

3 born in New Hampshire. 2 born in Nova Scotia. 

3 born in Vermont. 1 born in Newfoundland. 

2 born in Rhode Island. 4 born in England. 
1 born in Connecticut. 3 born in Ireland. 
6 born in New York. 1 born at sea. 

1 born in New Jersev. 



53 had both parents living. 
38 had one parent living. 

28 American parentage. 

4 English. 

2 English-Froneh. 
1 English-Irish. 

13 French. 

3 French- American. 
27 Irish. 

8 Colored. 

48 Stubbornness. 
17 Larceny. 

8 Idle and disorderly. 

7 Drunkenness 

6 Lewdness. 



9 were orphans. 

2 Scotch. 
2 Swede. 
1 French-Spanish- American. 

1 Scotch-Portuguese. 

2 Portuguese. 

1 Polish Jew. 
5 Unknown. 

4 Fornication. 

4 Lascivious in speech and conduct, 

3 Night-walking. 

2 Vagrancy and idleness. 
1 Assault and battery. 



Cash received to credit of sundry girls from Sept. 30, 1896, to 
Sept. 30, 1897, ! 

By deposit in savings bank on account of sundry girls, . 

Cash drawn from savings bank on account of sundry girls fron 
Sept. 30, 1896, to Sept. 30, 1897 

By paid amounts from savings bank, .... 



$1,885 59 
1,885 59 

1,266 18 
1,266 18 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18 



107 



INVENTORY OF PROPERTY. 



State Industrial School for Girls, Lancaster, Mass., Oct. 1, 1897. 

Real Estate. 

Chapel, $6,500 00 

Hospital 1,500 00 

Richardson Hall, . ' . . . . . . 15,000 00 

Rogers Hall, 11,750 00 

Fay Cottage, . 12,000 00 

Mary Lamb Cottage, 12,500 00 

Elm Cottage, 4,900 00 

Superintendent's house, 3,500 00 

Store-room, . . 300 00 

Farm-house and barn, 2,000 00 

Large barn, . . . . . . 7,275 00 

Silo, . . 400 00 

Holden shop, . . 200 00 

Ice house, 1,000 00 

Wood house, . . . ... 

Hen house, . . ... 

P^gery, 

Reservoir house, No. 1, 

Reservoir house, land, etc., No. 2, . 

Carriage shed, 

Water works, land, etc., 

Hose house, hose, etc., 

Farm, 176 acres, 

Broderick lot, 12 acres, 

Wood lot, 10 acres, . . . . . 

Storm windows, ...... 

Total valuation of real estate, . . 

Personal Property. 
Produce of farm on hand, 
Tools and carriages, . 
Valuation of live stock, . 
House furnishings and supplies, 
Miscellaneous, .... 

Total valuation of personal estate, 



600 00 






200 00 






1,100 00 






100 00 






300 00 






150 00 






7,500 00 






2,000 00 






9,300 00 






1,000 00 






200 00 






40 00 


$101,315 


00 






$5,055 00 






2,183 00 






3,051 00 






12,961 28 






612 42 






— 


$23,862 


70 



Worcester, ss. Oct. 8, 1897. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me, 



A. J. BANCROFT, 
H. F. HOSMER, 

Appraisers. 

Geo. W. Howe, 

Justice of the Peace. 



108 



INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Personal Property. 
Produce on hand Oct. _Z, IS 97. 



Apples, 53 bushels, . 
Beets, table, 74 bushels, . 
Beet seed, £ bushel, . 
Beans, white, 10 bushels, . 
Beans, horticultural, 12 bushel? 
Beans, black wax, 6 bushels, 
Bedding, 10 tons, 
Cabbage heads, 662, . 
Canned goods, 2,100 quarts, 
Celery, heads, 474, . 
Cotton-seed meal, 800 pounds, 
Corn, ears, 250 bushels, . 
Corn, cracked, 100 pounds, 
Corn, pop, 35 bushels, 
Corn, sweet, seed, 5 bushels, 
Ensilage, 75 tons, 
English hay, 128 tons, 
Fodder, oat, 12£ tons, 
Fodder, corn, 2 tons, . 
Gluten, 300 pounds, . 
Hungarian, 5 tons, 
Hungarian seed, 2 bushels, 
Mangolds, 25 tons, . 
Mangold seed, 20 pounds, 
Meal, 2,100 pounds, . 
Middlings, 300 pounds, 
Meal, bone, 200 pounds, . 
Manure, 70 cords, 
Onions, 10 bushels, . 
Oats, 16 bushels, 
Provender, 1,000 pounds, . 
Pumpkins, 2 tons, 
Potatoes, 400 bushels, 
Pease, seed, 5 bushels, 
Pickles, 552 quarts, . 
Rowen, 19£ tons, 
Ruta-bagas, 140 bushels, . 
Squash, 4,150 pounds, 
Shorts, 1 ton, 
Vinegar, 2,000 gallons, 
Wheat, 6 bushels, 



Amount carried forward^ 



$26 50 


37 00 


5 00 


12 50 


24 00 


18 00 


80 00 


33 10 


210 00 


23 70 


9 60 


125 00 


95 


35 00 


7 50 


525 00 


1,920 00 


175 00 


16 00 


3 00 


60 00 


5 00 


250 00 


6 00 


19 95 


2 40 


4 00 


420 00 


10 00 


5 44 


9 50 


30 00 


300 00 


20 00 


49 68 


195 00 


56 00 


62 25 


16 00 


240 00 


7 20 


%5 055 °7 





$5,055 % 



1897.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 109 

Amount brought forward, • $5,055 27 

Live Slock. 

Horses, 7, f 650 00 

Cows, 25, 1,300 00 

Bull, 1, 35 00 

Calves, 4 40 00 

Hogs fat, 22, (7,300 pounds), 51100 

Breeding sows, 3, 45 00 

Shoats, 30, 300 00 

Pigs, 12, 25 00 

Boar, 1, 25 00 

Fowls, 250, . . 120 00 

3,051 00 

Tools and carriages, . 2,183 00 

Ice tools, $22 50 

Flour barrels, 100, 10 00 

Bags and sacks, 7 00 

Phosphates, 50 pounds, 87 

Drain pipe, 11 65 

Water pipe (iron), , . 5 25 

Hay caps, 25 00 

Hay scales, 45 00 

Kettle set, 24 50 

Extinguishers, fire, 275 00 

Escapes, fire, 16 00 

Lamps, street, 15 00 

Vinegar casks, 45, 33 75 

Lawn mowers, 18 00 

Stoves, . 30 00 

Oil tank, 18 00 

Kerosene oil, gallons, 70, 4 90 

Hay fork and rope, 50 00 

Total miscellaneous, . . . . . 612 42 

Richardson Hall furnishings, |2,245 00 

Property in Rogers Hall, . . . . . .1,27130 

Fay Cottage, 1,311 96 

Mary Lamb Cottage, .... 1,595 97 

Elm Cottage, 1,066 60 

Superintendent's house, 995 00 

Chapel and library 650 00 

Provisions and groceries, 669 00 

Dry goods 853 00 

Crockery and hardware, 219 00 

Books and stationery, 147 00 

Medicine, 15 00 

Paint, oil and turpentine, 54 20 

Coal, 290 tons, 1,643 25 

Wood, 50 cords cut, 225 00 

12,961 28 

$23,862 97 



110 



INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Summary of Farm Account. 
Dr. 



To Live stock, as per in- 
ventory 1896, 
Tools and carriages, as 
per inventory 1896, 
Produce on hand Oct. 
1, 1896: — 
Bedding, 
Ensilage, 
English hay, 
Fodder, 
Hungarian, . 
Mangolds, . 
Oats, . 
Blacksmithing, . 



2,115 00 


2,670 00 


32 00 


800 00 


1,728 00 


266 00 


180 00 


200 00 


8 75 


232 29 



To Canvas, 
Dressing, 
Orain, . 
Labor, 
Live stock, 
Nutriotine, 
Sleds, . 
Seeds,. 
Tools,. 



Balance, 



$5 44 

658 25 

1,337 69 

2,251 39 

170 00 

25 00 

25 00 

40 42 

27 53 

$12,772 76 
1,883 98 

$14,656 74 



Or. 



By beets, 


$3 50 


By produce on hand : — 




beet greens, 


15 00 


apples, . 


$26 50 


beans, shell, 


46 00 


beets, 


37 00 


beans, string, 


40 00 


beet seed, 


5 00 


bedding, 


116 00 


beans, 


54 50 


cucumbers, 


22 50 


bedding, . 


80 00 


crab apples, 


5 00 


cabbage,. 


33 10 


corn, green, 


175 00 


celery, 


23 70 


eggs, . 


176 45 


cotton-seed meal, 


9 60 


fodder, green, . 


91 00 


corn, ears, 


125 00 


fowl, . 


22 40 


corn, cracked, . 


95 


grapes, 


15 00 


corn, pop, 


35 00 


ice, 


300 00 


corn, sweet, seed, 


7 50 


keeping horse for 




ensilage, . 


. 525 00 


school, . 


150 00 


English hay, . 


. 1,920 00 


milk, . 


2,102 60 


fodder, oat, 


175 00 


muck, . 


50 00 


fodder, corn, . 


16 00 


pears, . 


55 00 


gluten, . 


3 00 


plums, 


150 00 


Hungarian, 


60 00 


pork, . 


616 15 


Hungarian seed, 


5 00 


rhubarb, 


17 00 


mangolds, 


250 00 


strawberries, 


63 00 


mangold seed, 


6 00 


tomatoes, . 


52 50 


meal, 


19 95 


cash received for pro- 




middlings, 


2 40 


duce and live stock 




meal, bone, 


4 00 


and sent State treas- 




manure, . 


420 00 


urer, 


343 05 


onions, . 


10 00 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



Ill 



SUMMARI 


• of Farm Account — Concluded. 
Cr. 




By produce on hand : — 




By produce on hand : — 




oats, 


$5 44 


wheat, 


$7 20 


provender, 


9 50 


live stock, as per in- 




pumpkins, 


30 00 


ventory 1897, 


3,051 00 


potatoes, . 


300 00 


tools and carriages, 




pease, seed, 


20 00 


as per inventory 




ruta-bagas, 


56 00 


1897, . 


2,183 00 


rowen, . 
shorts, 


195 00 

16 00 








114,656 74 


squash, . 


62 25 






vinegar, . 


240 00 


Balance for farm, . 


$1,883 98 



Produce sold and Receipts sent to State Treasurer 



Calves, 


'. $163 00 


Pigs, 


Chickens, 


11 20 


Potatoes 


Cows, 


25 00 


Shoats, 


Hay, . . 


5 00 




Hens, 


2 00 


Tots 



$69 50 

9 25 

58 00 



f 343 50 



Produce Consumed. 



Beets, 

Beet greens, 
Beans, shell, 
Beans, string, 
Cucumbers, 
Crab apples, 
Grapes, . 
Green fodder, 
Green corn, 



$3 50 


15 00 


46 00 


40 00 


22 50 


5 00 


15 00 


91 00 


L75 00 



Ice, .... 


$300 00 


Pears, 


55 00 


Plums, 


150 00 


Pthubarb, . 


17 00 


Strawberries, . 


63 00 


Tomatoes, 


52 50 


Turnips, . 


4 00 



$1,054 50 



112 INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



113 





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1,946 63 
3,103 84 


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114 



OFFICERS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Pay-roll of the Persons employed at the State Industrial School for 
Girls during the Year ending Sept. 30, 1897. 



NAMES. 



Occupation. 



Time. 



Amount 
Paid. 



L. L. Brackett, 
N. C. Brackett, 
L. D. Mayhew, 
L. E. Hazelton, 
C. L. Everingham, 
A. M. T.Eno, 
M. E.Kiug, . 
H. M. Staples, 
E. B. Eames, . 
E. B. Thompson, 
L.E. Holder, . 

A. Hawley, 

J. C. Trask, . 
G-. L. Smith, . 

B. E. Kneeland, 
E.M. Buck, . 

E. A. Bartlett, 
M. Middlemiss, 

F. L. Palmer, . 
H.B.Hall, . 

A. L. Brackett, 
M. Torry, 

K. E. Saunders, 
M. Voter, 
M. Trapp, 
I. N. Bailey, . 
L. R. Bean, 

B. A. Wilson, 
J. M. Mclntire, 
H. M.Mead, . 
I.E.Brown, . 
M. V. O'Callaghan 
E. P. Woodbury, 

E. V. Morse, . 
G-. K. Wight, . 
A. T. Saunders, 
W. A. Smith, . 
E.O.Maxwell, 
D.H.Bailey, . 
M. Dolphin, . 

F. E. Blanchard, 
A. C. Eames, . 
N. O. Mclntire, 
H.Carr, . 

F. A. Howard, 
A. L. Smart, . 
O.V.Edwards, 



Superintendent, 

Steward, 

Matron, 



Clerk, . 

Assistant, 

Teacher, 



" of gymnastics, 
Housekeeper, 



Physician, 
Foreman of farm 
Laborer, 



Carpenter, 



12 months, 

12 months, 

1 1 months 12 days, 

11 months 12 days, 

11 months 8 days, . 

11 months 17 days, 
10 months, 

4 months 25 days, 
1 month 4 days, . 

12 months, 

10 months 16 days, 

11 mouths 28 days, 
11 months 3 days, . 

11 months 27 days, 
10 months 20 days, 
10 months 19 days, 

1 month 14 days, . 

2 months, 

2 months 7 days, . 
28 days. . 

8 months 14 days, 

12 months, 

9 months 28 days, 
12 months, 

10 months 6 days, . 

3 months 14 days, 

11 months 13 days, 
7 months 12 days, 

20 days, . 
1 month, 

1 month, 

12 months, 
12 months, 

7 months 12 days, 
12 months, 

11 months 27 days, 
6 months, 

5 months 28 days, 

5 months 17 days, 

6 months 16 days, 

12 months, 

4 months 24 days, 
14 days, . 

3 months 18 days, 

2 months 19 days, 
2 months 4 days, . 
1 month 23 days, . 



$1,200 00 


650 04 


331 83 


331 83 


328 01 


337 05 


275 04 


140 59 


32 57 


349 92 


281 04 


297 99 


281 25 


301 32 


269 61 


265 60 


36 49 


50 00 


55 75 


22 99 


275 88 


300 00 


247 62 


300 00 


254 56 


86 49 


285 67 


184 85 


16 42 


25 00 


25 00 


200 04 


540 00 


184 85 


504 00 


452 54 


228 00 


225 56 


208 99 


247 32 


456 00 


182 48 


11 96 


126 06 


99 18 


80 88 


164 50 


$11,752 77 



1897.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



115 



Persons now employed at the State Industrial School. 



NAMES. 


Occupation. 


Yearly Salary. 


L. L. Brackett, ..... 


Superintendent, 


$1,200 00 


N. C. Brackett, 










Steward, . 


650 00 


L. D. Mayhew, 










Matron, . 


350 00 


L. E. Hazel ton, 










ct 


350 00 


C. L. Everingham 










a 


350 00 


A. M. T. Eno, 










" 


350 00 


M.E.King, . 










" 


350 00 


L. E. Holder, 










General assistant, . 


350 00 


E. B. Thompson, 










Clerk, . 


350 00 


A. Hawley, . 










Teacher, . 


300 00 


J. C. Trask, . 










. . 


300 00 


G. L. Smith, . 










u 


300 00 


E. A. Bartlett, 










11 


30 000 


M. Middlemiss, 










" 


300 00 


A. L. Brackett, 










Gymnastic teacher, 


200 00* 


M. Torry, . 










Housekeeper, . 


300 00 


M. Voter, 










" 


300 00 


L. R. Bean, . 










a 


300 00 


M. Trapp, . 










u 


300 00 


I. N. Bailey, . 










u 


300 00 


B. A. Wilson, 










" 


300 00 


M. V. O'Callaghar 


i, 








Physician, 


200 00 


E. P. Woodbury, 










Foreman of farm, . 


540 00 


E. V. Morse, . 










Laborer, . 


300 00 


G. K. Wight, 










it 


504 00 


A. T. Saunders, 










" 


456 00 


F. E. Blanchard, 










" 


456 00 


D. H. Bailey, 










u 


384 00 












$10,640 00 



* Per six months. 



116 PHYSICIAN'S REPORT INDUS'L SCHOOL. [Oct. '1)7. 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



To the Honorable Board of Trustees of the State Industrial School. 

During the year that has just passed our little hospital has been 
brought into use on two occasions. The first time was when one of 
our girls returned from her place with what was thought to be diph- 
theria. A few days of isolation proved the case to be simple tonsillitis. 
The second was a surgical case, where the removal of the patient be- 
came necessary when one of the officers was taken ill with erysipelas. 

Six girls have been transferred to Tewksbury because they were 
too weak mentally to take up the work of the school. In each of 
these cases faithful efforts for months on the part of the officers 
failed to bring out any improvement, so it was deemed best to re- 
move them. 

Fourteen girls have come back from their places for medical treat- 
ment. A short rest with a little tonic medicine has enabled all of 
these to be returned to service. 

Two girls have been transferred to a hospital for surgical care ; 
two others for pregnancy, who when committed to the school were 
found to be pregnant ; and four for specific treatment. 

With the exception of one who came to us an invalid from chronic 
pelvic disease, the health of our girls is excellent. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. V. O'CALLAGHAN, M.D. 

Worcester, Sept. 30, 1897. 






PUBLIC DOCUMENT . . 



. . No. 18, 



FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



I* 



C*JZJ% , 



Lyman and Industrial 
Schools 



(Formerly known as Trustees of the State Primary and 
Reform Schools) 



Year ending September 30, 1898. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1899. 



.*> 



CONTENTS 



Trustees' Report on Lyman School, .......... 5 

Trustees' Report on State Industrial School, 18 

Report of Treasurer of Trust Funds, 28 

Report of Superintendent of Lyman School, 35 

Statistics of Lyman School, 39 

Report of Principal of Schools of Lyman School, 49 

Report of Instructor of Sloyd, Lyman School, 52 

Report of Instructor of Advanced Manual Training, . . . . . . 54 

Report of Instructor of Gymnastics, Lyman School, 56 

Report of Physician, Lyman School, 59 

Report of Matron of Berlin Farmhouse, 60 

Financial Statement, Lyman School, 62 

Report of the Farmer, Lyman School, 74 

Report of Berlin Farmer, ' 75 

Farm Account, 77 

Valuation of Property, Lyman School 80 

Schedule of Salaried Officers, Lyman School, . . 82 

List of Superintendents, Lyman School 87 

List of Trustees, Lyman School 88 

Report of Superintendent of Visitation of Lyman School Probationers, . . .90 

Report of Superintendent of State Industrial School, ...... 99 

Statistics and Financial Statement of State Industrial School, .... 100 

Supervisor of Schools of State Industrial School, 113 

Report of Physician of State Industrial School, 114 



€jDmm0tttaaItfr jof ]f^m:]pxtu£!to. 



REPORT OF TRUSTEES 



LYMAN AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The undersigned, trustees of the Lyman and Industrial 
Schools, respectfully present the appended report for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1898, for the two reform schools under their 
control. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. H. WALKER, Westborough, Chairman. 
ELIZABETH G. EVANS, Boston, Secretary. 
H. C. GREELEY, Clinton, Treasurer. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston. 
M. J. SULLIVAN, Chicopee. 
SAMUEL W. McDANIEL, Cambridge. 
EDMUND C. SANFORD, Worcester. 



TRUSTEES' REPORT 

ON 

THE LYMAN SCHOOL FOE BOYS, 

, At WESTBOROUGH. 



The problem besetting every institution for the reformation 
of the young is that of restoring boys and girls who have made 
a false start in life to normal relations to the community. This 
is no task to be accomplished in any assignable limit of time 
or by any one routine, and the State has wisely determined 
that those to whom this difficult work is entrusted should have 
control of the child during his minority, and should be allowed 
the utmost freedom in controlling his life until he reaches 
man's estate. 

The substantial buildings scattered over the hillside at West- 
borough are the most obvious but by no means the most 
important feature of the Lyman School ; for, out of over 800 
boys whom the school is endeavoring to influence and guide 
into good citizenship, little more than one-third will be found 
upon the institution grounds ; the rest are living apparently 
much as other boys live in the world, yet subject to such con- 
trol as is calculated to prevent the relapse which too often fol- 
lows a period of restraint, and to supplement the lack of proper 
home conditions, which is usually the reason why these boys 
have fallen into the hands of the State. 

A considerable number of the Lyman School boys are under 
thirteen years of age when they enter. All of these are im- 
mediately sent to a branch cottage in the town of Berlin, some 
seven miles away, and are thus saved from association with 
older boys and from the influences of the big institution. Of 
the 184 commitments within the year, 49* were sent over at 

* One of these was returned to court as having been improperly committed. 



6 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

once to Berlin, of whom 6 were returned later to Westborough, 
being judged, upon nearer acquaintance, proper subjects for 
longer and more systematic methods of training than the Berlin 
farmhouse affords. Last year's report gave a detailed descrip- 
tion of the methods employed in the two branches of the institu- 
tion ; Berlin, with its little group of never more than 24 boys, 
in charge of a motherly woman and a brisk young farmer and 
his wife, and with simple, informal conditions impossible when 
numbers are larger; and Westborough, with some 250 boys 
and eight scattered households, with carefully laid out school 
courses, manual training classes, physical drill classes, work- 
shops, etc. 

The Berlin boys remain in the school for a period varying 
anywhere from six weeks to a year, and then are usually 
boarded out on a farm, this to be followed by a return to their 
own people or a permanent life on a farm, according to the 
conditions awaiting them at home. The period of detention 
for the older boys (who are never over fifteen when they enter) 
depends upon a marking system based upon the boys' conduct 
in the institution which keeps them in the school for rarely less 
than a year, and sometimes as long as two or three years. On 
leaving, more than half of these go home direct from the school, 
and only those whose homes are distinctly bad are placed on 
farms. 

Whether a boy is liable to do better in his own home or in 
a farmer's family is a nice question, to be considered by the 
trustees, with the help of those who have dealt with the boy in 
the school and of visitors who have investigated his family, and 
who know, also, what openings are available elsewhere ; and 
often decisions must be reversed, or a place which seems satis- 
factory must be changed, and sometimes the boy must be re- 
called to the school for a second or even a third term before 
another trial can be risked.* 

* Of the 120 boys whom the Berlin cottage has received since it was opened, almost 
three years ago, 20 of those more recently committed are now in Berlin, while 23 are in 
their own homes and doing more or less well, 53 are with farmers, 21 are at West- 
borough, 1 is a runaway, 1 was discharged as an unfit subject and 1 returned to court. 
Five of those at home and 4 of those in places have been in Westborough since leaving 
Berlin and are now out for a second trial. No boy who fails to do well outside is ever 
allowed to go back to Berlin. A special card catalogue is kept for these younger boys, 
and later some interesting comparisons may be possible as to the relative merit of one or 
another method of training. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

The three Visitors connected with the school are doing ex- 
cellent work among probationers. Indeed, the trustees believe 
that this work of carrying on the work of the school in behalf 
of boys in their own homes or in places is the most important 
advance in reformatory methods which has been made in recent 
years. Without some such system of visiting, the break be- 
tween the restraint of the institution and the freedom of the 
world is too sudden. In the institution the boys are subject to 
a strict routine and to the support and stimulus of constant 
direction and companionship ; and many of those who do best 
under such conditions are the first to fail when they must choose 
and act for themselves amid the distractions and temptations 
of the world. The excellent tact of the Visitors in following 
up sharply the boys who need to feel the schooPs discipline, 
and leaving room for freedom and initiative in those who are 
capable of acting for themselves, relieves the system of any of 
the dangers which may have been anticipated. There are re- 
corded 1,573 visits by the Visitors, and 107 by individual 
trustees, to outside boys, and 216 homes and places have been 
investigated and reported upon. The sum of $1,198 has been 
collected in behalf of 41 probationers and placed to their credit 
in the bank, to be held for them until they come of age. The 
report of the superintendent of visitation, on page 90, gives an 
interesting statement of the work of his department. It is grat- 
ifying to find that among the Lyman School probationers 39 are 
enrolled in the United States army and navy, of whom several 
have seen active service in the recent war. 

The fact that the number of probationers who are known to 
be doing well when they attain their majority has risen from 
only 42 per cent., in 1893, — the first year such a count was 
made, — to 58 per cent, this year, is gratifying evidence of 
progressive work. 

The following cases, taken almost at random from hundreds 
that might be cited, exemplify the way in which the training 
and discipline of the institution and the period of advice and 
control outside, work as parts of one process in putting boys 
upon their feet. 

The mother of a boy of fourteen, released to her care with 
some misgivings, asked the trustees who called to " leave a 
written note, so Joe will believe me when I tell him you have 



8 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

been here, for he would never mind me at all if it were not for 
knowing that the Lyman School was behind him." With the 
steadying influence of the Lyman School behind him, however, 
Joe is still behaving fairly well. 

Another one, this time a step-mother, writes : " Please come 
and attend to Leander, as he will not mind, and is running at 
large." Leander, after six months at the school, had been 
boarded at a farm, and he did so well there that it seemed 
proper to try him with his own people, who are respectable 
and live in a good neighborhood ; but when the novelty of 
home had worn off the habits of disobedience reasserted them- 
selves ; and, after repeated visits and threats, he was recalled 
to the school and kept there for about eight months, and is now 
on a farm again, where he is working faithfully and giving 
satisfaction. He is a bright, well-intentioned boy, but does 
not like study and is easily led. 

Frank, who left home with a very bad record, showed him- 
self so pleasant-tempered and trustworthy that it was hard to 
believe that he had ever been troublesome. In the farmer's 
family where he was first boarded and later found a free home 
he was accounted almost as a son of the house, and it was only 
under a sense of duty that he went home to take his place as 
bread-winner for his little brothers and sisters, his father lying 
ill with a mortal disease. He will have little help from his 
inefficient mother, and it remains to be seen whether he has the 
character to stand alone under his heavy responsibilities. 

John did capitally, both at the school and at his boarding- 
place ; but he had more energy than either his father or mother, 
and, when allowed to go home, complaint soon followed that 
he was disobedient, would not go to school, etc., and several 
times it was necessary for the Visitor to hold the threat over 
him sharply that he was liable to be recalled to Westborough. 
Work as cabin boy on a revenue cutter, however, has proved 
congenial, and for more than a year he has done well. 

Michael, after much anxious consideration, was placed on a 
farm, because his home was very far from satisfactory. Farm 
life, however, proved so utterly against the boy's grain that it 
seemed hopeless that he should improve under it, and a trial at 
home was decided upon, as the lesser of the two evils. A few 
days after his return home he called upon one of the trustees, 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. V 

looking so cheerful and alert that it was hard to recognize him 
as the sullen boy seen a few weeks before on the farm. He is 
now at work, and so far is doing well. 

Joe is a boy whose father drank somewhat and whose mother 
drank to excess. The home was squalid, the younger children 
neglected and the older brother loafing. There seemed no 
chance for Joe in such a home, and accordingly, after seven- 
teen months in the school, he was placed on a farm, whence he 
promptly ran away, went home, and from there was recalled to 
the school. After keeping him some months in the school, the 
question of what to do with him again came under anxious con- 
sideration. A new investigation of his home showed the parents 
had moved and turned over enough of a new leaf to justify a 
trial of the boy's home. Joe knows he goes home on proba- 
tion, and his parents, who greatly need his earnings, know it 
too, and the fact that they all feel this will, no doubt, be a 
factor in keeping them straight. 

" You couldn't find a better home anywhere, — there's nothing 
to make a fellow mad," was Eddy's confidence to the trustee 
who called upon him in his boarding home. He is a merry 
little fellow with blue eyes and wavy yellow hair, looking like 
a picture on a Kate Greenaway card. His father and mother 
are respectable, but they must have been extraordinarily inju- 
dicious, as Eddy, who is in no way a bad child by nature, at 
the age of twelve was entirely beyond their control, running 
in the streets, bunking out nights and stealing bicycles. 

Jimmy came of pauper parents, and belongs to nobody. He 
had hip disease, and after coming to the school, over three 
years ago, he passed many months on his back with his leg in 
a stretcher. He was a restless, rather light-headed boy, and 
his future, with no home and no ability to support himself, was 
discouraging. The physician of the school consulted with one 
of the best orthopaedic surgeons, and an apparatus was fitted so 
that he was able to be upon his feet and take his part in the 
work and study of the school. Through the past summer his 
restless activity found vent in work upon the new school-house, 
and after carrying hods of brick without injury, he has gone 
out to a place and promises to earn his living with the rest. 

Few boys have had more done for them than Edward, and 
few have profited by it less. He came to the school at eleven 



10 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

years of age, and after two years there was placed upon a farm, 
where for several years he did fairly well ; then he ran away, 
and for some two years was knocking about in the city, finding 
work and losing it, leaving his places out of mere shiftlessness, 
lying, running in debt, drinking, and fast degenerating into a 
vagabond. He was a chronic whiner, and, although he was 
helped repeatedly by the Visitor, who advanced him money, 
found him boarding-places and work, and stood ready at any 
time to give him a new start in the country, he always thought 
himself ill-used. After trying for almost two years to put him 
straight, he was recalled to the school and transferred to the 
reformatory at Concord. He was released from Concord on 
ticket-of-leave some months ago, and has since been heard of 
working, as of old, irregularly, but otherwise doing fairly well. 

Walter's record is even worse than Edward's. He spent two 
years in the school and then went to his brother, who had a 
good home and work to offer him as a printer. After six 
weeks' trial his brother wrote that Walter was lazy and dis- 
honest, and asked to have him recalled to the school. Another 
year was given him at the school, and then he was placed with 
-a farmer. Here he proved himself utterly unfaithful and dis- 
honest, rifling the pockets of his employer and of the neighbors 
when they were in church, and stealing checks from his employer 
to the amount of several hundred dollars. Then he ran away, 
He was picked up, recalled to the school and transferred to th( 
reformatory at Concord. He was released from Concord oi 
ticket-of-leave last spring, when he at once enlisted in th< 
United States army. It is hoped that he will do better as 
soldier than he did as a citizen. 

William is another boy who does the school scant credit. 
He is shiftless and weak-willed, and has an older brother wh< 
has been both at Deer Island and at Concord. William was 
kept in the school for three years before he was given a trial 
with a farmer. This place he lost through conceit and insub- 
ordination. Recalled to the school, he was kept several months 
and then placed again, this time doing fairly well. After 
year or so, on his mother's petition and his own desire, h< 
was allowed to go home. At home he could find no work, 
so, at his own request, he was again found work upon a farm. 
Here he worked for over a year, earning $13 a month and pay- 






1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

ing part of his wages every month to his mother ; but gradually 
he got into bad habits, took to drink, fell out with his employer 
and floated about from place to place. He was visited fre- 
quently, reasoned with and threatened. Finally, on account 
of his bad influence upon other boys in the neighborhood, and 
because he was himself going from bad to worse, he was recalled 
to the school and transferred to Concord, and he is in Concord 
still. 

Trueman was an inveterate runaway. He had no home to go 
to, but he hated farming, so, after a term of twenty months in 
the school, he was placed on probation with an uncle. This 
home he lost through a family quarrel. Kecalled to the school, 
the question of what next to do with him was anxiously con- 
sidered. It was useless to talk to him about a farm : his taste 
was all for mechanical pursuits ; but how could a boy of fifteen 
earn money enough in a shop or factory to support himself ? 
Moreover, he was too young and too unsteady to be trusted to 
act as his own master ; so he was kept on at the school for a 
year, and given the best mechanical training which it could 
offer, becoming a first-class cabinet worker. A year ago work 
was found for him in a factory at $1 per day ; a good boarding- 
place was secured him, and he was furnished with tools from 
the Lyman fund to give him a start. He did excellently in this 
place until the war fever seized him last spring, when he en- 
listed in the United States army. 

Tom ran away three times during his first term in the school, 
and he ran away immediately when placed out with a farmer, 
and had to be brought back to the school for a second term. 
With a view to developing his mechanical interests, he was em- 
ployed in the school workshops until a chance was found for 
him to work in a factory at $4.50 a week. Through the good 
offices of the priest an excellent boarding-place was secured, 
and with many misgivings he was sent out for a trial. The 
first week his employer paid him $5 instead of $4.50, as agreed, 
because, he said, the boy knew " how to use tools." At the 
end of a year his wages were raised to $1.25 a day. Mean- 
while Tom had paid his board regularly, had clothed himself, 
had attended evening school and had kept the very best of 
company. The foreman tells the Visitor that he never had a 
more faithful employee, and that he was the one upon whom 



12 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

he always called for extra work. He left his place last May, 
because, while he was doing a man's work, he was not receiving 
equal pay. Three weeks later he enlisted and has seen service 
in Cuba. 

Few boys have had more done for them on their probation 
than Richard. He had learned the painter's trade in the school, 
and when he went out the Visitor secured him a job and found 
him a boarding-place. This was four years ago. For several 
years he required a great deal of attention. Twice he was ar- 
rested for drinking ; the first time the Visitor went to the court 
and took him out on probation, and the second time, when he was 
punished by a fine, the Visitor first saw the judge about him pri- 
vately. On more than one occasion he needed a very stiff hand ; 
but gradually his habits straightened and he gained in steadi- 
ness of purpose. Now, at twenty-one, he has steady work at 
his trade, is sober and clean in his living, and attends to business 
strictly. He has almost $200 in the bank, is prompt in paying 
his bills and always has money to the fore. He is on most 
friendly terms with the Visitor, who, he realizes, has stood by 
him in time of need. 

The central school building, for which an appropriation of 
$25,000 was made last spring, is rapidly rising above the 
ground. It is the first brick building ever attempted at the 
school with boys' labor, and is proving an educational instru- 
ment of great value from the very laying of its foundation- 
stones. 

When the school-house is completed it will allow certaii 
improvements in the methods of teaching long recommendec 
by the trustees, and impossible when school instruction is 
carried on, as at present, with imperfect gradation in th( 
eight scattered households. As repeatedly stated in recom- 
mending this change of school system, the trustees believe 
that the strict segregation in family groups, so important 
in a girls' institution like the school at Lancaster, is simpl; 
a handicap in a boys' school where all are nearly the sam< 
age and are practically all sentenced for offences againsl 
property, and where the purely educational problem is much 
more pressing. The girls' and boys' schools are alike in 
their aim to readjust their wards to normal relations to the 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

community, but in almost every other point their aim is 
different ; the girls' school laying emphasis upon such house- 
hold arts as will fit its graduates to make homes, and the 
boys' school aiming to arm its graduates for the fierce indus- 
trial struggle of the bread-winner. With these different ends 
in view, it is inevitable that the two institutions, organized 
eighteen years ago on a similar plan, should have developed in 
many respects on such different lines. 

This long-desired school-house is now, so far as legislation is 
concerned, an accomplished fact. Another step in a somewhat 
similar direction is recommended ; viz., a concentration in cen- 
tral buildings of the laundry work and all the heavier parts of 
the cooking now carried on by hand in the eight family houses. 
Work of this character is far less valuable for the boy than farm 
work or work in manual training, mechanical shops, printing 
office, or in other occupations such as they may well pursue in 
after years ; yet at present no less than 114 boys are employed 
in the various kinds of housework during all the working hours 
of the day, whereas, under the system recommended, probably 
less than half that number would suffice. Of course the boys 
now employed in housework are not so employed throughout 
their entire stay at the school, and they usually have their 
turn in manual training ; but the amount of manual training 
is much too slight, and with more time and better facil- 
ities a great deal more in this line could be done both for 
these and others. It is suggested, accordingly, that the Sloyd 
room, now located in the upper story of the bakery and store- 
house building, be used as a central kitchen, whence prepared 
food can be distributed to the various cottages, where meals 
would still be served. Another central building should be 
equipped with proper laundry machinery, and, in connection 
with this, workshops could be arranged with power to run both 
washing-machines and the turning lathes and forges. At pres- 
ent the course of advanced manual training is carried on in an 
old barn which was roughly fitted up some years ago by boys' 
labor, and at the expense of the Lyman fund, for shop work, 
and where the facilities for the instruction of the present num- 
bers is wholly inadequate. This concentration of cooking and 
laundry work and of shop work would result not only in ad- 
vantage to the boys but in economy in running the school ; for 



14 TRUSTEES' REPOKT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

the eight assistant matrons now employed in the eight house- 
holds could be replaced by three in the central building, and a 
very considerable saving of fuel would be effected. Indeed, it 
was from the financial end that this scheme first recommended 
itself to the trustees. With the increased numbers and the in- 
troduction of improved methods of teaching both head and 
hand, the cost of the Lyman School has increased from year to 
year, and the superintendent, casting about to see where econ- 
omies might be effected, put his finger upon the eight laundries 
and eight kitchens as furnishing an obvious chance for retrench- 
ment. 

It will be necessary this year to ask for two other family cot- 
tages at Westborough. The number of commitments has risen 
within the year from 124 to 184, — an increase of 48 per cent. , — 
and in spite of the utmost efforts in placing out, there are at 
present some 50 more boys upon the grounds than can be 
properly accommodated in the eight family houses. The 
trustees have very seriously considered the question whether 
it might not be better to start a separate school (as is recom- 
mended for the girls) instead of enlarging the present plant ; 
but on the whole they feel that for the boys this will be inad- 
visable. Manual training courses, if given in any variety and 
to considerable extent, are so expensive that they are not 
practicable in a very small school, while the advantage of 
such training for this class of boys is believed to be so great 
as to offset the disadvantages of the large number. Moreover, 
numbers at Westborough have long been such as to preclude the 
close contact with the superintendent and informal ways of life 
so much relied upon at Lancaster. Experience shows that 
when the number of 150 or thereabouts is exceeded the virtue 
of a small school is already lost ; and the difference between 
250 or 350 is believed to be insignificant, as compared with the 
increase in the number and variety of manual training and 
trade courses which this increased number justifies. Acco I- 
ingly, for the present, the policy of the trustees will be to in- 
crease the accommodations of the Lyman School to meet the 
increasing demand, developing courses of instruction mean- 
while in such a way as to bring the school to its highest state 
of effectiveness. 

The recommendation that the trustees be given power to 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 

place out the boys from the school without waiting for an in- 
vestigation of the home by the State Board of Charity is re- 
newed ; also the provision that said Board must visit each 
Lyman School probationer every year should be modified. 
The law which hampers the trustees in these matters was 
enacted almost thirty years ago, and applies to wholly obsolete 
conditions. If the old law were harmonized with new condi- 
tions, a very clumsy duplication of work and a wholly un- 
necessary outlay of money will be saved, while the valuable 
supervisory function of the State Board of Charity will be in 
no way impaired. 

On pages 40, 41 are tables showing the conduct and condition 
of all the boys whose names are on the Lyman School books as 
under twenty-one, whether inside or outside of the institution. 
These tables include, it will be noticed, even those who have 
left the State, died, or otherwise passed out of the control of 
the trustees. The number who are reported in these tables 
under the heading " Have been in some penal institution " is a 
matter of surprise to many people connected with reformatory 
work, until it is realized that the figures cover the entire mi- 
nority of every boy in the care of the school, and that many 
who, under a less careful system of visiting, would be lost sight 
of and might possibly be assumed to be doing well, have, under 
the Lyman School system, been recalled to the school and 
transferred to the reformatory at Concord. Here perhaps they 
have served a year or more, been released on a ticket-of-leave* 
gone out and done well ; but still their names remain upon the 
Lyman School books with the penal mark against them.* 
Further, the figures properly quoted to show the percentages of 
the school successes and failures are taken from the table classi- 
fying those who are in their twenty-first year, and so are about 
to pass out of the care of the State. This table gives only 58 
per cent, as known to be doing well, whereas the table classify- 
i) ' the total number of the school probationers gives 72 per 
cent, as known to be doing well ; for of course in this latter 
table boys are counted who may have left the school the very 
day before the count was made, and so have had no time to get 

* Of 86 boys on record as having been in Massachusetts Reformatory, 45 have been 
released by the prison authorities (of whom 1 is known to be in State Prison), 8 can- 
not be identified on the reformatory books, and only 33 appear to have been in the 
reformatory on Sept. 30, 1898. 



16 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

into mischief. These methods of classification explain the 
small number of its graduates whom the Lyman School claims 
as known successes, when almost every other reformatory in- 
stitution will tell one that 80 or 90 per cent, of their graduates 
are reformed. These latter per cents., however, so far as it is 
known, are in no case based upon exact or classified information 
as to all boys under twenty-one, and in many cases it is evi- 
dent that the figures are purely conventional. 

The Lyman School opened the year with 257 inmates (in- 
cluding Westborough and Berlin) and closed with 296. The 
whole number of individuals within the year aggregated 493, 
while the average number was 279. The number committed 
was 184, returned from their homes or other places 89, and 13 
were returned as runaways. The number placed out on pro- 
bation was 211, of whom 88 went to their own people, 86 to 
be self-supporting in places, and 37 were boarded. There 
were 11 transferred to the Massachusetts Reformatory. 

The total number of boys whose names were upon the books 
September 30 as under twenty-one years of age is 1,059. Of 
these, 296 were in the school, 555 were in their own homes or 
with others and subject to visitation,* while 208 were beyond 
practical control, having enlisted in the United States or navy, 
or being out of the State, subject to other institutions, where- 
abouts unknown, discharged or dead. 

The appropriations for running the school the past year 
were : for salaries, $26,500 ; for current expenses, $35,975, — a 
total of $62,475 for running the institution ; to be expended in 
behalf of probationers, $6,800 for visitation, $3,000 for board- 
ing, etc., $350 for tuition fees to towns. The expenditure in 
behalf of the institution from Oct. 1, 1897, to Sept. 30, 1898, 
was $65,864.92. The expenditure in behalf of probationers was 
$9,213.73, i.e., for visitation, $6,119.43, for board, $2,801.30, 
and $293 for schooling. The per capita cost of the institution 
was $4.52, and $496.21 was turned into the State treasury, 
making a net per capita of $4.49. Page 72 gives an itemized 
per capita table of the daily expense of the institution. The 
per capita cost of visitation was about 20 cents a week. The 
whole sum spent in behalf of the boys connected with the school, 
either as inmates, probationers or boarders, was $75,078.65, 

* Thirteen of these were in prison, and the whereabouts of 35 are unknown. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

or a per capita cost approximately of $1.92 a week. The esti- 
mated per capita cost for running the Berlin cottage, counting 
in the salaries of the three officers employed there, food, fuel, 
clothing, repairs, and other incidental expenses, but excluding 
any allowance for its share in the general running expenses 
(which are in no way increased by this cottage), is estimated 
at about $2.92. 

A special appropriation of $25,000 was given this year for 
the school building. Special appropriations for the coming 
year will be asked for the central laundry and workshops and 
for two new cottages for the boys, as recommended above, and 
the usual appropriations will be asked for the current expenses 
and for salaries, and for boarding, schooling and visiting of 
probationers. 



18 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 



TRUSTEES' REPORT 

ON THE 

STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, 

At LANCASTER. 



The Commonwealth of Massachusetts was founded upon a 
distinctly moral idea. Without the excessive paternalism of 
the French systems, Massachusetts holds her people with a 
strong hand, and her institutions stand as a protest against evil 
doing, as an encouragement of progress and enlightened virtue 
and as an expression of the good will of the strong toward the 
weak who need protection. 

Accordingly the harmful members, whether criminals re- 
sponsible for their acts or insane or defective persons, are held 
within walls, while the hope of freedom from such restraint is 
held out to all who can with safety be restored to the com- 
munity. For the average boy and girl there is the coercive 
free public school system, with its special departments for the 
deaf and for the blind and its truant schools. 

Between the prisons and the public schools there are to be 
found the two State schools, for the restraint, maintenance and 
education, — especially for the industrial education, — of juve- 
nile offenders, — the Lyman School for Boys and the Industrial 
School for Girls. Here, again, the indeterminate sentence has 
full effect, as one after another the harmful become harmless 
and can be placed out ; and it has been demonstrated by statis- 
tics, conscientiously worked out year after year, that about 60 
per cent., sometimes over 70 per cent., are known to have 
become, at twenty-one years of age, respectable citizens.* 

Among the juvenile offenders who are committed to the State 
Industrial School there are often found young girls whose 

* See table of conduct on page 25. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 19 

offences have been neither against person nor property but 
against good morals ; who could not, with any show of justice, 
be treated as criminals deserving imprisonment so long as those 
who have at least shared their degradation, and too often have 
led them on, are visited with no other punishment than a cer- 
tain social stigma. To let such girls drift about without mak- 
ing an effort to turn them from their iniquities would be a 
disgrace to the community as well as an injustice to the many 
among them who prove themselves capable, under better in- 
fluences, of becoming respectable and useful. 

At the Industrial School at Lancaster the classification is so 
thoroughly carried out as to keep those who would be likely 
to have a harmful influence apart from the more innocent, each 
household there having a life of its own, the girls meeting only 
as they sit in their seats in the chapel or when on the roll of 
honor, under the watchful eye of the superintendent or teacher 
in charge. 

The purpose of the State Industrial School is threefold : 
first, to receive girls while yet under seventeen years of age, 
who stand in need of restraint from wrong-doing ; second, to 
let all such as are committed to its care know and feel that 
happiness can be associated with right living instead of being 
attained only by reckless self-indulgence, as they have here- 
tofore supposed ; third, to engraft upon their warped, ill-regu- 
lated lives habits of industry and an intelligent understanding 
of such household arts as are always in demand in private fami- 
lies and can ensure for them a home and moderate wages. 

This reforming process cannot be brought about by advice 
alone. The new comer is surprised at the cheerfulness preva- 
lent in the school. The out-of-door work of planting, weeding 
and gathering in fruit and vegetables often becomes a most 
healthful and absorbing interest. The satisfaction felt in a 
well-cleaned room, in well-ironed garments hung about the 
laundry ; the self-respect gained as skill in bread-making and 
other parts of cooking is acquired ; the harmony of their voices 
in full chorus in the chapel or of each household without inter- 
rupting the work ; the crude attempt at reproducing in ink or 
colored-pencil the clover leaf or other plant forms they gather 
for study, — these influences, recurring day by day through a 
year, rarely fail to arouse their better natures. 



20 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

In this school there are fixed rules and there is system and 
order ; but these are less apparent than the unwritten rules and 
the spontaneous work in behalf of the girls on the part of the 
matrons, teachers and housekeepers, inspired by their super- 
intendent but carried out in each househould in ways of their 
own devising. 

Visitors to the Massachusetts institutions frequently ask why 
the methods of the Industrial School for Girls and those of the 
Lyman School for Boys are so unlike one another. The answer 
is that these two schools have very different problems to deal 
with. At the very outset one finds that the causes for arrest 
and commitment of girls are generally quite different from 
those which bring boys before the courts. An intelligent ob- 
server of truants has noted that "the average boy, when not 
in his place in the day school, is probably amusing himself; 
but the absentee girl is probably * minding baby,' — a great 
safeguard against bad company." The truant boy is apt to 
break windows, steal trifles, join with a gang and break into a 
candy shop and spend his ill-gotten gain in cigarettes or worse. 
Three or four times as many boys as girls under fifteen years 
of age are brought before the courts, and the number of com- 
mitments to the Lyman School for Boys is nearly double those 
to the Industrial School for Girls, although the latter receives 
girls up to seventeen, while no boy over fifteen can be sent 
to Westborough. The offences of boys are generally against 
property, sometimes against person and property. 

But, while girls from twelve to fifteen are less often liable to 
arrest than boys of corresponding age, there comes a time, es- 
pecially when no longer under the daily control of the public 
schools, when even baby-tending seems to the girl like drudg- 
ery. Too often the home is made dreary by intemperate or 
quarrelsome parents or by the death of father or mother, and 
by the lack of affection on the part of some one not of her own 
flesh and blood who is left in charge while the surviving parent 
goes out to work. Then the over-crowded tenement and the 
dingy workshop seem alike unendurable, and the girl drifts 
aimlessly, until someone who is sorry for her induces her par- 
ent or guardian to have her arrested as a stubborn child and 
sent away from dangerous companions, for her own protection. 
Her offences are, as have been noted above, more often such as 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 21 

endanger the girl's own character than against person or prop- 
erty. Not only is there this marked difference between the 
causes for commitment of boys and girls ; we find also that the 
opportunities for earning a livelihood when they leave the 
school on probation are very different, and therefore a radically 
different course of training is to be provided. 

For a boy the choice is generally between a farm or a work- 
shop or factory of some kind. Knowledge of housework is no 
doubt good for a boy but he is not expected to earn his living 
at the wash-tub or cooking-stove. " Give me a pickaxe and 
I'll know what to do with it," was the request of a boy set to 
handle some household utensil. If a boy has a distaste for 
farm work, and if his own home is decent enough as a place 
for board and lodging, he will be more likely to do well there, 
because he will have a chance to find congenial work, by the 
day. 

The girl might make a good living by factory or shop work, 
but the difficulty presents itself that an immediate return to her 
former surroundings is not to be thought of. The same dangers 
would be likely to beset her ; the same neighbors to rehearse 
her misdeeds of a year or two ago. Apprenticeship to a trade 
in the home of her employer is out of date, and to place a girl 
in a boarding-house is to leave her without the oversight and 
direction she will surely need outside her working hours. It 
is plain to see that a good home, far removed from the scene 
of her former temptations, is what such a girl needs ; not a 
household where transient servants come and go, but a home, 
where she can be received as a daughter or as hired help, in 
need of consideration and of careful guidance by the mother of 
the family throughout both day and evening. Such a home is 
rarely to be found in the city. The carefully chosen country 
home offers safer social privileges than can be obtained for her 
elsewhere ; and to fit a girl for helping in the work of such a 
home must, therefore, be made the objective point of the 
Industrial School training. In a plain country house she will 
probably find no set wash-tubs ; there she will have to sleep in 
a room without artificial heat ; therefore she is taught in the 
school to dispense with such luxuries, to carry her round 
wooden tub up from the cellar, to sleep in an unwarmed room. 
One need only note the prevalent good health of the girls at 



-22 TRUSTEES' EEPORT IXDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Lancaster to discover that these are no real hardships. A few 
of the girls are ambitious enough to save their earnings to carry 
on their studies, with a view to becoming trained nurses; but 
for the average girl, healthful in mind and body, the truest 
happiness is likely to be found in home-making. For these 
reasons the household arrangements, the industrial training 
and the placing out is wholly different in these two State 
schools, the plan of each being carefully adapted to the end 
in view. 

There is good reason to believe that the increase in number 
of commitments to the Industrial School can be accounted for 
bv the general recognition of the sood results as shown in the 
conduct of girls who have been placed on probation in their 
own homes or at work in other families, where they are cared 
for by the Volunteer Auxiliary Visitors appointed by the State 
Board of Charity to take charge, each in her district, as well 
as by the salaried officers. Miss Jacobs and Miss Beale, with 
their assistants. Among these there are found to be only from 
one-fifth to one-sixth who, at twenty-one years of age, i.e., after 
having been on probation for several years, are known to be 
behaving badly ; while from three-fifths to nearly three-quarters 
are known to be earning a good living, or to be well married 
and behaving well. The remaining one-fifth is accounted for in 
detail in the table on pages 26, 27, and includes girls who have 
left their places, not necessarily behaving ill, but whose where- 
abouts are unknown. In this fifth are also included those whom 
the trustees have discharged as unfit subjects for the school or 
had caused to be placed in the State Almshouse, with a view 
to having them transferred to the Massachusetts School for the 
Feeble-minded. 

If an intelligent girl chooses to break the terms of her pro- 
bation, and become a prostitute, she can properly be transferred 
to the Reformatory Prison for Women, but a girl of defective 
intellect cannot be held responsible for such misconduct. One 
of the custodial departments of the Massachusetts School for 
the Feeble-minded is especially adapted to the needs of this 
pitiable class of girls. There plenty of occupation and health- 
ful recreation are provided, to render their lives tranquil and 
as a rule fairly happy, while preventing them from leading a 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 23 

wretched life by wandering about at large and reproducing 
their kind who, in their turn, are liable to become still greater 
burdens upon the State. These feeble-minded young women 
are not suitable subjects for the State Industrial School but 
they need protection fully as much as the insane wards of the 
State;* and it is recommended that legislation be secured au- 
thorizing the State Board of Insanity to transfer such girls 
direct from the Industrial School to the School for the Feeble- 
minded.! 

It is also important, in view of a recent decision of the State 
Board of Lunacy and Charity, that authority be given for tem- 
porary transfer of girls needing hospital care to the State Alms- 
house, and the trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools 
recommend that the necessary legislation be secured .J 

When the present superintendent of the Industrial School 
submitted her first report there had been 56 commitments dur- 
ing the year and only 52 the preceding year. The average 
number in the school was 66, and there were married, on pro- 
bation to relatives, at work in other families or otherwise liable 
to recall 154 girls. Within the year just passed there have 
been 102 commitments ; during the preceding year, 100 ; the 
average number in the school has been 159, with 279 married, 
on probation to relatives or at work in other families, or other- 
wise liable to recall for misconduct or for change of place, thus 
greatly increasing the responsibilities of the school. 

Numbers in the future are certain to increase rather than to 
diminish, and, as the six family cottages can provide properly 
for only 150 girls, it is evident that the school must be in some 
way enlarged to meet the increased demands upon it. 

The trustees, however, have long believed that this school, 
if enlarged beyond 150, would be seriously injured in its effi- 
ciency. Its methods, as explained above, rely chiefly upon 
personal influence upon the girls and upon a system of indus- 

* In 1887 the State Board of Lunacy and Charity learned that there were more than 
200 feeble-minded women and girls in Massachusetts almshouses, three-fourths being of 
American birth; that 40 of these were known to have borne illegitimate children, in a 
few instances 3 or 4 ; that cases were not infrequent where two or three, in one instance 
four, generations of the same family had been inmates of the same almshouse. 

t The Board of Insanity has already the power of transfer from the State Almshouse, 
the State Farm and from every insane hospital to the Massachusetts School for the 
Feeble-minded. 

t See report of the visiting physician, page 114. 



24 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

trial education in household arts which could not be effectively 
carried out should the school become much larger. 

When the last new house was opened the trustees said that 
if another house was needed they should ask that it be located 
upon other grounds and under more or less separate manage- 
ment. The time has now come when this house must be asked 
for, and the trustees accordingly recommend that a farm be 
purchased, in some convenient locality, where the nucleus of 
the branch school can be started. 

A detailed outline of this plan and full estimates will be 
presented to the Legislature. In anticipating this plan a year 
ago, the trustees suggested that it might be well, if the new 
school were established, to place the management of the two 
girls' schools under a board of trustees who should have no 
other duties, the Lyman School also to have its own board of 
trustees. This plan offers some advantages over grouping the 
management of the two schools for girls and one for boys under 
one board of trustees, but it offers likewise some disadvantages. 
The trustees can only say that either plan which might be 
preferred by the Legislature would be acceptable to them. 
The only point on which they are urgent is that the plant of 
the Industrial School should not be enlarged, and that further 
accommodations for increasing numbers be provided at the ear- 
liest possible date, so as to prevent the serious evil of over- 
crowding. 

If a separate school, or a separate branch of the present 
school, were established, the trustees would recommend that 
the method of classification among the girls according to the 
nature of their offences and their experiences before coming 
to the school be applied as between the two branches of the 
institution, and that the girls already classified as for the most 
serious offences be placed in the new branch. 

There were 144 girls in the school a year ago ; now there are 
167. The average number has been 159. The total appropria- 
tion for salaries and current expenses was $32,525. The total 
expenditure from Sept. 30, 1897, to Sept. 30, 1898, was 
$31,307; the amount sent the State treasurer, $1,185.65; the 
gross per capita cost per week, $3.79 ; net, $3.64. In addition 
to this the sum of $1,441.98 has been expended in boarding 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



25 



some of the younger girls in private families, in tuition fees to 
towns, and in other expenses incidental to the care of pro- 
bationers. 





Appropriation 


Average 


Number of 


Number 


Weekly 


Total Actual 
Cost 




from Jan. 1 to 
Jan. 1. 


Number in 
School. 


Com- 
mitments. 


at Work in 
Families. 


Per Capita 
Cost. 


from Sept. 30 
to Sept. 30. 


1866, 






$20,000 


144 


59 


53 


$3 30 


$24,753 


1876, 






28,300 


121 


53 


40 


4 05 


25,683 


1890, 






20,000 


94 


56 


90 


4 08 


20,000 


1891, 






21,000 


89 


46 


98 


4 38 


21,000 


1892, . 






20,000 


89 


50 


118 


4 46 


21,329 


1893, . 






21,500 


95 


77 


109 


4 02 


19,856 


1894, 






25,385 


117 


78 


111 


3 49 


21,617 


1895, 






27,750 


116 


72 


120 


4 62 


28,801 


1896, . 






27,775 


120 


86 


120 


4 17 


26,049 


1897, 






27,775 


138 


100 


156* 


3 93 


28,256 


1898, 






32,525 


159 


102 


163* 


3 79 


31,307 



Summary of Commitments and Discharges. 



1891. 1893. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 



Total in custody at beginning of year, 


272 


283 


313 


353 


365 


384 


f427 


New commitments, 


50 


77 


78 


72 


86 


100 


102 


Attained majority, 


. 36 


44 


36 


53 


58 


51 


47 


Discharged by trustees, 


. 1 


3 


2 


5 


6 


6 


6 


Died 


. 2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


1 


1 


Total who passed out of custody, . 


— 39 


— 47 


— 38 


— 58 


— 67 


— 58 


— 54 



Net increase, 



11 



40 



14 



19 



42 



Conduct op G-irls who passed out of the Care op the State each Year. 

1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 1897. 1898. 

Honestly self supporting or married, 

living respectably 72$ 63$ 68* 71* 67* 65* 68* 

Having behaved badly 18* 11* 11* 10* 17* 10* 22* 

Conduct unknown 10* 17* 11* 10* 7* 17* 4* 

Of the remainder the conduct could not properly be classified because the girls were defective 
in intelligence, insane or temporarily ill through no fault of their own. 



* Includes a few at board. 



j One omission. 



26 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 







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1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



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28 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



TRUST FUNDS OF LYMAN AND INDUS- 
TRIAL SCHOOLS. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 



Henry C. 



as; 

Oct. 


*7. 

1. 




2. 


Dec. 


23. 




31. 


1898. 


Jan. 


15. 


April 


7. 


May 


5. 


June 30. 


July 


15. 


Sept. 


30. 



1897. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



11. 

5. 

8. 
9. 

22. 
11. 



State Reform School, Lyman Fund. 
Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Lyman Fund. 

Dr. 

Balance of former account, . . . . . $1,568 21 

Dividend Citizens' National Bank, .... 120 00 

Rebate bank tax, 77 95 

Overpaid T. F. Chapin, . . . . . . 18 00 

Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, . . . 286 00 



Dividend Fitch burg Railroad, . 
Dividend Citizens 1 National Bank, . 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Interest Worcester Street Railway bonds 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Fitchburg Railroad, . 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Interest Worcester Street Railway bonds, 



Cr. 



Dame, Stoddard & Kendall, 
Alliston Greene, 
Rev. M. A. Breed, 
Sunday services at Berlin,. 
Clinton Savings Bank, 
Calcium Light Company, . 
Chas. E. Evans, . 
Alliston Greene, 
Damrell & Upham, . 
Franklin Education Company, 
Damrell & Upham, . 
F. W. Smith, . 
Alliston Greene, 
Damrell & Upham, . 
Christmas, .... 



184 00 
120 00 
286 00 
100 00 
286 00 
184 00 
286 00 
100 00 



$3,616 16 


$1 75 


16 67 


5 00 


26 00 


1,000 00 


6 00 


10 00 


16 67 


18 00 


2 70 


7 50 


5 00 


16 66 


33 33 


75 00 



Amount carried forward, $1,240 28 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 29 

Amount brought forward, $1,240 28 

1897. 

Dec. 11. John Griffin 25 00 

23. John H. Cummings, 45 f 34 

Asa F. Howe, ........ 38 00 

Walter A. Wheeler, 172 70 

1898. 

Jan. 5. John H. Cummings, 63 77 

Asa F. Howe, ........ 21 92 

Walter A. Wheeler . 44 81 

Alliston Greene, 16 66 

Sunday services at Berlin, . . . . . 26 00 

Calcium Light Company, . . . . . . 6 00 

14. Asa F. Howe, 50 00 

Walter A. Wheeler, ....... 66 67 

17. Elizabeth C. Putnam, . . . . . . 69 75 

21. J. C. Lyford, 50 00 

28. " Games " for boys, ....... 2038 

Feb. 5. Dr. F. E. Corey, 5 00 

17. Alliston Greene, 16 67 

Mar. 4. John C. Haynes & Co., 87 36 

Hon. Alfred S. Roe, 10 00 

Dr. F. E. Corey, 10 00 

Alliston Greene, . . . . ... 16 67 

8. Tools for Theobold Rogers, 15 00 

April 7. Maynard & Rogers, 10 00 

Alliston Greene, 16 67 

13. Dame, Stoddard & Kendall, . . . . . 60 50 

John C. Haynes & Co 21 00 

Baldwin, Robbins & Co., 30 96 

C. A. Harrington, 38 50 

14. Sunday services at Berlin, 26 00 

29. Entertainment, Van Buskirk, 17 35 

May 4. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 149 95 

9. Alliston Greene, 16 67 

17. Hon. Alfred S. Roe 10 00 

23. Carving tools, 58 57 

S. A. Gilmore, 55 00 

Fares Boston & Albany Railroad, .... 27 00 

F. M. Hornbrook, 6 20 

June 8. Alliston Greene, 16 66 

16. Lessons in carving, . 48 00 

Paid for land, ........ 50 00 

24. Recording deed, 53 

29. E. Chamberlain, 6 00 

S. A. Gilmore, 21 33 

C. A. Harrington, ........ 69 61 

Amount carried forward, $2,874 48 



30 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 

Amount brought forward, f 2,874 48 

1898. 

June 29. J. C. Haynes & Co., ....... 12 00 

July 2. Matthew B. Lamb, 6 22 

11. Alliston Greene, 16 66 

Fourth of July celebration, 65 00 

16. Wood carving, 53 75 

Aug. 3. Sunday services at Berlin, 24 00 

8. Pittsburg Plate Glass Company, .... 189 57 

Alliston Greene, 16 67 

Sept. 6. Alliston Greene, 16 66 

Ella E. Glover, 5 00 

Musical instruments, ....... 10 00 

12. John C. Haynes & Co., . . . . . . 88 00 

24. Charlotte Damon, . 13 00 

Balance forward, . 225 15 

Sept. 30, 1898. $3,616 16 

Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 

State Reform School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley Treasurer, in account with Income op Mary Lamb 

Fund. 

1897. Dk. 

Oct. 1. Balance of former account, . . . 
Dec. 31. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 

1898. 

April 7. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
June 30. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Sept. 30. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 

1897. CR. 

Oct. 14. Deposit Chelsea Savings Bank, 

Balance forward, . . . . 



$387 93 
12 00 


12 00 
12 00 
12 00 


$435 93 


$400 00 
35 93 



Sept. 30, 1898. $435 93 

Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 

Industrial School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 

1897. Dr. 

Oct. 2. Balance of former account, .... 

Dividend Boston National Bank, 
Dec. 23. Rebate State tax, 

1898. 

April 7. Dividend Boston National Bank, 

$154 14 



$87 42 


26 00 


14 72 


26 00 



1898, 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



31 



1898. CR. 

July 2. Fourth of July celebration, 

Nov. 18. Christmas, .... 

Balance forward, 



Sept. 30, 1898. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$20 00 
40 00 
94 14 



$154 14 



Industrial School, Fay Fund. 
Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Fay Fund. 

1897. Dr. 

Dec. 15. Interest Chelsea Savings Bank, . . . . $40 40 



1897. CR. 

Dec. 15. Mrs, L. L. Brackett, for best girls, 

Sept. 30, 1898. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



f 40 40 



Inventory of Lyman School Investments. 



Lyman Fund. 

143 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, 
92 shares Fitchburg Railroad stock, . 
40 shares Citizens' National Bank, 
4 f 1,000 Worcester Street Railroad bonds, 
Deposit Monson Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Ware Savings Bank, 
Deposit Palmer Savings Bank, 
Deposit Hampden Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Springfield Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Springfield Institution for Savings, 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Worcester County Institution for Savings 
Deposit Westborough Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Amherst Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Worcester Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Franklin Savings Institution, . 
Deposit Worcester North Savings Institution, 
Deposit Fall River Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Clinton Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 
Deposit Chelsea Savings Bank, . 



Sept. 30, 1898. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



Par Value. 

|14,300 00 
9,200 00 
4,000 00 
4,000 00 

1.386 36 
1,415 20 

1.387 82 
1,372 66 
1,372 66 
1,243 32 
1,355 47 
1,348 56 
1,359 18 
1,357 18 
1,342 16 
1,116 40 
1,116 40 
1,116 61 
1,171 62 

225 15 
1,020 00 



Market Value. 

$28,600 00 
6,900 00 
4,800 00 
4,000 00 
1,387 36 
1,415 20 
1,387 82 
1,372 66 
1,372 66 
1,243 32 
1,355 47 
1,348 56 
1,359 18 
1,357 18 
1,342 16 
1,116 40 
1,116 40 
1,116 61 
1,171 62 
225 15 
1,020 00 



$52,206 75 $65,007 75 



32 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. '98, 



Mary Lamb Fund. 



Par Value. 


Market Value. 


$600 00 


$1,200 00 


673 83 


673 83 


35 93 


35 93 


408 00 


408 00 


$1,717 76 


$2,317 76 



6 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, . 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 
Deposit Chelsea Savings Bank, . 



Sept. 30, 1898. 

Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 

E. C. Sanford. 

Inventory of Industrial School Investments. 

Mary Lamb Fund. 

13 shares Boston National Bank stock, . . $1,300 00 $1,300 00 

Deposit Clinton First National Bank, ... 94 14 94 14 



Sept. 30, 1898. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$1,394 14 $1,394 14 



Fay Fund. 
Deposit in Chelsea Savings Bank, . . . $1,020 00 $1,020 00 

Sept. 30, 1898. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 

Rogers Fund. 
One State of Maine 6 per cent, bond, in custody 

of State Treasurer, $1,000 00 $1,000 00 

Sept. 30, 1898. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



EEPOET OF THE OFFICERS 

OF THE 

LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS 

AT 

WESTBOKOUGH. 

1897-98. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

Two hundred and ninety-six, says the register of the closing year. 
This is the largest population since the institution has been known as 
the Lyman School for Boys. This number is nearly 25 per cent, more 
than the present buildings were designed to accommodate, and the 
signs all point to further increase. The average for the last two 
months has been 285, and for the entire year only a fraction of 1 per 
cent, less than 280. The commitments for the year overtop those of 
the preceding year by 48 per cent. The overcrowding consequent 
upon this abnormal increase of commitments has become so serious 
as not only to embarrass the work undertaken for the boys, but to be 
a menace to health. The need of relief is urgent. Two additional 
cottages would barely provide for the apparently permanent increase 
in our numbers. 

Considerations of economy call for two other changes ; namely, a 
common laundry and a general kitchen. This would largely simplify 
the internal management of the institution without impairing a single 
essential feature, and at the same time render unnecessary the ser- 
vices of six officers, at a considerable saving in salaries and board, 
to say nothing of substantial economy in fuel and other supplies. The 
present plan of cottage laundries was a makeshift, adopted nine years 
ago, when by the sudden expansion in the number of inmates and 
cottages the small general laundry designed at the outset to meet the 
wants of the school became inadequate to do the work. One person, 
with adequate laundry machinery and the help of four or five boys, 
could do more and better work than is now done by nine persons, 
with the hand labor of nearly fifty boys. The general kitchen is 
needed, to relieve the cottage matron, so that she can supervise the 
entire domestic work of the cottage. A building of sufficient capac- 
ity to accommodate the laundry and two or more manual training 
rooms would be needed, the present Sloyd room in the bakery and 
store building being the proper and convenient place for a general 
kitchen. Such an arrangement would set free 60 or 70 boys from 
household drudgery, which is very distasteful to them, and of no 
value as a training for the industrial contest of life, and would per- 
mit profitable training to be given without increasing the detention 
in the institution over what it is at present. The changes suggested 



36 SUPT.'S KEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

would make possible a better classification by age, physical develop- 
ment and degree of sophistication than is now possible on account of 
the need of large boys for each cottage kitchen. The cost of making 
these changes need not be very large, as a building of plain mill con- 
struction would be quite good enough. 

The subjoined reports of various officers give glimpses of the busy 
life and work of the school. The enforced vacation of the superin- 
tendent from October until late in January last interfered with some 
plans which had barely been initiated, but the splendid way in which 
each one did his duty during that period was a great gratification to 
him. A few changes and improvements have since been inaugurated 
and are now in process of successful development. A class in brick 
laying was organized in March, and thirty boys received instruction 
for a period of eight weeks, acquiring considerable skill. A cottage 
master, Mr. Bullock, took the course with them, and is now leading 
a class of twenty-four laying brick in the walls of the new school 
building. This building is being constructed almost entirely by labor 
of the boys, only such additional adult labor being employed this fall 
as will ensure the completion of the walls before freezing weather. 
The size of the building may be judged by the fact that it will consume 
nearly 700,000 bricks. 

A brass band of eighteen pieces was formed last spring, with Mr. 
Wilcox, master of Hillside Cottage, as instructor. The band was 
enlarged in August by the addition of ten horns, making twenty-eight 
pieces in all. It meets for practice four evenings of the week, and 
very commendable progress has been made. The department of 
music in the schools has been placed under the care of Mr. Hallier, 
master of Oak Cottage. The normal course of H. E. Holt has been 
adopted, and, while too soon to speak of results, we are hoping for 
even more satisfactory progress than in the past, and at an expendi- 
ture of less time. 

The department of drawing has been taken in charge by Mrs. 
Wheelock, a graduate of Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y., and it is 
expected that under her efficient teaching there will be an advance 
in the line of form study. Every cottage master, aside from his 
cottage duties, is responsible for some important line of work in the 
institution which is recognized as his charge. All my officers and 
teachers are hard-working, efficient laborers in their several fields 
of effort, and merit far more recognition than they receive. 

The superintendent would take this opportunity to express the 
obligation he feels to the trustees for the generous vacation granted 
a year ago and the renewed health made possible by it. 

The question, Whither as a school are we tending, and what are 
we doing? is always an anxious one. The reform school is and has 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 37 

been for several years experiencing a transition which is not yet 
accomplished. Is it or is it not a penal institution? To the mass 
of the community it is a penal institution. A few assert and stoutly 
maintain that the whole problem is an educational one, and that 
therefore the institution and all its methods should be educational. 
Trustees have generally assumed this attitude toward the question, 
and superintendents throughout the country to a man are trying to 
work upon this hypothesis. Still, the community looks upon the 
commitment of a boy to the reform school as a punishment ; and, 
upon release, the fact of his having been a pupil of an institution is 
regarded as a disgrace and a disadvantage. This state of public 
opinion affects and conditions the work. There is an anomaly in the 
enforced detention of the boy who is to be educated to the highest 
and freest use of his will. Modern pedagogical ideas are at war 
with the very conditions under which the boy is held. For the head 
of a reform school is set the herculean task to find a method by which 
the boy shall be trained in a just conception and use of liberty while 
in a state of bondage. The idea of enforced detention cannot be 
kept wholly out of sight. The life of the school community is artifi- 
cial, and cannot be made to represent very closely any normal condi- 
tion of family life in ordinary society. At best it is a school 
community, and the period one of training for future activity. 

The evils of associating large numbers are minimized by separating 
the boys into comparatively small groups of 25 or 30 in separate 
houses, each under its own supervisors and instructors, to whom the 
boys of each group are at all times individually responsible. This 
breaks up to a great degree the feeling on the part of the boy of 
being one of a great group, with accountability to nobody in partic- 
ular. The character and manhood of the supervisor must to a large 
degree determine the moral atmosphere for the group. 

The educational facilities are by no means bounded by the facilities 
afforded by the cottage. The daily school session under able and 
devoted teachers occupies four and one-half hours of the day, while 
manual training occupies two hours or more besides. Added to these 
are elementary trades teaching and plenty of farm work. The aim 
is to fill every waking hour with some directed effort in which the boy 
may participate heartily. Sports and amusements are not neglected 
and are entered into enthusiastically. That the training should ac- 
complish a moral awakening is never for a moment lost sight of. 
This must, however, run as a thread through all the training, rather 
than be arrived at by any special and set means. The most effective 
means of moral training are the incidental, indirect and informal 
ones, which crop out unexpectedly but naturally in the course of the 
regular instruction in other things. 



38 SUPT.'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The dictum of Herbart, the father of modern pedagogy, I believe 
to be incontrovertible, — " The one and the whole work of education 
may be summed up in the concept morality." If the results are not 
effective of this, there is no education in any true sense. The more 
formal means of taking note of moral advancement are necessarily 
artificial and arbitrary in character, and are in the nature of devices, 
with the limitation to which devices are subject. 

The fact that these are boys over whom the home and the com- 
munity have lost control, and that the law has turned them over to 
the institution to deal with, must not be lost sight of in judging the 
methods of an institution. This fact must to a certain extent con- 
dition the methods pursued, and also account for the differences be- 
tween a school of this kind and an ordinary training school. At the 
same time, the effort has been untiring and unremitting to make these 
differences as slight as possible. 

In judging of the disciplinary power of the Lyman School it is 
well to bear in mind that the Westborough training is only the be- 
ginning of a care which is to follow the boy until his twenty-first 
birthday. It is distinctively a rescue work as distinguished from 
a custodial one, for the sake of the peace and good order of the 
community. My own conception is that each boy committed to the 
Lyman School is an individual charge, to be studied and treated ac- 
cording to the best methods which can be devised, — never losing 
sight of him, or relinquishing our efforts, until it is evident that he 
is becoming a normal member of society. This is a far more com- 
prehensive work than is usually conceded to a reform school, and it 
grows in difficulty as the boy is placed in the community and the 
attempt is made to utilize the discipline of the family and community 
under wise visitation to supplement and complete the work of educa- 
tion begun in the school. Need there be discouragement at t^ie 
slowness of the progress, when as splendid a showing can be made as 
Mr. Wheeler's report indicates, where, out of 86* boys reaching their 
majority this year, most of them after a five years' probation in the 
free community, 69 are honestly self-supporting, and leading lives 
which are respectable and for the most part creditable ? Out of 86 
prospective criminals seven or eight years ago have come 69 sub- 
stantial citizens. May we not take courage and go forward? and 
should we not humbly and devoutly thank God for these manifest 
tokens of his approval? 

Respectfully submitted, 

THEODORE F. CHAPIN. 

* Boys transferred or committed in former years to the Massachusetts Reformatory 
are not included in this list, which concerns only probationers subject to visitation. 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 18. 



39 



Table No. 1. 

Showing the Number received and released, and the General Condition 
of the School for the Tear ending Sept. 30, 1898. 

Boys in school Sept. 30, 1897, 257 

Received. — Since committed, 184 

Returned from places, 81 

Returned " boarded-out" boys, . . . . 4 

Returned Berlin boys, not boarded out, ... 2 

Recommitted, 2 

Runaways recaptured, 13 

Whole number in school during the year, *543 

Released. — On probation to parents, . . . . . .88 

On probation to others, 86 

Boarded out, . 37 

, Transferred to Massachusetts Reformatory, . . 11 

Runaways, 22 

Died, 1 

Returned to State Board of Lunacy and Charity, . 1 

Returned to court, 1 

247 

Remaining in school Sept. 30, 1898, 296 

Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number discharged and Average Number for 

Each Month. 



Discharged. 



Average No. 



October, . 

November, 

December, 

January, . 

February, 

March, . 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, . 

September, 

Totals, 



25 
22 
12 
19 
14 
25 
28 
21 
32 
29 
29 



286 



14 
16 

29 

10 

7 

30 
26 
16 
21 
28 
30 
20 



247 



265.12 
278.93 
276.38 
272.93 
282.39 
281.80 
271.03 
279.77 
284.13 
284.27 
288.64 
287.70 



279.42 



* This number represents 493 individuals. 



40 STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Table No. 3. 

A. Showing the Status of All Boys under Twenty -one whose Names 

were on the Books of the Lyman School Sept. 30, 1898. 

In the school, 296 

Released from the school, but still subject to its control : — 

With parents (267 known to be self-supporting), . . . 306 

With others, 125 

For themselves, 38 

At board, 36 

Have been in penal institutions other than the Massachu- 
setts Reformatory, 15 

Lost sight of : — 

This year, . . . 14 

Previously, 21 

35 

555 

Still legally in custody, but beyond practical control : — 

Released to go out of the State, 13 

Left the State, 15 

In United States Army, . 29 

In United States Navy, .10 

In State Almshouse, . 1 

Massachusetts Reformatory : — 

Sent this year, 16 

Sent in former years, 70 

86 

Runaways from the school, 13 

J 167 

Discharged from the care of the school : — 

Returned to court as over age limit, 12 

Discharged as unfit subjects, to parents, .... 8 
Discharged as unfit subjects, to State Board of Lunacy and 

Charity, 3 

In Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, .... 5 

Dead, 13 

41 

Total, 1,059 

J5. Showing Condition by Ages of All Boys Outside the School, but 

subject to its Custody. 
Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation up to Oct. 1, 1898 : — 

Doing well, 526 or 72-1 per cent. 

Not doing well, . . . . . . 18 or 2£ per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 101 or 14 per cent. 

Out of the State, 28 or 4 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 48 or 7 per cent. 

Total, . . 721 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 41 



Table No. 3 — Continued. 
Condition of boys under twenty-one on probation one year or more : — 

Doing well, 380 or 70 per cent. 

Not doing well, 13 or 3 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, ... 94 or 17 per cent. 

Out of the State, 25 or 4i per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 31 or 5^ per cent. 

Total, 543 

Condition of boys under twenty-one on probation two years or more : — 

Doing well, . 283 or 69 per cent. 

Not doing well, 9 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 71 or 18 per cent. 

Out of the State, 23 or b\ per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 23 or 5^ per cent. 

Total, 409 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
nineteenth year before Oct. 1, 1898 : — 

Doing well, 159 or 67 per cent. 

Not doing well, 5 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 50 or 21 per cent. 

Out of the State, 15 or 6 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 10 or 4 per cent. 

Total, 239 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
twentieth year before Oct. 1, 1898 : — 

Doing well, 84 or 63 per cent. 

Not doing well, 5 or 4 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 28 or 21 per cent. 

Out of the State, 9 or 7 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 7 or 5 per cent. 

Total, 133 

Condition of all boys who complete their twenty-first year before Oct. 1, 

1898 : — 

Doing well, ....... . 69 or 58 per cent. 

Not doing well, 4 or 3 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 37 or 31 per cent. 

Out of the State, 3 or 2 per cent. 

Lost track of : — 

Doing well at last accounts, ... 3 

Not doing well at last accounts, . . 4 

7 or 6 per cent. 

Total, . . . . . . . .120 



42 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 3 — Concluded. 

C. Visitation of Probationers. 

Visits made by agents of the school, 1,573 

Visits made by trustees, 107 

1,680 

Of the 1,680 visits, 615 were to 290 boys over eighteen years, and 1,065 to 

463 boys under eighteen. 
Whole number of names on visiting list for the year, . . . 753 

Investigation of homes by agents, 195 

Investigation of places by agents, . . . . . . 21 

$1,190.10 have been collected in behalf of 41 boys. 

Table No. 4. 

Showing the Commitments from the Several Counties for the Past Year 

and previously. 



COUNTIES 




Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Barnstable, 














1 


56 


57 


Berkshire, 














5 


250 


255 


Bristol, . 














23 


661 


684 


Dukes, 














- 


17 


17 


Essex, 














26 


1,124 


1,150 


Franklin, 














- 


55 


55 


Hampden, 














20 


448 


468 


Hampshire, 














1 


89 


90 


Middlesex, 














47 . 


1,342 


1,389 


Nantucket, 














- 


17 


17 


Norfolk, . 














11 


470 


481 


Plymouth, 














6 


141 


147 


Suffolk, . 














27 


1,520 


1,547 


Worcester, 








• 






17 


817 


834 


Totals, 


184 


7,007 


7,191 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



43 



Table No. 5. 
Showing Nativity of Parents of Boys committed during the Past Ten 

Years. 







o 

09 




T. 


00 


f 


OC 


90 




t 


Fathers born in United States, 


7 


7 


10 


12 


7 


15 


18 


13 


16 


8 


Mothers born in United States, 






13 


4 


10 


7 


8 


17 


11 


14 


15 


28 


Fathers foreign born, 






11 


5 


18 


5 


10 


9 


7 


8 


12 


25 


Mothers foreign born, . 






9 


9 


5 


12 


8 


17 


25 


6 


11 


10 


Both parents born in United States 






29 


22 


20 


22 


24 


18 


31 


27 


23 


31 


Both parents foreign born, 






71 


52 


53 


54 


70 


59 


61 


51 


31 


56 


Unknown, .... 






13 


11 


7 


23 


20 


32 


34 


34 


24 


45 


One parent unknown, 






- 


- 


8 


16 


19 


20 


25 


23 


32 


33 


Per cent, of American parentage, . 






35 


28 


29 


25 


23 


24 


29 


28 


31 


27 


Per cent, of foreign parentage, 






54 


60 


60 


50 


56 


50 


42 


40 


37 


40 


Per cent, unknown, 






11 


12 


11 


25 


21 


26 


29 


32 


32 


33 



Shoiving Nativity of Boys committed during the Past Ten Years. 



Born in the United States, 
Foreign born, . 
Unknown, 



105 


77 


86 


105 


110 


110 


130 


115 


103 


17 


14 


23 


19 


36 


32 


35 


29 


20 


2 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


1 



146 

33 

5 



Table No. 6. 
Showing by what Authority the Commitments have been made the Past 

Year. 



COMMITMENTS. 



Past Year. 



By district court, .... 
municipal court, 
police court, .... 
superior court, .... 
trial justices, .... 
State Board of Lunacy and Charity, 

Total, 



75 
23 

69 
2 
9 
6 



184 



44 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 7. 
Showing Age of Boys when committed. 



AGE. 



Committed 

during 
Past Year. 



Committed 
Previously. 



Totals. 



Six, . 

Seven, 

Eight, 

Nine, 

Ten, . 

Eleven, . 

Twelve, . 

Thirteen, . 

Fourteen, . . 

Fifteen, . 

Sixteen, . 

Seventeen, 

Eighteen and over, 

Unknown, 

Totals, . 



2 
7 

14 
28 
52 
79 
2 



5 

25 

120 

238 

467 

693 

969 

1,285 

1,469 

962 

532 

181 

17 

44 



184 



7,007 



5 

25 

120 

240 

474 

707 

997 

1,337 

1,548 

964 

532 

181 

17 

44 



7,191 






Table No. 8. 

Showing the Domestic Condition of the 184 Boys who have been com- 
mitted to the School during the Year.* 

Had parents, 105 

no parents, 7 

father, 26 

mother, 36 

step-father, 5 

step-mother, 10 

intemperate father, 71 

intemperate mother, 5 

both parents intemperate, 14 

parents separated, . .19 

attended church, 180 

never attended church, 4 



* These facts are gathered for the most part from the boys' testimony. 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



45 



Table No. 8 — Concluded. 

Had not attended school within one year, 25 

not attended school within two years, 5 

not attended school within three years, 2 

been arrested before, 107 

been inmates of other institutions, 25 

used intoxicating liquor, 7 

used tobacco (mostly cigarettes) , 125 

Were employed in the mill or otherwise when arrested, . . . 37 

Were attending school, 54 

Were idle, . . - . . . . . . . . . .89 

Could not read or write, 5 

Parents owning residence, 24 

Members of the family had been arrested, 54 

Table No. 9. 

Showing the Length of Time the 225 Boys who have left the Past Year 

have spent in the School since committed. 



3 months or less, 


. 18 


2 years 3 months, 


7 


4 months, . 


. 8 


2 years 4 months, 


5 


5 months, . 




. 3 


2 years 5 months, 


2 


6 months, . 




. 4 


2 years 6 months, 


6 


7 months, . 




. 6 


2 years 7 months, 


4 


8 months, . 




- 


2 years 8 months, 


1 


9 months, . 




.5 


2 years 9 months, 


5 


10 months, . 




. 5 


2 years 10 months, . 


8 


11 months, . 




. 2 


2 years 11 months, 


4 


1 year, 




. 3 


2 years 12 months, 


1 


1 year 1 month 




. 4 


3 years 1 month, 


3 


1 year 2 months, 


. 5 


3 years 2 months, 


2 


1 year 3 months, 


. 4 


3 years 3 months, 


- 


1 year 4 months, 


. 9 


3 years 4 months, 


- 


1 year 5 months, 


. 9 


3 years 5 months, 


- 


1 year 6 months, 


. 6 


3 years 6 months, 


- 


1 year 7 months, 


. 12 


3 years 7 months, 


1 


1 year 8 months, 


. 9 


3 years 8 months, 


- 


1 year 9 months, 


. 15 


3 years 9 months, 


2 


1 year 10 months, 


. 14 


3 years 10 months, 


- 


1 year 11 months, 


. 6 


3 years 11 months, 


- 


2 years, . 


. 8 


4 years or more, 


1 


2 years 1 month, 


. 8 







2 years 2 months, 


. 10 


Total 


225 


Average time spent ii 


i the institution, 


19.9 mo 


nths. 


Average time sp 


ent ii 


l the institution 


of boarded boys, . . 5.9 


it 



Lverage time spent in the institution of probationers not 

boarded released for the first time, 22.1 



46 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 10. 

Comparative Table, sJwwing Average Numbers of Inmates and Num- 
bers of New Commitments for a Period of Ten Years. 





Average 
Number. 


New Com- 
mitments. 


Returned 

for 

Any Cause. 


Placed on 
Probation. 


Discharged 
Otherwise. 


1888-89, . 


168.23 


124 


39 


93 


19 


1889-90, 








186.46 


92 


18 


89 


16 


1890-91, 








183.96 


109 


21 


99 


16 


1891-92, 








203.88 


125 


30 


120 


16 


1892-93, 








226.05 


146 


49 


122 


31 


1893-94, 








228.00 


142 


53 


124 


75 


1894-95, 








246.73 


167 


79 


188 


28 


1895-96, 








264.61 


144 


88 


212 


16 


1896-97, 








261.87 


124 


73 


170 


38 


1897-98, 








279.42 


184 


102 


201 


46 


Average 


for t 


3n ye 


ars, . 


224.921 


135.7 


55.2 


141.8 


30.1 



Table No. 11. 

Showing Commitments by Months for Ten Years. 





1889. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


October, . 


16 


6 


8 


13 


17 


18 


18 


10 


10 


18 


November, 


13 


4 


5 


5 


12 


11 


9 


6 


10 


12 


December, 


15 


15 


2 


4 


13 


9 


7 


11 


9 


10 


January, . 


13 


5 


4 


13 


6 


16 


5 


9 


8 


11 


February, 


4 


3 


6 


7 


5 


8 


10 


7 


9 


12 


March, . 


10 


8 


6 


10 


13 


16 


14 


15 


11 


12 


April, 


3 


8 


17 


5 


6 


9 


18 


10 


11 


15 


May, 


12 


10 


10 


12 


14 


15 


12 


9 


7 


21 


June, 


8 


7 


12 


15 


6 


13 


22 


13 


6 


13 


July, 


8 


5 


15 


17 


10 


4 


20 


23 


9 


22 


August, . 


13 


9 


14 


16 


17 


12 


16 


23 


13 


17 


September, 


9 
124 


12 
92 


10 


8 


27 


11 


16 


8 


21 


21 


Totals, 


109 


125 


146 


142 


167 


144 


124 


184 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



47 



Table No. 12. 
Offences with which Boys committed the Past Year have been charged. 

Assault, 5 

Breaking and entering, . .55 

Burning building, 4 

Breaking glass, 2 

Bunking out, . 1 

Disturbing a school, . 1 

Disturbing the Peace, 1 

Idle and disorderly, 1 

Larceny, 58 

Malicious mischief, 1 

Malicious trespass, 1 

Stubbornness, 45 

Unlawfully taking team, 1 

Vagrancy, 8 

Total, . . . 185 

Table No. 13. — Some Comparative Statistics. 

A. Showing the Average Age of Boys released on Probation for the 

Past Ten Tears. 



1889, . 


. 15.17 


1894, . 


. 14.94 


1890, . 


. 15.10 


1895, . 


. 15.49 


1891, . 


. 15.48 


1896, . 


. 15.17 


1892, . 


. 15.63 


1897, . 


. 15.15 


1893, . 


. 14.81 


1898, . 


. 15.60 



B. Showing the Average Time Spent in the Institution for the Past 

Ten Years. 



1889, . 


17.30 months. 


1894, . 


16.95 months. 


1890, . 


18.38 months. 


1895, . 


21.17 months. 


1891, . 


22.60 months. 


1896, . 


18.03 months. 


1892, . 


22.10 months. 


1897, . 


21.00 months. 


1893, . 


19.40 months. 


1898, . 


19.90 months. 



C. Showing the Average Age of Commitment for the Past Ten Years. 



1889, . 


. 13.07 


1894, . 


. 13.87 


1890, . 


. 13.15 


1895, . 


. 13.44 


1891, . 


. 13.89 


1896, . 


. 13.63 


1892, . 


. 13.73 


1897, . 


. 13.31 


1893, . 


. 13.39 


1898, . 


. 13.17 



48 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 13 — Concluded. 
D. Shoiving the Number of Boys returned from Place for Any Cause 

for Ten Years. 



1889, . 


20 


1894, . 


33 


1890, . 


14 


1895, . 


60 


1891, . 


21 


1896, • 


87 


1892, . 


30 


1897, . 


73 


1893, . 


35 


1898, . 


102 



Report of Sewing Room for Year ending Sept. 30, 1898. 



Articles made, 



Articles repaired. 



Aprons, . 
Caps, 

Coffee bags, 
Coats, 
Curtains, 
Coverings, 
Dish cloths, 
Dish towels, 
Holders, . 
Mattresses, 
Napkins, 
Night shirts, 
Pants, 

Pillow slips, 
Sheets, . 
Shirts, . 
Strips for labels, 
Spreads, . 
Table-cloths, 
Towels, . 
White aprons, 
White jackets, 



96 

6 

1 

12 

3 

3 

53 

155 

6 

22 

218 

58 

699 

378 

325 

1,015 

52 

1 

16 

347 

52 

1 



3,519 



Aprons, . 
Blankets, 
Braces, . 
Caps, 
Curtains, 
Coats, 

Cut patterns, 
Drawers, 
Flag, . 
Jackets, . 
Mittens, . 
Mattress, 
Napkins, 
Night shirts, 
Pants, 

Pillow slips, 
Patterns, 
Pillows, . 
Robes, 
Sheets, . 
Shirts, . 
Spreads, . 
Table-cloths, 
Towels, . 



27 

13 

26 

39 

7 

128 

5 

259 

16 

2 

4 

2 

24 

236 

534 

40 

10 

3 

3 

64 

343 

6 

14 
40 



1,845 



Average number of boys employed in sewing room, 
Number of different boys employed, . 



4.87 
13 



Laundry Work for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1898. 

Number of pieces washed, 298,952 

Number of pieces ironed, 219,301 

Number of pieces starched, 12,955 

Average number of boys employed in laundry work, . . . 36.5 

Number of different boys employed, 101 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 49 



REPORT OF PRINCIPAL OP SCHOOLS. 



To the Saper%7Uendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

During the past year the lines of work followed in our school have 
been substantially the same as heretofore ; yet we believe that we 
have made use of even better methods and devices than formerly, as 
experience and observation — stern masters at times — have taught 
us. The results of the year's labors warrant us in this belief, we 
think, as there were at its close 46 boys in the advanced grade, 73 in 
the A class, 72 in the B, 41 in the C, and only 25 left in the D, after 
promotions were made. This very satisfactory result reflects much 
credit upon our corps of efficient, faithful teachers. It was feared 
that the necessary change of teachers in two schools and other un- 
avoidable changes after the holiday vacation would prove detrimental 
to the interests of these grades, but happily such was not the case. 

The system of vertical penmanship was adopted at the beginning 
of the year, and those who had not already formed a fairly legible 
hand were required to learn this system. The improvement on the 
part of those just learning to write was especially marked, and all 
seemed encouraged by the results. 

The interest in history, particularly in the higher grades, has 
seemed to keep " at high tide;" and the facility with which many 
boys not only recount the events of past ages in the history of for- 
eign nations, as well as of our own, but also reason from cause to 
effect in the building up of nations, is quite surprising. 

In one school, composed of an advanced and an A class, spirited 
and interesting debates on various questions were had nearly every 
fortnight during the year. In making preparation for these discus- 
sions the boys were very earnest and thorough, and they were always 
pleased to have those interested in their work present on these occa- 
sions. These exercises greatly strengthened the reasoning powers of 
those participating in them (and the number was not small) , increased 
their interest in reading as they gleaned from various sources facts 
and thoughts concerning the subject under consideration, quickened 
their memories, made them more self-reliant and considerate of others, 
gave them greater ease of expression and in other ways were very 
helpful to them. It is quite desirable that opportunity for such train- 
ing always be afforded to boys of comparatively mature minds. 



50 PRINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Written reports of lectures, sermons, etc., have been given every 
week as part of the language work, with decided improvement in most 
cases. Some who at first found it extremely difficult to recall what 
they had heard, before the close of the year were able to fill twenty- 
five pages with the thoughts of others, well expressed, though in the 
boys' own language. Boys unable to write have given oral reports, 
while their teacher has endeavored to make plain to them the meaning. 

An effort has been made to keep a record of the books read by each 
boy during the year. Considering the fact that most of their reading, 
with the exception of that done in school in connection with their 
lessons, is done during play hours and on Sunday, the list is far more 
extended than was expected, and it shows plainly the fondness for 
reading of many of the boys, especially when interested in their 
school work. The character of the books selected and read varies 
greatly, and to a considerable extent according to the studies pur- 
sued. In the lower grades nearly every boy has read, or had read 
to him, such works as " Black Beauty," "Sharp Eyes," and " Bird 
Ways ; " while those still more advanced have chosen " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," "Boys of '61," lives of Garfield, Grant, Washington, etc. 
In the higher grades I find that boys have read and enjoyed " The 
German Struggle for Liberty," " History of the Reformation," lives 
of Whittier, Longfellow, Lowell, works of Cooper, Dickens, Scott, 
etc. The total number of books reported as having been read during 
the year by the boys of the Wayside is 319 ; of Bowlder, 826 ; of 
Oak, 819 ; Hillside, in nine months, 401 ; Lyman Hall, in six months, 
188 ; Chauncy Hall, 682 ; Maple Cottage, 172 (an incomplete report) ; 
Willow Park, in nine months, 236. The greatest number read by any 
one boy at Wayside is 62 ; at Bowlder, 75 ; Oak, 54 ; Hillside, 60 ; 
Lyman Hall, 21 ; Chauncy Hall, 73 ; Maple Cottage, 22 ; Willow 
Park, 34. The total number, so far as reported, read by the boys 
in the school during the year ending Sept. 30, 1898, is 3,643. 

The boys have been encouraged to report each day some event of 
corresponding date of especial interest and importance, gathered from 
the past or the present. From these events selections were made, 
which, with the daily weather reports, were formed into calendars, 
for which were made designs, usually original and often artistic and 
appropriate. This is work of which the boys are very fond. 

In arithmetic and language we have aimed to make the work as 
practical as possible, and have insisted on good work. 

Quite recently we received a visit from a former inmate of the 
school, who said, *' My stay here was a help to me in more ways than 
one. Besides my regular work, I am now singing in church, and re- 
ceive $2 a Sunday for it. I knew nothing of music before I came to 
the school, but I just love the songs I learned here." 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 51 

We have continued to turn the leaves of nature's vast volume, 
which has proved a source of unfailing pleasure and profit. The 
boys have learned from observation, as well as from books, that 
birds render invaluable service as protectors of the farmers' crops 
from destructive insects and small rodents, as destroyers of the seeds 
of numerous harmful and troublesome plants and as scavengers along 
our coasts. One has said, " Birds' songs are the most eloquent of 
nature's voices," and many a boy has learned to interpret these, and 
to appreciate, in a measure, the beauty of the coloring and form of 
birds and their extreme grace of motion. One boy, whose home is 
in the city, remarked to me, " When I go home, if the robins and 
blue-birds are not there, I shall be lonesome." And doubtless he 
voiced the sentiment of many others, who have been brought nearer 
to nature's heart through the study of # birds in our schools. Fifty- 
one varieties were seen and described during the year by the boys of 
one school, and some individual boys have learned to recognize a 
still larger number. 

In some of the grades plants have afforded considerable material 
for study, while in all the life of the frog and the common toad has 
been a source of enjoyment and profitable study since early in the 
spring. Vivaria have been made and placed in the school-rooms, and 
in those specimens have been kept and frequent observations of them 
made. From the tiny tadpole to the well-developed frog and toad, 
these peculiar creatures have furnished far more interesting and use- 
ful lessons than could be learned from the written page. In one 
school names were given to several of them, such as Honey, Peter, 
etc. One that has a deformed foot was called " Jimmie No-toes," 
and the boys are pleased to fancy at times that these pets (for such 
they have become) know when they are called by name ; and I believe 
that none of this species of useful creatures will ever receive unkind 
treatment at the hands of the boys who have thus studied them. 

We feel under obligations to F. E. Corey, M.D., C. F. Hodge, 
Ph.D., Prof. J. C. Lyford, Mrs. Hornbrooke, and others not con- 
nected with the school, who have kindly added interest by giving 
lectures, illustrated talks, etc., on profitable subjects. Nor would 
we be unmindful of the many favors of a similar character which our 
superintendent and members of the trustees have shown the school. 

Various anniversaries have been observed, as usual ; and we believe 
the year just ended is one on which the Master, who " taught as never 
man taught," gives an approving smile, because of honest effort made 
and conscientious work done. 

Respectfully submitted, 

MARY L. PETTIT, 

Principal. 



52 SLOYD EEPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



KEPOKT OF THE INSTRUCTOR OF SLOYD. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

As I come to the close of the ninth year of my labors here, and 
look back over the line of march, I feel that Sloyd is one important 
branch of education, and especially so for our boys. Impressions 
are made that cannot be effaced. The grain of the wood proves to 
the boy that there is a right way and a wrong way. A boy comes to 
me with a piece of wood he has made one-eighth of an inch too nar- 
row, and says, " How shall I get that eighth of an inch back again?" 
His tones show real trouble in them. I can only comfort him with 
the thought that " Every day is a fresh beginning," and let him start 
anew. 

The answers of the boys often show originality. One boy defines 
a dot and a line thus, "A dot is a stop and a line is a stretch." 
Another talks about " steering his plane." Originality leads to inven- 
tion, and so is worthy of encouragement. Originality of expression 
does not necessarily lead to invention, yet it is worthy of note, as 
coming from boys who have ideas of their own. These oftenest 
originate plans for extra work. A farm bar-way suggested to one 
boy the following idea of a rack for ink bottle, pen and pencils. In 
an oblong piece of wood, having a rounded edge and a depression for 
an ink bottle, was inserted two upright posts. In these upright 
pieces holes were bored, and the pen and pencils took the place of 
bars. 

Ninety boys have worked in the Sloyd room during the year. Two 
classes were given class work and two individual work, thus enabling 
a better grading than would have been possible if only class work 
had been taught. 

At best a great deal of individual work enters the class system, 
and will, so long as the aim is to develop individual characteristics. 
Eighty-four boys remained their allotted time, two went home, two 
were mentally incapacitated, one had had previous instruction and 
one died. 

One of the several formative aims of Sloyd is "to instil a taste for, 
and a love of, labor in general." I do not now recall a boy who has 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



53 



had to be urged to his Sloyd work, but I do recall several boys who 
have voluntarily suggested a way that would cost them hours of labor, 
by which they might correct some mistake. The child sees the value 
of his labor, and gives himself to it willingly. Yes, I think he loves 
to conquer the mistake or fault, when he recognizes that it is one, 
and that it lies in his power to correct it. This personal interest on 
the part of the learner, together with a desire to do all the work 
himself, seems a step in the right direction. Youth likes to do things 
ight away, and the fact that there is no practising of exercises before 
the making creates a love for the work. Variety adds to this inter- 
est, — it may be only using the same tool in a different way. Here, 
too, ownership comes in ; a child loves to have that which he himself 
has made. If, then, Sloyd helps the boys to love work, society will 
be benefited by having less idlers. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ANNA L. WILCOX, 

Sloyd Teacher. 



oi MAXUAL TEATN'IXG LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



REPORT OF INSTRUCTOR OF ADVANCED 
MANUAL TRAINING. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

All thoughtful men are agreed that the value of manual training 
depends not so much upon facts learned as upon habits formed, am- 
bitions stimulated and moral impulses aroused. 

Ti:e methods of this institution tend to cultivate patience, perse- 
verance and care. It gives our boys valuable training of eye and 
hand, and. together with a general useful knowledge, fits them for 
I etter citizenship. Our line of regular class work in the wood and 
iron is along similar lines to that of the previous year. Twenty-nine 
boys have entered and completed our classes, devoting twenty hours 
a week to wood turning, carpentry, forging and drawing. A boy is 
thus enabled to complete the course in twenty-two weeks. To those 
boys capable of completing the course in less time is allowed the 
privilege of doing extra work. "We find this acts as a stimulus to 
ci^ss work. 

Several extra pieces have been made during the past year, such as 
piano lamp, umbrella stand, etc., of wrought iron, and a number of 
steel pieces were forged, then taken to the bench and filed, then tem- 
pered for use. In the wood work, among other pieces of extra work, 
was a hat tree, a three-section screen with turned grill work. Out- 
side of class time we have planed about ten thousand feet of lumber 
and made between four and five hundred anchor irons, together with 
truss rods, each having two welds and some of which were nearly 
fifteen feet long and one and one-fourth and one and one-half inches 
in diameter. 

This work is executed for the new school building now being con- 
structed. As has always been our aim, so has it been this year, to 
educate our boys, and not, as some have an idea, to teach them a 
trade ; indeed, it would be almost impossible to make blacksmiths or 
carpenters in so limited a time ; but a knowledge of wood and iron 
should be of great value to him, whether a laborer, engineer or physi- 
cian, for he gains knowledge of common tools and materials of daily 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 55 

life, and an intellectual training as well. It also arouses the desire 
of some of our boys to learn more in this line of work after they 
leave us, and in a number of instances they are filling satisfactorily 
positions which they have secured. 

We have received a surface planer, which has proved very helpful 
in our work here. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES D. LITTLEFIELD, 

Instructor of Advanced Manual Training, 



56 PHYSICAL TEAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



PHYSICAL TRAINING DEPAKTMENT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The seventh annual report of the teacher of physical training is 
respectfully presented. 

The accompanying figures give the important features of the de- 
partment, with a statement of the work done for the year : — 



Number of boys in gymnastic classes Oct. 1, 1897 

Received during the year, .... 

Released during the year, .... 

Number in classes Oct. 1, 1898, 

Whole number of lessons given, 

Number of physical measurements and other tests, 



235 
156 
152 
239 
696 
361 



Physical training has been conducted along the same lines as for- 
merly, no deviation having been made from the theory and practice 
of Swedish gymnastics as presented at the Boston Normal School of 
Gymnastics, the features of which have been explained in previous 
reports. The drill has been conducted in each of eight classes on 
alternate school days, thirty minutes each day, with such interrup- 
tions as could not well be avoided. While the work shows the effect 
of irregularity, there has been progress in the direction expected from 
physical training. As a rule, the boys enjoy the gymnastic period, 
and the unusually large number of new boys are responding to the 
drill rapidly. The position taken by your teacher is that physical 
training and physical exercise are not synonymous terms. Our pupils 
have exercise in abundance, but previous training has been entirely 
eliminated. Boys even who have been attending the public schools 
of Boston and other cities employing gymnastics show great lack of 
training, due in part to irregular attendance. Acting upon this 
theory, every effort has been made to direct physical movements for 
the sake of the effect upon nerve and muscle building. Every temp- 
tation to introduce amusement, such as music and questionable exer- 
cises, has been constantly overcome. Exercise for the fun of it has 
never been allowed. Having a definite purpose, and bending every 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



57 



energy to accomplish that purpose, has been the one idea. All phys- 
ical work has been arranged with this thought always in mind. 

By a closer division of time, each class can now have the training 
three half hours each week, instead of three one week and two the 
next. 

Physical Measurements. — The place of anthropometry in industrial 
work has not been clearly defined. Unless it becomes universal, or 
at least of general use in a large number of schools, its importance 
will not be made prominent. Interesting measurements have been 
taken the past year. In height and weight it appears that our boys 
compare unfavorably with the boys of the same age in Boston public 
schools, as shown by measurements taken by Dr. H. P. Bowditch. 
Your attention is called to the results of observations upon two indi- 
viduals, as an example of this work. The object was to notice 
changes which might take place during the first few weeks. No. 1, 
age fifteen, was a boy who had spent little time in school, a smoker, 
vulgar, undeveloped. No. 2, age fourteen years seven months, was 
an intelligent boy, strong and healthy, with cleaner habits. The 
tests were taken daily for a period of about three months, and 
included weight, strength, lung capacity and some mental tests, 
which will be considered under another head. This table gives the 
amount and per cent, of growth in three items : — 





to 

< 


Weight. 


a 

O 


Total 
Strength. 


c 
O 

S- 


Lung 
Capacitt. 






First. 


Last. 


First. 


Last. 


First. 


Last. 


O 
u 


No. 1, . 

No. 2, . 


15 

14 


72.5 

101.0 


77.50 
110.75 


.068 
.096 


168 
281 


246 
360 


.46 

.28 


120 
190 


150 
220 


.250 
.157 



The normal standard of power and size of boys at certain ages has 
not been determined. When this is done, the tests which we are now 
engaged in will become extremely valuable. To quote from Dr. 
Bowditch: " When a system of annual physical measurements shall 
have been introduced into our public schools, and recognized as of 
equal importance with the annual examinations in the various studies, 
we shall be in a position to formulate the laws of growth with much 
greater accuracy than is at present possible." 

Psychological tests have been continued, under the direction of Dr. 
E. C. Sanford. I refer briefly to a few items explanatory of what 
has been attempted : — 

1. We say certain boys move slowly, others quickly ; that is, an 
impulse to act having originated in the brain cells, it has required 



58 PHYSICAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

more or less time for the nerves to convey the stimuli to the muscles 
which perform the act of moving. It is desirable to know how slowly 
or hoiv quickly action is performed, expressed in definite terms. This 
power to react was tested by means of the chronoscope in about 150 
cases, and it was found that on the average it took twenty one-hun- 
dredths of a second for the subjects to react by a movement of the 
hand upon hearing a certain sound. It was also discovered that those 
subjects who respond slowly to commands requiring physical action 
made a correspondingly slow record upon the chronoscope. This 
test, while it shows the rapidity of the transmission of nerve stimuli, 
throws no light upon probable accuracy of movement. That is, the 
order "right, face!*' having been commanded, one boy may have 
received the sensation and responded more quickly than the others, 
but he may have faced to the left instead of right. 

2. A test involving discrimination and choice was carried on in a 
number of cases, including the two previously mentioned. A sheet 
of ordinary Long Primer reading matter was laid before them, with 
instructions to mark with a pencil as many a's as possible in one 
minute. No. 1 succeeded in marking 26 letters the first minute, and 
No. 2, 34. This test was continued under same conditions until a 
habit had been formed, when the number of letters marked depended 
almost entirely upon the rapidity with which the pencil could be 
moved. On the twenty-sixth day No. 1 marked 58, and on the 
twenty-second day No. 2 marked 82. On the succeeding days the 
letter was changed to o, when the old habit must be changed and 
discrimination and choice again become the chief factors. No. 1 
dropped from 58 a's to 23 o's, and No. 2 from 82 a's to 22 o's. The 
results of this test applied to other boys corresponded to the two cases 
mentioned. 

Experiments to test other functions of the mental powers, such as 
attention and memory, were tried, with enough of success to prove 
the value of such a study. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALLISTON GREENE, 

Teacher. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 59 



PHYSICIAN'S EEPOET. 






To the Trustees of the Lyman School for Boys. 

It has been the endeavor of the medical department of the Lyman 
School to prevent sickness, but disease strikes occasionally with such 
suddenness and violence that our efforts seem of no avail. 

Such was the fact with Ralph Lane of Wayside Cottage ; he was 
brought to the hospital in the evening of December 8, and died of 
pneumonia early in the morning of the 10th. With this exception, 
the ailments encountered have been mild and of short duration. 

There have been confined in the hospital 125 cases, — an average 
of 4.08 days each. 

Of out-patients, 874 examinations have been made and prescribed 
for when found necessary. By this means early treatment is secured 
for incipient troubles, which delay might make serious. 

It is the practice of the superintendent to test the eyes of each boy 
entering the school, and in addition, the teachers are requested to 
observe their pupils and report all evidences of defective vision ; 
about twice a year all boys appearing to suffer in this respect are 
examined and prescribed for by an oculist. 

It is well known that in youth the teeth are prone to disease, when 
neglect is attended with serious loss : under your wise and generous 
provision, measures have been taken to furnish mechanical dentistry. 
I have examined the mouth of every boy in the school, to discover 
and make note of all teeth requiring attention, and the work of filling 
is now going on. Through the interested kindness of Dr. Eugene H. 
Smith, Dean of the Harvard Dental School, arrangements have been 
made with that institution by which the necessary service can be ac- 
complished with small expense. 

Inspection for evidences of vaccination has recently been made ; 
a few boys found lacking were vaccinated. 

The year closes with the school in exceptionally good health. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANCIS E. COREY, 

Physician. 



60 



FARM-HOUSE REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



EEPORT OF THE MANAGER OP BERLIN 
FARM-HOUSE. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

Our boys for the present year have averaged younger than at any 
previous time. They have seemed less hardened in wrong doing and 
more amenable to kind influences. The methods of previous years 
have in the main continued to be satisfactory, so few changes have 
been made. 

We hope that we have gained some influence for good over every 
child in our care. With some, however, it was not strong enough to 
keep them from evil ways, so that they could be trusted to stand 
alone, unrestrained ; and these have been transferred to Westborough, 
where the discipline is more rigid and of longer duration than is pos- 
sible on our farm. 

Our monthly changes in numbers are shown below : — 



Received. 



Retained. 



October, . 

November, 

December, 

January, . 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, . 

September, 



7 

3 

12 

1 

6 



22 
21 
17 
17 
19 
18 
22 
21 
24 
19 
22 
20 



This total of fifty-one comprises forty-nine different boys assigned 
to the Berlin Cottage during the year. Five of these were within a 
few days of their arrival returned to Westborough, one after a trial 
of several months, and still another who came the previous year, 
making seven boys returned. This culling out makes it possible to 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 61 

give our boys a true home life, with little if any more restraint than 
is exercised in all well-regulated families. 

The free and happy yet busy life appeals to these boys, and they 
soon develop a sense of ownership in everything about them ; the 
vegetables they raise in their gardens, the fish in their pond, the birds 
in their trees and the squirrels that frisk in and out of the old stone 
wall that encloses their farm. They have had many pets during the 
year, the most notable, perhaps, being three gray squirrels that were 
kept in a cage for several weeks, then set at liberty. Through July 
and August they lived in the shade trees on the lawn, coming readily 
to call, frolicking by the hour in the hammocks or among the shrubs 
and flowers. They exhibited no fear, but allowed the boys to watch 
them while building their summer nests of leaves. Late in August 
they withdrew to the orchard nearer the chestnut trees, and there they 
nested in the hollow of an apple tree. There seldom passes a morn- 
ing, however, that one or more squirrels do not appear at the kitchen 
door or window, taking a nut or bit of cake from any offering hand, 
stopping often at the stable for a drink of new milk from the cup 
that a thoughtful boy has provided. 

Another branch of nature study was pursued with presistent care. 
Early in April adult toads were captured, and the development of 
young toads was carefully noted through all stages. The boys who 
carried on these investigations have left us, but we believe the lessons 
learned here will remain with them wherever they are, and we trust 
their hearts will be purer and their lives cleaner for this close com- 
munion with " nature," which, as they understand it, includes the 
Creator and the created. 

Music, as heretofore, has been considered a great factor in gaining 
an influence over our boys. Here Mrs. Dudley's services have been 
invaluable. After watching them at their games, where each is 
taught to guard the rights of others as sacredly as his own, she has 
nightly gathered them about the piano and led them in song. 

The fact most strongly impressed upon us during the year is that a 
boy needs and should have recognition, — not that he should expect 
words of praise for every act of obedience, every instance of self- 
control or every virtuous impulse, but all these should be recognized. 
Let him understand that his character as a whole is being estimated ; 
that, as his faults are being noted for correction, so his good impulses 
and right motives are being placed to his credit. Then his sense of 
justice will be satisfied, the spirit of emulation will be aroused, and 
in a majority of cases improvement will follow. 

Thanking yon for the counsel and encouragement that have helped 
us when in doubt and cheered us when discouraged, this report is 
respectfully submitted. 

EMILY L. WARNER. 



62 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



1897. 


— October, received from the State Treasurer, 




$4,891 21 




November, " • 




4 




5,086 91 




December, " ' 




i «t 




9,497 98 


1898. 


— January, ■ " ■ 




« u 




2,968 10 




February, " ' 




i (i 




3,884 46 




March, " 4 




' " 




7,119 89 




April, " ' 




* " 




5,491 82 




May, 




t ti 




5,703 70 




June, " * 




■ " 




5,254 91 




July, 




t a 




5,697 91 




August, " ' 




« u 




5,174 41 




September, " ' 




' " 




5,093 62 






$65,864 92 




Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury. 


1897. 


— October, . $4,89121 




November, 5,086 91 




December, 9,497 98 


1898. 


— January, 2,968 10 




February, 3,884 46 




March, . 


7,119 89 
5,491 82 




April, 




May, 5,703 70 




June, 5,254 91 




July 5,697 91 




August, 5,174 41 




September, 








5,093 62 



$65,864 92 
Amount drawn from State Treasury. 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1897, Chapter 112) for Boarding. 

1897. — October, $576 62 

1898.— January, 696 08 



$1,272 70 
Special Appropriation (Acts of 1898, Chapter 100) for Boarding. 

1898. — April, 

July, 



$707 82 
820 78 



$1,528 60 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



63 



Special Appropriation {Acts of 1898, Chapter 57) for School Bouse. 



1898. — June, 
July, 
July, 
August, . 
August, . 
September, 



$1,551 10 


949 85 


1,036 62 


4,745 38 


610 33 


1,593 03 


$10,486 31 



Expenditures. 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1897, Chapter 112) for Boarding. 

1897. — October, . . 1576 62 

1898. — January, 696 08 

$1,272 70 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1898, Chapter 100) for Boarding. 

1898. — April, $707 82 

July, 820 78 



$1,528 60 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 

(Acts of 1898, Chapter 57) for School House. 
1898. — June, 



■JUIltt, ..... 

July, ..... 


949 85 


July, ..... 


1,036 62 


August, 


4,745 38 


August, 


. . 610 33 


September, 


1,593 03 



$10,486 31 
Expenditures for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1898. 
Salaries of officers and employees, . . . $25,325 71 



Wages of others temporarily employed, 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 
Ammonia, ...... 

Butter, 

Beef, 

Beans, . 

Bath brick and sand, .... 

Blacking, 

Bromangelon and Puddine 

Bon Ami, 

Corn meal, 



1,342 56 



$26,668 27 




Amounts carried forward. 



§3,239 30 $26,668 27 



64 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, .... $3,239 30 $26,668 27 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Cheese, 175 81 

Coffee, . 86 00 

Cereal coffee, 67 90 

Cream tartar, soda and baking powder, . 38 34: 

Cocoa 14 18 

Cranberries, 12 50 

Candy and nuts, 28 25 

Candles, 5 31 

Corn starch, 1 60 

Cocoanut, 6 40 

Crackers, . 92 92 

Eggs, . . . . . . . - . 14 70 

Extracts, 37 90 

Flour, . 2,653 44 

Fish, 598 70 

Fowl, . . ' 145 21 

Fruit and canned goods, 517 71 

Fatal food, 10 80 

Fly paper, 5 10 

Gelatine, 10 20 

Honey, 3 90 

Ice, 457 63 

Lard, 153 23 

Mutton, 210 58 

Molasses, 481 85 

Making cider, . 1 24 

Milk, 3 90 

Macaroni, 14 25 

Mineral water, ....... 3 00 

Oat meal, 71 85 

Oysters, 86 49 

Olives and olive oil, 11 40 

Onions, ; 18 50 

Potatoes, 291 70 

Pepper, ........ 7 52 

Pearl tapioca, 75 

Paper and bags, 32 46 

Pork and hams, 181 54 

Rye meal and flour, 18 81 

Raisins, 17 25 

Rice, 115 51 

Sausage, 89 62 

Sugar, 742 46 

Salt 48 25 

Spices, 22 16 

Amounts carried forward, .... $10,838 12 $26,668 27 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 65 

Amounts brought forward, ... . . f 10,838 12 $26,668 27 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including — 

Soap and soap powder, 250 80 

Starch and bluing, 25 99 

Split peas, . 86 50 

Shredded wheat, 19 85 

Tripe 7 80 

Tea, 82 07 

Wheaten flour, 498 75 

Wheatlet, etc , . . . . . . . 42 42 

Yeast, . 149 82 

12,012 12 

Furniture, beds and bedding, — 

Aluminum ware, $1 67 

Ash sifters, 6 00 

Agate ware, . . ... . . . 85 47 

Beds and springs, . . . ... 126 10 

Blacking, 10 50 

Brooms, brashes and mops, . . . . 155 58 

Baskets 78 75 

Chairs, 77 70 

Curtains, 9 07 

Coal hods, . ... . . . 5 50 

Cutlery, 10 75 

Crockery, 167 53 

Cloth to repair flags, . . ... 1 20 

Clothes line, 8 85 

Cleaning carpets, . . . . . . 8 34 

Curtains and repairs, 68 69 

Dyeing curtains, 2 50 

Electric lamps, 62 22 

Egg case fillers, 4 50 

Glass ware, . . . . . . . 22 92 

Iron ware, 57 06 

Laundry boards, 12 00 

Laundry machines and repairs, ... 10 05 

Lamp chimneys and wicks, .... 7 74 

Mattress repairs, 179 18 

Mirrors, 5 75 

Material for furniture, 127 69 

Oil cloth, 1 76 

Pails and tubs, 5 25 

Rubber blankets, 27 00 

Rugs and carpets, 40 55 

Stove repairs, 1 00 

Spring bed, 2 25 

Shears, combs and brushes, .... 119 93 

Amounts carried forward, .... $1,511 05 $38,680 39 



66 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



75 


233 14 


2 40 


7 34 


2 50 


42 87 


56 91 


129 15 


3 75 


17 80 


23 96 



Amounts brought forward, 

Furniture, beds and bedding, — 
Scrub cloths, 
Sheeting, . 
Skirt boards, . 
Sewing machine repairs, 
Table, 

Tin and copper ware, 
Towels and napkins, 
Table linen, 
Thermometers, 
Typewriter desk, 
Wooden ware, . 



Clothing, — 

Buttons, ......... $46 91 

Blue jean 207 62 

Blue cloth, ....... 850 46 

Bleached ulster, ...... 3 00 

Cassimere, 59 59 

Cotton, 170 15 

Collars, 19 65 

Cutting, making and trimming, . . . 610 76 

Camisoles, . 67 50 

Darning cotton, 4 58 

Denim, 350 63 

Drilling, 3 58 

Extension cases, 75 60 

Elastic, 1 85 

Flannel, 53 98 

Handkerchiefs, 42 85 

Hats and caps, 246 54 

Indelible ink, 8 10 

Laundry, 7 37 

Mittens, 48 64 

Needles, pins and thimbles, .... 1 09 

Neckties, 41 59 

Outside suits, 705 75 

Outside shirts 70 53 

Overcoats, 50 59 

Ribbon 7 34 

Rubber boots, 31 42 

Rubber tissue, . . . . . . . 2 47 

Rubber aprons, 1 25 

Stockings, 152 44 

Shoes and repairs, . . . . . . 1,548 70 

Shoe laces, 24 50 

Amounts carried forward, .... $5,517 03 



$1,511 05 $38,680 39 



2,031 62 



$40,712 01 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 67 

Amounts brought forward, .... $5,517 03 $40,712 01 

Clothing, — 

Silesia, ........ 4 81 

Suspenders, 126 00 

Thread, 37 40 

Under clothing, 29 21 

Webbing, 47 



School supplies, — 

Arithmetics and algebras, .. . . . $79 74 

Blackboard 18 50 

Blank books, ....... 18 00 

Brick laying, . . . . . . . 7 60 

Binding books,. . . . . . . 81 00 

Blocks, 12 10 

Blue print paper, 80 

Composition paper, . . . . . . 29 00 

Checker board, 1 00 

Dictionaries, 96 50 

Dictionary holder, 4 00 

Drawing paper, ...... 12 04 

Envelopes and paper, 15 57 

Gummed paper, ....... 75 

Geometries, 7 20 

Histories, 161 45 

Ink, 12 00 

Letter paper, 44 62 

Library paper, . . . . . . . 28 60 

Liquid slate, 5 50 

Manual training (advanced), . . . . 402 2o 

Miscellaneous books, 12 75 

Music, 178 27 

Mops, 37 10 

Manilla paper, 35 70 

Mucilage . . . 3 50 

Pens and holders, 19 66 

Paste, 1 00 

Pencils, 14 50 

Pencil erasers, 2 25 

Readers, 23 42 

Rulers, 2 08 

Slates (roofing) 11 50 

Slates and slate pencils, 72 

Sloyd supplies, 44 98 

Triangles, 3 20 

Writing books, 53 52 



5,714 92 



1,482 37 



Amount carried forward, .... . . $47,909 30 



68 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amount brought forward, .... . . $47,909 30 

Ordinary repairs, — 

Brushes, $4 77 

Brass, lead, tin and copper, . . . . 11 80 

Boiler and furnace repairs, . . . . 113 02 

Beeswax, 92 05 

Blaeksrnithing, 41 82 

Brackets, 45 

Bolts, ........ 12 34 

Cement and lime, 23 43 

Cotton waste, 5 10 

Castors, 22 

Crutch tips, 1 00 

Charcoal, 1 00 

Carpenter's chalk, 20 

Concreting, 107 26 

Drugs for disinfecting, 62 53 

Electric light and telephone repairs, . 170 29 

Emery cloth, 1 32 

Glue and cement, 4 90 

Glass, putty and points, 75 44 

Galvanized iron, 40 82 

Grinding knives, 1 50 

Grates, 8 64 

Hose and repairs, 9 37 

Labor, 150 96 

Locks, butts and hooks, 70 63 

Linseed oil, 131 29 

Lubricating oil, 14 71 

Liquid disinfectant, 22 25 

Lodge repairs, 222 75 

Lumber, 1,123 30 

Nails, brads and screws, 60 23 

Paints, . . . . . . . . 207 17 

Pratt's dyer, 3 50 

Pipe and fittings, 318 96 

Paper, 22 94 

Pencils, 10 

Papering at Berlin, 21 90 

Repairs to buggies and sleighs, . . . 105 51 

Repairs of harness, 33 60 

Rubber hose, 33 

Repair of slide, ...... 54 

Repair of musical instruments, ... 1 00 

Rubber tubing, 95 

Repairs of typewriter, 14 04 

Rubber belting, 78 



Amounts carried forward, .... $3,316 71 $47,909 30 






6,599 26 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 69 

Amounts brought forward, .... $3,316 71 $47,909 30 

Ordinary repairs, — 

Rope . 20 09 

Repair of piano, . 12 00 

Repair of house utensils, . . . . 104 44 

Sal soda, 3 20 

Sash weights and cords, 11 95 

Sand paper, 15 00 

Turpentine, 153 18 

Tin roofing, . 20 65 

Tools, 120 56 

Varnish and shellac, 19 70 

Window guard, . . .. . . 3 50 

3,800 98 

Fuel and lights, — 

Coal, $4,625 32 

Electric lights, 1,920 66 

Kerosene oil, ....... 37 28 

Oil tank pump, 1 50 

Wood 14 50 

Seeds, plants and fertilizers, — 

Bordeaux mixture, $2 00 

Flower seeds and bulbs, ..... 22 26 

Flower pots, 45 

Fertilizers, . 516 00 

Garden seeds, 49 93 

Ground bone, 6 07 

Grass seed, 17 81 

Jadoo fibre, 3 00 

Land plaster, 6 00 

Manure, 52 50 

Plants and shrubs, 84 82 

Seed corn, 8 10 

Seed potatoes, . . . . . . . 84 75 

Slug shot, , 1 00 

Grain and meal for stock, — 

Bran, $50 88 

Barley, 1 50 

Cracked corn, 189 25 

Corn meal, 96 36 

Cotton-seed meal, 46 00 

Condition powder, 7 00 

Fine feed, 90 15 

Gluten, 433 82 

Grit, 5 05 

Hay, 70 00 

Amounts carried forward, .... $1,129 16 $59,164 23 



854 69 



70 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, .... $1,129 16 $59,164 23 

Grain and meal for stock, — 

Linseed meal, 2 80 

Mixed feed, 143 75 

Millet, 25 

Middlings, ........ 133 20 

Oats 304 30 

Oat feed and ground oats, 77 62 

Oyster shells, 3 75 

Peat moss, 188 80 

Rye, 1 50 

Rock salt, 14 27 

Scraps, 15 95 

Shavings, 56 45 

Stock food, 16 00 

Shorts, 5 75 

Straw, 1 82 

Sand, 4 20 

Wheat, 169 05 

2,129 47 

Institution property, — 

Clock dials, §9 00 

Harness, 43 00 

Horse blankets, 9 00 

Lap robes, 16 00 

Mail bags, 24 00 

Sleighs, 78 50 

Thermometer and hydrometer, .... 1 65 

Whips, 6 70 

187 85 

Transportation and travelling expenses, — 

Express and freight charges, .... $501 25 

Travelling expenses, 453 55 

954 80 

Live stock purchases, 980 95 

Farm tools and repairs to same, 638 88 

Horse shoeing, 102 81 

News, Sunday-school and waste papers, 275 33 

Postage, telephone, telegraph and phonograph, . . . 383 50 

Drugs and medical supplies, 172 90 

Printing material, 188 82 

Stationery, 174 23 

Water, 430 00 

Raw material, 67 65 

Rent, 5 00 

Burial, 8 50 

$65,864 92 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



71 



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72 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



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1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



Superintendents Report of Cash Tramsactions. — Receipts. 



Farm Miscel- 



Produce 

Sales. 



laneons 
Sales. 



Labor 

of 
Boys. 



7::s".5. 



189' 



October, 

November, 

December, 



1898. 



January, 
February 
March, 
April, 
May, 
June, 
July, 
August, 
September 
Totals, 



Received cash from, 



i< it 



it (i 



<( it 



$3 25 


- 


2 00 


£24 36 


4 75 


2 30 


82 02 


_ 


17 49 


- 


- 


6 00 


10 00 


- 


11 51 


- 


17 17 


11 55 


a :i 


16 29 


12 45 


11 70 


9 06 


12 51 



$15 56 
2 75 



$15 91 

29 60 
7 05 



50 


S2 99 


- 


17 49 


43 92 


54 92 


1 05 


11 05 


- 


11 51 


53 00 


51 72 


16 00 


53 30 


81 37 


105 52 


55 


22 72 



$190 71 $85 50 $220 00 $495 21 



Superintendent's Report of Cash Transactions. — Disbursements, 



Farm Miscel- Labor 
Produce laneous of Totals. 















1 Sales. 


Sales. 


Boys. 




1897. 










October, Paid State Treasurer, 


$3 25 


- 


$15 56 


$15 51 


November, ...."*• " 


2 00 


$24 85 


2 75 


2? f: 


December, .... 


(< i< (< 


4 75 


2 30 


- 


7 05 


1898. 












January, 








(< 


I M 


S2 02 


- 


50 


52 59 


February, 








•« 


, 


17 49 


- 




17 49 


-iiarcn, . 








• ; 


i M 


- 


6 00 


,5 39 


54 92 


April, . 








«< 


C (( 


10 00 


- 


1 05 


11 05 


May, 








<i 


' 


11 51 


- 


_ 


11 51 


Jane, 








" 


C ■( 


17 17 


11 55 


53 00 


SI 72 


July, 








" 


1 (( 


21 01 


16 29 


16 00 


53 30 


August, . 








■ 


i (( 


12 45 


11 70 


81 37 


105 52 


September, 








<• 


i (< 


9 06 


12 SI 


?5 


22 72 


Totals, 


<< 


' 


$1.-: -: 


$5? 50 


$22: :o 


$496 21 



74 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



FARMER'S REPORT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

I respectfully submit the following report for the year ending 
Sept. 30, 1898. 

The year just passed I consider to have been a very successful one, 
all crops having been especially good. The grape crop, however, 
failed to ripen well, I think owing to the large amount of wet weather. 

During the past year several valuable animals have been added to 
our herd of cattle, which is increasing rapidly. We have now, count- 
ing all young stock, sixty-five head. The young stock have all been 
carefully selected and only the choicest ones raised. 

Ground already under cultivation has been somewhat improved, 
but no new ground has been taken up, all spare time having been 
devoted to work about the new building, improving roads, etc. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. S. GRAHAM. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 75 



EBPORT OF THE FARMER AT BERLIN 
FARM-HOUSE. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

In submitting the annual report we are glad to be able to show a 
considerable increase over previous years in the amount of produce 
raised. 

The potato crops reached our expectations, two hundred and ninety 
bushels having been produced. The boys have thoroughly enjoyed 
the corn and potato roasts, Saturday afternoons, as a reward for the 
hard work harvesting the crops. 

The apple crop will prove valuable ; one hundred and twenty-five 
barrels of hand-picked apples are now in the barn. The picking was 
done by hired help. It was not deemed wise to allow these little 
boys to undertake such work, although they assisted the men and 
collected the cider apples. 

In June the celery plants were set out ; it proved a very dry time, 
but the faithful care which the boys bestowed on them, carrying 
water for several weeks, has been fully repaid, and we now have an 
excellent bed of five hundred plants. 

A quantity of pop corn has been been raised, which the boys enjoy 
during the winter evenings with the nuts, of which they have gathered 
in a store. 

We have been abundantly supplied with berries from the pasture 
and gardens. Strawberries during the season were served three 
times a day on the table ; blackberries also were very plentiful, and 
raspberries for a short time. 

About an acre of meadow land has been ploughed and reseeded. 
A pasture lot has been cultivated, and on it two tons of squashes 
r ere raised and many bushels of cucumbers three casks of which have 
)een salted for winter use. Thirty bushels of onions and a bountiful 
supply of parsnips, turnips and beets that have not yet been gathered 
will be ready for winter use. The melon patch, as in former years, 
has been highly appreciated by the boys. 

Four cows have given a bountiful supply of milk, and fresh eggs 
are plentiful. 



76 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Besides the ordinary farm work, the boys have done some ditching 
and strengthened the dam at the pond. A flume was built this 
spring, which regulates the overflow. The daily swim in this pond 
has stood first with the boys among their summer's recreations. The 
road leading to the pond has been put into better shape. 

The clearing away of old apple trees has improved the place, and 
the much-needed supply of running water will be fully appreciated. 

Thanking you for your continued kindness, and also our manager 
here, who is ever ready with support and counsel, this report is 
respectfully submitted. 

IRA G. DUDLEY. 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



77 



Summary of the Farm Account for the Twelve Months ending 

Sept. 30, 1898. 
Dr. 
Live stock, agricultural implements and farm 

produce on hand, as appraised Sept. 30, 1897, $ 8,706 46 

Board, 156 00 

Farm tools and repairs, 495 76 

Fertilizers, 574 50 

Grain and meal, 1,914 77 

Horse shoeing, 79 72 

Labor of boys 390 00 

Live stock purchases, 953 00 

Ordinary repairs, 7 60 

Seeds and plants 233 77 

Wages, 999 96 

Water 20 00 

$14,531 54 

Net gain for twelve months, 4,662 14 

$19,193 68 
Cr. 

Asparagus, $65 64 

Apples, 8 60 

Beet greens, ....... 2 25 

Beets, 18 13 

Beans, string, 27 80 

Blackberries, . 24 00 

Beef, . . 76 32 

Beans, shell, 11 40 

Cash for calves, 24 50 

Cash for hides, 3 25 

Cash for onions, 43 01 

Cash for cow, 50 00 

Cash for milk, 32 44 

Cash for asparagus, 20 63 

Cash for strawberries, 11 56 

Cucumbers, 39 95 

Cabbage, ........ 33 72 

Currants, 60 

Carrots, 4 53 

Crab apples, 80 

Cauliflower, 6 15 

Cash for use of tools, 2 75 

Eggs, 617 06 

Fowl, 306 19 

Lettuce, 58 14 

Labor for institution, 1,751 85 

Amount carried forward, . . . $3,241 27 



78 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amount brought forward, . . . $3,241 27 

Melons, 22 10 

Milk, 4,242 60 

Onions, 30 49 

Parsnips, 1 45 

Peas, - 74 80 

Potatoes, 101 25 

Pork, 57 30 

Raspberries, 7 00 

Rhubarb, 3 80 

Radishes, . . . '. ... 39 28 

Strawberries, ....... 104 9 L 

Squash 6 68 

Sweet corn, . 101 31 

Turnips, ....... . 15 25 

Tomatoes, 68 74 

Live stock, agricultural implements and farm produce on hand 
Sept. 30, 1898, 



Apples, . 
Beans, 
Beets, 
Corn, 

Cucumbers, 
Cabbage, . 
Carrots, . 
Celery, . 
Ensilage, 
Fodder, . 
Grass seed, 



Produce op the Farm on Hand Oct. 1, 1898. 
Hay, English, 
Oats, 

Onions, . 
Potatoes, . 
Parsnips, 
Pumpkins, 
Squash, . 
Turnips, . 



^377 50 
30 00 


85 50 


3 00 


13 80 


109 10 


46 40 


28 40 


840 00 


240 65 


24 10 



$8,118 23 


11,075 45 


$19,193 68 


$1,860 00 


161 95 


98 50 


451 40 


19 20 


44 50 


88 25 


210 00 



$4,732 25 



Asparagus, 
Cow, 

Calves, . 
Hides, 
Milk, 



Farm Sales. 



$20 63 

50 00 

24 50 

3 25 

32 44 



Onions, 
Strawberries, 



$43 01 
11 56 



$185 39 



Live Stock. 



Bulls (2), 
Cows (49), 
Calves (4), 
Fowl (282), 
Heifers (15), 
Hogs (8), 
Horses (6), 
Horse " Bess, 



$130 00 

2,610 00 

40 00 

141 00 

381 00 

98 50 

600 00 

125 00 



Horse " Tiger," 
Horses " Charlie " 

" Jerry, " 
Pullets (430), . 
Roosters (175), 



and 



$40 00 

7 00 

215 00 

87 50 



$4,475 00 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



79 



Summary. 

Produce on hand, . $4,732 25 

Produce sold, 185 39 

Produce consumed, 7,932 84 

Live stock, 4,475 00 

Agricultural instruments, ........ 1,868 20 

*19,193 68 
Poultry Account. 
Dr. 
To fowl and feed, as appraised Sept. 30, 1897, $336 70 

feed, . 279 68 

incubators and brooders, . 127 32 

net gain, ....... 632 31 

$1,376 01 

Cr. 
By eggs used, 2,597*1 dozen, .... $571 06 

fowl and chicken used, 1,699 pounds, . 290 19 

fowl and feed, as appraised Sept. 30, 1898, 514 76 

— $1,376 01 

Average number of hens kept, ...... 273 

Profit per hen, $2 27 



80 



SUMMAEY LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



SUMMAEY OF PEOPBETY OF THE LYMAN 

SCHOOL. 



Sept. 30, 1898 
Real Estate 



Forty-eight acres tillage land, 
Thirty-six acres pasturage, 
Seventy-two acres Wilson land, 
Three-fourths of an acre Brady land, 
Willow Park land, three acres, 
Berlin land, about one hundred acres, 



$11,200 00 
1,900 00 
4,100 00 
1,300 00 
1,500 00 
2,000 00 



Buildings. 

Hay and cow barn, $11,000 00 

Horse barn, 2,600 00 

Wayside Cottage, 5,500 00 

Hillside Cottage, 15,000 00 

Maple Cottage, 3,500 00 

Oak Cottage, 16,000 00 

Bowlder Cottage, 17,000 00 

Willow Park Cottage, 5,600 00 

Theodore Lyman Hall, 38,000 00 

Superintendent's house, 9,500 00 

Chapel, 3,700 00 

Bakery building, 8,000 00 

Armory building, 500 00 

Berlin house, 2,500 00 

Berlin barn and sheds, 1,000 00 



Piggery building, . 
Scale house, 
Seven hen houses, . 
Ice house, 
Workshop building, 
Tool house (Bowlder) 



600 00 
600 00 
750 00 

20 00 
200 00 

25 00 



$22,000 00 



141,595 00 



Amount carried forward , .... . . $163,595 00 






1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 81 

Amount brought forward, .... . . f 163,595 00 

Personal Estate. 

Beds and bedding, $2,616 32 

Other furniture, 18,629 59 

Carriages, 848 00 

Agricultural implements, 1,868 20 

Dry goods, 613 88 

Drugs and surgical instruments, .... 444 75 

Fuel and oil, . . . . . . . . 841 35 

Library, 3,113 05 

Live stock, 4,475 00 

Mechanical tools and appliances, .... 6,797 34 

Provisions and groceries, 1,946 88 

Produce on hand, . . ... . . 4,732 25 

Ready made clothing, 6,687 61 

Raw material, . 3,813 86 

57,428 08 

$221,023 08 

PRESCOTT G. BROWN, 

ELLIOT F. DENHAM, 

Appraisers. 
A true copy. Attest : T. F. Chapin, Superintendent. 



82 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



LIST OF SALAEIBD OFFICEES NOW 
EMPLOYED. 



Theodore F. Chapin, superintendent, 
Mrs. Maria B. Chapin, matron, .... 
Walter M. Day, assistant superintendent,* 
Mrs. Gertrude B. Day, amanuensis,* . 
Francis E. Corey, M.D., physician, . 
Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Pierce, charge of family, . 
Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Meserve, charge of family, . 
Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Hallier, charge of family, . 
Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Wilcox, charge of family, . 
Mr. and Mrs. F. U. Wetmore, charge of family, 
Mr. and Mrs. I. T. Swift, charge of family, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Pettengill, charge of family, 
Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Bullock, charge of family, 
Mrs. Emily L. Warner, charge at Berlin, . 
Mr. and Mrs. Ira G. Dudley, assistants at Berlin, 
Mrs. Fannie H. Wheelock, teacher of drawing, 

Mary L. Pettit, principal, 

Anna L. Wilcox, teacher of Sloyd, . 

James D. Littlefield, supervisor of manual training 

Alliston Greene, teacher of physical drill, 

Jennie M. Wood, teacher, 

Emma F. Newton, teacher. 

Stella M. Osgood, teacher, 

Mary L. Brown, teacher, . 

Mary E. Brackett, teacher, 

Marion L. Cole, teacher, 

Hattie M. Trask, teacher, 

Flora J. Dyer, teacher, 

Fannie S. Mitchell, seamstress, 



$2,000 00 
400 00 
900 00 
400 00 
300 00 
800 00 
800 00 
800 00 
900 00 
800 00 
800 00 
800 00 
700 00 
600 00 
800 00 
400 00 
700 00 
800 00 
1,000 00 
800 00 
300 00 
400 00 
300 00 
300 00 
300 00 
350 00 
325 00 
400 00 
250 00 



* Board themselves. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 83 

Mary E. Greeley, assistant matron, $250 00 

Susie E. Wheeler, assistant matron, 250 00 

Sarah E. Goss, assistant matron, . . . . . 250 00 

Jennie E. Perry, assistant matron, 250 00 

Mabel G. Moore, assistant matron, ...... 250 00 

Mabel M. King, assistant matron, . . . . . . 250 00 

Margaret J. Orel, assistant matron, . . . . . . 250 00 

Lenora S. Day, assistant matron, 250 00 

Ida M. Burhoe, assistant matron, . . . . . . 250 00 

Emma L. Burgess, housekeeper, 300 00 

Prescott G. Brown, charge of storehouse, 500 00 

Mary E. Brown, charge of bakery, . . . . . . 200 00 

James W. Clark, engineer, 900 00 

A. Russell King, carpenter, . . . . . . . 500 00 

Chas. S. Graham, farmer,* 700 00 

Arthur E. Flint, assistant farmer, 300 00 

John T. Perkins, driver, 400 00 

Mial M. Thompson, watchman, 400 00 

* Board themselves. 



84 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



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OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 





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Harry G. Nye, 
Alexander Quackenboss 
C. A. Harrington, . 
W. 0. Johnson, 
Ethie Stevenson, . 
Lillia V. Burhoe, . 
Nellie E Hartwell, 
Marshall 0. Edson, 
Aaron R. Morse, . 
Joseph K. Adams, . 
Minnie E. Moore, . 
Lizzie Moses, 
Ella G. Churchill, . 
Florence Edmands, 
Minnie Burhoe, 
John J. Murphy, . 
W. P. Bower, 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Irving 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



87 



SUPEEINTENDENTS, 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES 




Date of 
Ketirement. 




1848, 


William R. Lincoln, . 










1853. 




1853, 


James M. Talcott, . 










1857. 




1857, 


William E. Starr, . 










1861. 




1861, 


Joseph A. Allen, 










1867. 




1867, 


Orville K. Hutchinson, 










1868. 




1868, 


Bejamin Evans, 










May, 1873. 


May, 


1873, 


Allen G. Shepherd, . 










Aug., 1878. 


Aug., 


1878, 


Luther H. Sheldon, . 










Dec, 1880. 


Dec, 


1880, 


Edmund T. Dooley, . 










Oct., 1881. 


Oct., 


1881, 


Joseph A Allen, 










April, 1885. 


July, 


1885, 


Henry E. Swan, 










July, 1888. 


July, 


1888, 


Theodore F. Chapin, 










Still in office. 



8S 



TRUSTEES LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



TRUSTEES 



Names, Residences, Commissions and Retirement of the Trustees of 
the State Reform School, from the Commencement to the present 
Time. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Eesidence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1847, 


Nahum Fisher,* . 


Westborough, . 


1849 


1847, 


John W. Graves, 


Lowell, . 


1849 


1847, 


Samuel Williston, 


Easthampton, . 


1853 


1847, 


Thomas A. Green,* 


New Bedford, . 


■1860 


1847, 


Otis Adams,* 


Grafton, . 


1851 


1847, 


George Denney,* 


Westborough, . 


1851 


1847, 


William P. Andrews,* 


Boston, 


1851 


1849, 


William Livingston,* . 


Lowell, . 


1851 


1849, 


Russell A. Gibbs,* 


Lanesborough, 


1853 


1851, 


George H. Kuhn, 


Boston, . 


1855 


1851, 


J. B. French,* 


Lowell, . 


1854 


1851, 


Daniel H. Forbes, 


Westborough, . 


1854 


1851, 


Edward B. Bigelow,* . 


Grafton, . 


1855 


1853, 


J. W.H.Page,* . 


New Bedford, . 


1856 


1853, 


Harvey Dodge, . 


Sutton, 


1867 


1854, 


G. Howland Shaw,* . 


Boston, 


1856 


1854, 


Henry W. Cushman,* . 


Bernardston, . 


1860 


1855, 


Albert H. Nelson,* 


Woburn, . 


1855 


1855, 


Joseph A. Fitch, . 


Hopkinton, 


1858 


1855, 


Parley Hammond, 


Worcester, 


1860 


1856, 


Simon Brown, 


Concord, . 


1860 


1856, 


John A. Fayerweather, 


Westborough, . 


1859 


1857, 


Josiah H. Temple, 


Framingham, . 


1860 


1858, 


Judson S. Brown, 


Fitchburg, 


1860 


1859, 


Theodore Lyman, 


Brookline, 


1860 


1860, 


George C. Davis,* 


Northborough, 


1873 


1860, 


Carver Hotchkiss, 


Shelburne, 


1863 


1860, 


Julius A. Palmer, 


Boston, 


1862 


1860, 


Henry Chickering, 


Pittsfield, 


1869 


1860, 


George W. Bentley, . 


Worcester, 


1861 


1860, 


Alden Leland, 


Holliston, 


1864 


1861, 


Pliny Nickerson, 


Boston, . 


1868 


1861, 


Samuel G. Howe,* 


Boston, . 


1863 


1862, 


Benjamin Boynton,* . 


Westborough, . 


1864 


1863, 


J. H. Stephenson, 


Boston, . 


1866 


1863, 


John Ayres, 


Charlestown, . 


1867 



* Deceased. 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



89 



Names, Residences, etc., of Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Eesidence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1864, 


A. E. Goodnow, . 


Worcester, 


1874 


1864, 


Isaac Ames, 


Haverhill, 


1865 


1865, 


Jones S. Davis, -. 


Holyoke, . 


1868 


1866, 


Joseph A. Pond,* 


Brighton, 


1867 


1867, 


Stephen G. Deblois, . 


Boston, . 


1878 


1868, 


John Ayres, 


Medford, . 


1874 


1868, 


Harmon Hall, 


Saugus, . 


1871 


1868, 


L. L. Goodspeed, . 


Bridgewater, . 


1872 


1869, 


E. A. Hubbard, . 


Springfield, 


1877 


1871, 


Lucius W. Pond, . 


Worcester, 


1875 


1871, 


John W. Olmstead, 


Boston, . 


1873 


1872, 


Moses H. Sargent, 


Newton, . 


1877 


1873, 


A. S. Woodworth, 


Boston, . 


1876 


1873, 


Edwin B. Harvey, 


Westborough, . 


1878 


1874, 


W.H.Baldwin, . 


Boston, 


1876 


1875, 


John L. Cummings, . 


Ashburnham, . 


1879 


1876, 


Jackson B. Swett, 


Haverhill, 


1878 


1877, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester 


1879 


1877, 


Milo Hildreth,* . 


Northborough, 


1879 


1878, 


Lyman Belknap,* 


Westborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Franklin Williams,* . 


Boston, . 


1879 


1878, 


Robert Couch, 


Newbury port, . 


1879 


1879, 


John T. Clark, . 


Boston, . 


1879 


1879, 


M. J. Flatley, 


Boston, 


1881 


1879, 


Adelaide A. Calkins, . 


Springfield, 


1880 


1879, 


Lyman Belknap, . 


Westborough, . 


1884 


1879, 


Anne B. Richardson, . 


Lowell, . 


1886 


1879, 


Milo Hildreth.* . 


Northborough, 


1891 


1879, 


George W. Johnson, . 


Brookfield, 


1887 


1879, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester. 


1888 


1880, 


Elizabeth C. Putnam, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1881, 


Thomas Dwight, . 


Boston, . 


1884 


1884, 


M. 11. Walker, . 


Westborough, . 


Still in office. 


1884, 


J. J. O'Connor,* . 


Holyoke, . 


1889 


1886, 


Elizabeth G. Evans, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1887, 


Chas. L. Gardner, 


Palmer, . 


1891 


1888, 


H. C. Greeley, . 


Clinton, . 


Still in office. 


1889, 


M. J. Sullivan, . 


Chicopee, 


" " 


1891, 


Samuel W. McDaniel, 


Cambridge, 


" " 


1891, 


C. P. Worcester, . 


Boston, . 


1897 


1897, 


E. C. Sanford, . 


Worcester, 


Still in office. 



* Deceased. 



90 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF 
VISITATION. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

The total number of individuals on the visiting list of the department of 

visitation for the year ending Sept. 30, 1898, was 753 

Becoming of age during the year, 86 

Died, . . . 2 

Returned to school and not relocated : — 

For serious fault, . .46 

Not serious, 9 

55 

Making the total number passing out of our care during the year, . 143 

Leaving on the visiting list Oct. 1, 1898, ...... *610 

This visiting list must not be confounded or compared with the 
total number of boys who have left the school and are not yet twenty- 
one years of age given in table on page 40, which table includes those 
who have been discharged for one reason or another and are beyond 
our jurisdiction, and who have been transferred from the school to 
the Concord Reformatory. 

We account for the 610 boys on our visiting list as follows : — 

In various occupations, 493 

At board, 36 

Recently released, work not yet obtained, ....... 6 

Employment not known (out of State, etc.), . . . . . 7 

Invalids, 4 

Not employed, 7 

Committed by court to Concord Reformatory, 9 

In other penal institutions, 13 

Whereabouts unknown, 35 

The list of those whose whereabouts are unknown is greater by 1 
than last year. Of this list, 2 are believed to have gone to the 
Klondike gold fields, and another (a boy nearly twenty-one years of 
age) is understood to be out of the State. 

Fourteen of this list are boys who were handed from previous 
years' records, and twenty-one have disappeared within the current 



Boys in army and navy are not included in the corresponding table on page 40. 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



91 



year. It may be of interest to note the ages of those whose where- 
abouts are unknown : — 



2 are 21 years of age. 
6 are 20 years of age. 
9 are 18 years of age. 



10 are 17 years of age. 
7 are 16 years of age. 
1 is 14 years of age or less, 



It must not be inferred that, because a boy's name is in this list, 
he is necessarily doing badly, as doubtless many of the older ones 
have changed their places to their own advantage. 

In keeping the records at the School we have continued our system 
of using white cards for those doing well, buff cards for those whose 
conduct is doubtful and red cards for those doing badly. 

Of the 610 boys on the visiting list, 538, or 88 * per cent., are doing 
well ; 32, or 5.2 per cent., are doing doubtfully ; 40, or 6.5 per cent., 
are doing badly. 

It should, however, be remarked that the 22 boys in the Concord 
Reformatory and other penal institutions are included in the list of 
those doing badly, and the remaining 18 are boys whose whereabouts 
are unknown. It is not intended to keep a boy in place whose grade 
is below doubtful. 

The occupations of the before-mentioned 493 boys are as follows : — 



Assisting parents, 
Armory, 
Army, 
Bakers, 






16 
2 

29 
4 


Blacksmith, 






1 


Building mover, 






1 


Bicycle factory, . 
Brass works, 






7 
2 


Bell boys, . 
Box factory, 
Barbers, 






7 
4 
2 


Bootblacks, 






4 


Confectioner, 






1 


Carpenters, 
Coachman, . 






9 
1 


Clerks, 






. 16 


Cabin boy, . 
Core maker, 






. 1 
. 1 


Chair shop, 
Celluloid works, 






. 2 
. 1 


Carver (wood), . 






. 1 


Conductor, . 






. 1 



Canning factory, 

Decorator, . 

Electric power company, 

Expressmen, 

Emery works, 

Errand boys, 

Firemen, . 

Freight handler, 

Fish peddler, 

Fish market, 

Fishermen, 

Furniture store, 

Farmers, . 

Glass works, 

Hostlers, 

Harness shop, 

Ice cart, 

Iron works, 

Laborers, . 

Laundry, . 

Loom works, 

Mill (textile), 



1 
1 
2 
5 
1 
9 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
3 
152 
3 
3 
2 
1 
4 

26 
1 
1 

24 



* These percentages should not be confused with those on pages 40, 41, which latter 
includes certain boys not on the Visitor's list. 



92 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Milk wagon, 


, 




. 3 


Restaurant, 








. 4 


Moulders (iron), 




. 2 


Roofer, 






1 


Meat cutter, 




. 1 


Silver plating, . 






. 3 


Machinists, 


. 




6 


School and chores, 






. 15 


Minstrel, 


, , 






Selling agent, . 








Mattress maker, 


, 






Sailor, 








Miner, 


. 






Shoe shop, . 






21 


Nail factory, 


. 






Showman, . 








Newsboy, . 


. 






Stevedore, . 








Navy (U.S.), 


. 




10 


Student, 








Peddler (miscellaneous), 




2 


Stone cutter, 








Peddler (vegetable), . 




6 


Shipper, 








Painters, 




3 


Street paver, 








Plumbers, . 




3 


Teamsters, . 






5 


Paper mill, 




5 


Telegraph messenger 


s, 




4 


Paper box manufacturing, 




1 


Tanners, 






2 


Photographer, . 




1 


Upholsterers, 






2 


Printers, 




6 


Wood and coal yards, 




2 


Picture frame maker, 




1 


Wire mill, .... 




5 


Potter, .... 




1 




The above table shows : — 






32 -\- per cent, on farms. 




4 -(- per cent, in shoe shops. 


6 -{- per cent, in United States 


ser- 


4 -f- per cent, laborers. 


vice. 




51 — per cent, may be classed as mis- 


5 — per cent, in mills (textile) 




cellaneous. 




1898. 


1897. 


Number of boys placed in the 


ir hoi 


nes when leaving the 






school, . . 






88 


97 


Number of boys placed with otl 


lers w 


len leaving the school, 


86 


73 


Number of boys boarded out w) 


len lei 
d bec( 


iving the school, . 
)ming subjects of visi- 


37 


11 


Total number placed out ar 






tation, .... 






211 


181 



The whole number of boys returned to the school was 89, as against 
63 in the year 1897. 

Of the number of returns, 46 were returned for serious fault and 
43 for slight misdemeanors or for relocation. 

We have made 1,573 visits to the boys under our care during the 
year. To this number should be added also 107 visits made by the 
individual members of your board, mainly to the younger boys, 
bringing the total number of visits up to 1,680. 

Of this number, 615 visits were made to 290 boys over eighteen 
years of age, and the remainder 1,065 visits to 463 younger boys. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 93 

The older boys received, on an average, a little over two visits 
each, and the younger ones between three and four. 

In addition to our visits to boys, we have investigated 195 homes 
and 21 places, and made written reports thereon to the school. Much 
other work in this line has been done where no written report has 
been made. 

Our correspondence has been large, and fruitful of good results. 
Many letters have proved to be the word fitly spoken. About fifty 
days have been spent in conference at the Lyman School, interview- 
ing prospective probationers, and where, also, we have met a com- 
mittee of your Board one afternoon or evening of each month. 

The increasing demand upon our time and the diversity of duties 
laid upon us led to the addition to our force of Mr. John H. Cum- 
mings, formerly the truant officer of Lyman School. Entering upon 
his duties in January, he has proven of great service to this depart- 
ment. He has been chiefly employed in taking boys to their places, 
looking after runaways and attending to other emergency cases. 
Heretofore the most of this work was done by the school, and the 
change, while it makes additional expense to this department, lessens 
the expenses of the school by nearly the same amount. 

It is a matter of much pride and satisfaction to this department 
that so many of our young men responded with patriotic ardor to 
the call of their country in the recent war with Spain. We have not 
heard one unfavorable report from any of these brave fellows. We 
have, on the other hand, learned of promotions and honorable service. 
At the memorable landing at Guantanamo and the subsequent heroic 
defence of their exposed position by the marine force, one of our 
boys was among the very first to land and the first to fall. 

To the mind of every one interested in the reformation of delin- 
quent boys, the centre of interest must be the condition of the boys 
arriving at their majority, — twenty-one years of age, — for such 
must be regarded as the finished product of the school, the result 
toward which all efforts are made. Here, the work begun upon 
the entering day of the school, and continued without break under the 
present system of supervision by the officers connected with the 
school, finds its conclusion. The whole work must be judged by 
the showing here. 

We call your attention to the following statistics and tables of 
employment of all the boys becoming of age during the past year, — 
the first of its kind in the reports of this department, — and to the 
abbreviated sketches of several of these boys, covering the period 
between coming into the care of the State and their twenty-first birth- 
day. 



94 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct, 



Occupations of 86 Boys who became of Age during the Year just closed. 



Army (U. S.), 
Box shop, . 
Barbers, 
Bicycle shop, 
Blacksmith, 
Brakeman, . 
Bootblack, . 
Clerks, 
Chair shop, 
Farmers, 
Fisherman, . 
Florist, 
Hostlers, . 
Heel rnanufactur 
Laborers, . 
Machinists, 
Mill (textile), 



2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 

19 
1 
1 
2 
1 
7 
2 
5 



Meat cutter, 








1 


Milk peddler, 
Paper mill, 
Plumber, . 








1 

3 

1 


Painters, 








4 


Peddler, . 








1 


Printer, 








1 


Restaurant, 








1 


Ropewalk, . 
Sailors, 








1 
2 


Shoe shop, . 
Teamsters, . 








8 
4 


Tanner, 








1 


Wood and coal dealer, 




1 


Occupations unknown 
In penal institutions, 


L 




5 

1 



Expressed in per cents., those in different employments may be 
classed as follows : — 



23.7 per cent, employed on farms. 
9 — per cent, in shoe shops. 



8.7 per cent, laborers. 



The other occupations have from 1 to 5 names each. 
The last reports of these boys, now for the first time assuming the 
duties of citizenship, show that : — 

* 52, or 60.4 per cent., are doing well, above question. 

17, or 19.8 per cent., are doing fairly well (honestly self-supporting). 
10, or 11.6 per cent., are doing badly (one in jail at last report). 

5, or 5.2 per cent., unknown or out of the State. 

5, or 2 -{-per cent., United States Army. 

It must be acknowledged that the foregoing table was so satisfac- 
tory to this department that the entire list was carefully revised, lest 
too favorable reports had been given ; and the personal knowledge of 
each visitor to date was brought into the evidence, but the result was 
not changed. 

Brief Histories of a Few Boys becoming of Age during the 

Year. 
The subject of the following sketch came to the Lyman School 
when nearly fifteen years old. His offence was burglary, breaking, 

* Boys sent to the Massachusetts Reformatory in former years, and 2 lost track of in 
former years, are not included in this list; hence its apparent disagreement with coming 
of age table on page 41. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 95 

entering and larceny ; and he is an orphan. He spent sixteen months 
in the school, and was placed on a farm, where his conduct was not 
uniformly good, but his offences were not of a serious character and 
were easily settled by timely calls from the visitor. When he became 
eighteen years of age and was allowed to make his own arrangements, 
as boys who do well usually are permitted to do, through friends he 
had made while on the farm he secured a position as helper in a city 
store, which he filled to the satisfaction of all concerned. After two 
years of service here he obtained the position of clerk in a large 
department store, which situation he now holds. The work of the 
visitor in his behalf has been of that judicious kind which guides 
without seeming to dictate. 

Another case differs from the above, in that the boy came to the 
school at the age of fourteen years, for breaking and entering and 
larceny, he having been previously arrested three times, and having 
also served a term at Deer Island. Not a very good boy in school, 
he was placed with a farmer, where, though he was, on the whole, 
kindly treated, there were many hardships to bear. He stayed his 
full time, and went to work for himself in the neighborhood, under 
the eye of the visitor. His activity, good sense and honesty won 
him many friends, and I can do no better than to repeat the remark 
of a neighbor : "He can work where he chooses, and always com- 
mands good wages. I wish there were more young men like him." 

Another, nearly fifteen years old, came to the school under the 
charge of a "stubborn child," having previously spent six or eight 
years in an institution. His mother had died when he was five years 
old, and the whereabouts of his father were unknown. He was a dull, 
unattractive boy, much below the average in mental capacity, and 
was sent to a farm when nearly eighteen years of age. He required 
many visits by this department to keep him in his place and to find 
others for him, nor did this service cease when he became nineteen 
or even twenty years of age. He meant to do well, but needed 
much guidance. He is now honestly self-supporting, and doing 
fairly well. 

One more example will complete a list that perhaps has already 
grown tiresome ; but it illustrates another class. At the age of thir- 
teen this boy came into court for obtaining goods under false pretenses. 
He had been previously arrested twice for breaking, entering and lar- 
ceny. He remained at the Lyman kSchool two years, with a rather 
unsatisfactory record. Having no home, he was placed with a 
farmer, where he was well treated, but from whom he ran away during 
the year and succeeded in evading the officers for a considerable 
period. When found, he was restive of restraint, and, with the visit- 
ors' best efforts, he would not keep the places found for him. He 



96 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. '98. 

was active, and could find work, but in the last two years of his pro- 
bation he was inclined to be lawless and a companion of low char- 
acters. By threats of return to the school and of commitment to the 
reformatory he was kept from open violation of the law, but his char- 
acter is not such as to inspire confidence in the future. In the lists 
his name is classed with those doing badly. This is one of those 
cases, a sample of several others in the list, who would have been 
greatly benefited by a return to the school, had there been a special 
place and special treatment provided for him there, as we intimated 
in the report of last year. His faults were not so serious as to justify 
a term in Concord Reformatory, but his misdemeanors, which could 
not be corrected by moral suasion, and which had to be overlooked 
by the visitors, have led to serious results. 

Financial Statement. 
Expenses. 

Salary of visitors, $3,329 19 

Telephone service, 137 45 

Travelling and stationery, 2,652 79 

Total, $6,119 43 

In closing this report, acknowledgments are due to our many help- 
ers here and there who have interested themselves in particular boys 
or in the work in general ; to the superintendent and officers of the 
Lyman School, with whom we have worked with complete harmony ; 
to Mr. Asa F. Howe, visitor and colleague from the beginning of the 
work ; and to your Board, for constant sympathy and advice. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WALTER A. WHEELER, 

Superintendent of Visitation. 






EEPORT OF THE OFFICERS 



State Industkial School foe (jikls 



LANCASTER 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

I herewith submit to you the annual report for the year ending 
Sept. 30, 1898. 

The history of the school for the past year does not differ essen- 
tially from other years. The number of girls has still been increasing, 
and of course an increase of population necessarily increases the care 
and responsibility. Day by day there has been a constant weeding 
out of bad habits which have been growing in their natures for years, 
and it is not always an easy task, yet as a rule they respond quickly 
to kind treatment and sometimes develop traits of character in a 
manner which is very gratifying. On the whole, we cannot expect 
that great changes can be immediately produced. 

The new house, called "Fisher Hall," was opened Jan. 15, 1898. 
With this additional house we now have six families, which would 
afford us the means of a very satisfactory classification, if numbers 
had not already so increased that every household is overcrowded. 
A family of more than 25 is too large, as all the girls are entirely 
ignorant of any domestic training. If they are taught as they should 
be, it is a slow process, as each girl must have individual lessons and 
oversight. Therefore, if the school is to continue to do good work, 
further provision must be made for the increasing numbers. It is, 
however, respectfully urged that 150 girls are as many as can be 
advantageously cared for at one time in a school like ours, and if 
other cottages are added here, it is feared that the efficiency of the 
school will be seriously injured. 

During the summer the girls have been kept active with the farm 
and garden work, and through the autumn and winter months there 
are classes in gymnastics which are a benefit physically, giving them 
a pleasant change from the regular routine of work and study. 

The girls have regular instruction in all kinds of housework and 
cooking, in which they are always interested. They have helped to 
can a great amount of fruit and to make large quantities of different 
kinds of pickles. 

The daily instruction in sewing still goes oq. Many of the girls 
are interested in fancy work, but the mending is not forgotten. 

To elevate their moral natures, to give them a thorough practical 
knowledge of all kinds of work, is the main consideration and alto- 
gether the aim and purpose of the school in its discipline and 

L. L. BRACKETT. 



100 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



STATISTICS. 



Sept. 30, 1897, there were,— 
In the Industrial School, .... 
Outside, on probation and in other institutions, 



Total in custody Sept. 30, 1897, . 

Since committed, 

Attained majority, died and discharged, 



Net increase within year, 

Sept. 30, 1898, total in custody of school, 



144 

283 



102 
54 



These 475 girls are distributed as follows : — 

In the school, 

In other institutions : — 

Hospital, 1 

State Almshouse (1 insane), 12 

Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, .... 1 
Reformatory Prison, former years, 7 ; this year, 8, . .15 



427 

48 

*475 

167 



Total in institutions, 



29 
196 



The remaining 279 are on probation, as follows : — 

With relatives, 54 

At work in other families, . .144 

At academy or other school, self-supporting, ..... 6 

At board, attending school, 13 

Married, but subject to recall for cause, 44 

Left their places, whereabouts unknown, 18 



Total on probation Sept. 30, 1898, 
Average number of inmates in the school, . 
Weekly per capita cost, . 



279 

159 

|3 79 



* For conduct of these 475 girls see tables on pages 26, 27. 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



101 



There were recalled to the school during the year 84 girls, of whom 17 
came back for serious misconduct. Of these, 8 were transferred to the 
Reformatory Prison. The rest came back for no serious fault and most 
of them have been placed out again. Others, ill or unfit for placing, 
have been temporarily placed in the State Almshouse or discharged to 
parents. 



Of those committed this year : — 

94 could read and write. 
1 could read but not write. 



7 could not read or write. 



66 born in Massachusetts. 
3 born in Connecticut. 
3 born in New Hampshire. 
1 born in Vermont. 
3 born in Maine. 
3 born in New York. 
1 born in Ohio. 



1 born in North Carolina. 

9 born in Canada. 

6 born in England. 

1 born in Scotland. 

1 born in Ireland. 

1 born at sea. 

3 birthplace unknown. 



55 had both parents living. 
20 had father living. 
18 had mother living. 



6 were orphans. 

2 parents unknown. 

1 was an illegitimate child. 



61 stubbornness. 

2 vagrancy. 
13 larceny. 

2 breaking, entering and larceny. 

8 idle and disorderly conduct. 

1 idle, vagrant and vicious conduct. 

1 vagrancy. 

1 was 10 years of age. 

6 were 11 years of age. 

4 were 12 years of age. 

13 were 13 years of age. 



2 drunkenness. 

2 assault and battery. 

1 burning barn. 

4 lewd and lascivious speech and 
conduct. 

3 common night-walking. 

2 fornication. 

20 were 14 years of age. 
28 were 15 years of age. 
30 were 16 years of age. 



Of the 58 girls passing out of custody, there were behav- 
ing well (among them 2 who had been in Sherborn), . 37 or 68 per cent. 

Had behaved badly, . 12 or 22 per cent. 

Conduct unknown of, 2 or 4 per cent. 

Feeble-minded or very dull, . . . . 3 or 5 per cent. 

Cash received to the credit of sundry girls from Sept. 30, 1897, 

to Sept. 30, 1898, $2,048 48 

By deposit in savings bank on account of sundry girls, . . 2,048 48 

Cash drawn from savings bank on account of sundry girls from 

Sept. 30, 1897, to Sept. 30, 1898, 2,071 53 

By paid amounts from savings bank, 2,071 53 



102 FINANCIAL STATEM'T INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



1897. — October, received from 


the State Treasurer, 




$5,055 74 


November, ' 






4 




3,823 30 


December, ' 






' 




6,295 68 


1898. — January, 






' 




2,968 88 


February, ' 






I ' tt 




3,431 33 


March, ' 






* " 




2,932 16 


April, * 






« tt 




3,262 44 


May, , 






* 




2,541 42 


June, * 






» " 




2,249 01 


July, 






t It 




2,560 07 


August, • 






I It 




3,041 27 


September, ' 






t tt 




3,111 22 




$41,272 52 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury. 

1897. — October, $5,055 74 

November, 3,823 30 

December, 6,295 68 

1898. — January, 2,968 88 

February, 3,431 33 

March 2,932 16 

April, 3,262 44 

May, 2,541 42 

June, 2,249 01 

July, 2,560 07 

August, 3,041 27 

September, 3,111 22 

$41,272 52 

Amount drawn from the State Treasury. 

Appropriation for boarding out Younger Girls (Acts of 1897, Chapter 78). 

1897. — October, $67 61 

November 112 99 

December, 278 02 

$458 62 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 103 



Appropriation for boarding out Younger Girls (Acts of 1898, Chapter 139). 

1898. — January, $7 88 

February, 85 96 

March, 72 27 

April, 147 70 

May 104 9% 

June, 27 54 

July, 363 66 

August, 87 14 

September, 70 80 

$967 86 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1897, Chapter 65) for the erection of a 

Family Cottage. 

1897. — October, $2,684 18 

November, 1,469 45 

December, 1,818 12 

$5,971 75 



Special Appropriation (Acts of 1897, Chapter 65) for furnishing New 

Family Cottage. 

1897. — December, $1,175 40 

1898. — January, 1,048 36 

$2,223 76 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1897, Chapter 65) for Concrete Walks, 
Grading, Drainage and Water Pipes. 

1897. — November, $302 82 



Special Appropriation (Acts of 1896, Chapter 73) for the Purchase of 
Hose and Other Connections and Additions to the Water Works. 

1898. — February, $39 90 



Expenditures. 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at State Treasury for Appropriation for 
boarding out Younger Girls (Acts of 1897, Chapter 78). 

1897. — October, $67 61 

November, 112 99 

December, 278 02 

$458 62 



104 FINANCIAL STATEM'T INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct, 



Appropriation for boarding out Younger Girls (Acts of 1898, Chapter 

139). 

1898. —January, $7 88 

February, 85 96 

March, 72 27 

April, 147 70 

May, 104 91 

June, 27 54 

July, . 363 66 

August, 87 14 

September, 70 80 

$967 86 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1897, Chapter 65) for the erection of a Family Cottage. 

1897. — October, $2,684 18 

November, 1,469 45 

December, 1,818 12 

$5,971 75 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1897, Chapter 65) for furnishing New 

Family Cottage. 

1897. — December, $1,175 40 

1898. — January, 1,048 36 

$2,223 76 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1897, Chapter 65) for Concrete Walks, 
Grading, Drainage and Water Pipes). 

1897. — November, $302 82 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1896, Chapter 73) for the Purchase of 
Hose and Other Connections and Additions to the Water Works. 

1898. — February . $39 90 



1898.] 



] 


PUBL] 

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13 60 

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203 90 

265 50 


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105 



106 



SUMMARY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



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1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



107 



INVBNTOEY OF PKOPERTY. 



State Industrial School for Girls, Lancaster, 

Real Estate. 

Chapel, 

Hospital, 

Fisher Hall, 

Richardson Hall, 

Rogers Hall, . 

Fay Cottage, 

Mary Lamb Cottage, 

Elm Cottage, 

Superintendent's house, 

Store-room, 

Farm-house and barn, 

Large barn, . 

Silo, 

Holden shop, . . . . . 

Ice house, 

Wood house, 

Hen house, 

Piggery 

Reservoir house, No. 1, . . . 

Reservoir house, land, etc., No. 2, . . . 

Carriage shed, 

Water works, land, etc., . . . 

Hose house, hose, etc., 

Farm, 176 acres, 

Broderick lot, 12 acres, . 

Wood lot, 10 acres, 

Storm windows, 

Total valuation of real estate, . 

Personal Property. 
Produce of farm on hand, . 
Tools and carriages, . 
Valuation of live stock, . 
House furnishings and supplies, 
Miscellaneous, .... 

Total valuation of personal estate, 



Mass., Oct. i, 1898. 

$6,500 00 

1,500 00 

16,000 00 

15,000 00 

11,750 00 

12,000 00 

12,500 00 

4,900 00 

3,800 00 

300 00 

2,000 00 

7,275 00 

400 00 

200 00 

1,000 00 

600 00 

200 00 

1,100 00 

100 00 

300 00 

150 00 

7,500 00 

2,000 00 

9,800 00 

1,000 00 

200 00 

40 00 

$118,115 00 



$5,733 07 

2,271 00 

3,006 50 

16,019 08 

647 85 



$27,677(50 



"Worcester, ss., Oct. 10, 1898. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me, 



A. J. BANCROFT, 
H. F. HOSMER, 

Appraisers. 
Geo. W. Howe, 

Justice of the Peace. 



108 INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Personal Property. 
Produce on Hand Oct. I, 1898. 

Apples, 250 barrels, $500 00 

Apples, cider, 509 bushels, . . . . . 42 42 

Beets, table, 103 bushels, 51 50 

Beans, white, 62 bushels, 93 00 

Beans, horticultural, 2 bushels, .... 4 00 

Canned goods, 1,672 quarts, . . . . . 167 20 

Cabbage heads, 740, 37 00 

Celery, 500 heads, 25 00 

Corn, ears, 590 bushels, 236 00 

Corn, pop, 29 bushels, 22 75 

Corn fodder, sweet, 25 00 

Ensilage, 100 tons, . 700 00 

English hay, 138 tons, 2,070 00 

Gluten, 400 pounds, 3 60 

Hungarian, 1& tons, 18 00 

Hungarian, green, 5 tons, 25 00 

Mangolds, 20 tons, . . . . . ■ . . 200 00 

Meal, 750 pounds, 6 00 

Middlings, 300 pounds, 2 40 

Manure, 71 cords, 426 00 

Onions, 20 bushels, 20 00 

Oats, 5 bushels, . . 1 80 

Provender, 500 pounds, 4 00 

Pumpkins, % tons, . . . . . . . 142 50 

Potatoes, 660 bushels, 330 00 

Pears, 6 bushels, . 9 00 

Pickles, 1,140 quarts, 102 60 

Rowen, 19 tons, 190 00 

Ruta-bagas, 135 bushels, 54 00 

Squash, 4,710 pounds, 47 10 

Shorts, 800 pounds, . ... . . . 7 20 

Vinegar, 1,160 gallons, 145 00 

Watermelons, 411, 25 00 

$5,733 07 

Live Slock. 

Horses, 7, . . . $750 00 

Cows, 27 1,485 00 

Bull, 1, 50 00 

Calves, 4, 75 00 

Hogs, fat, 11 (3,300 pounds), 231 00 

Breeding sows, 7, 126 00 

Boar, 1, 25 00 

Shoats, 21, 147 00 

Pigs, 33, ...... . 82 50 

Fowls, 70, 35 00 

3,006 50 

Tools and carriages, 2,271 00 

Amount carried forward, $11,010 57 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



109 



Amount brought forward, 

Ice tools, . 

Flour barrels, 103, 

Bags and sacks, 

Drain pipe, 

Water pipe (iron) , 

Hay caps, . 

Hay scales, 

Kettle set, . 

Extinguishers, fire, 

Escapes, fire, 

Lamps, street, . 

Lawn, mowers, . 

Vinegar casks, 40, 

Stoves, 

Oil tank, . 

2 hay forks and rope, 

Kerosene oil, 75 gallons, 
Total miscellaneous, 

Fisher Hall furnishings, 

Property in Richardson Hall, 
Fay Cottage, . 
Rodgers Hall, 
Mary Lamb Cottage, 
Elm Cottage, 

Superintendent's house, 

Chapel and library, . 

Provisions and groceries, 

Dry goods, 

Crockery and hardware, 

Books and stationery, 

Medicine, . 

Paint, oil and turpentine, 

Coal, .... 

Wood, 64^ 5 ¥ cords cut, 



$11,010 57 



$22 50 

25 75 

6 25 

11 65 
5 45 

50 00 
45 00 
24 00 
275 00 
16 00 
15 00 
18 00 
20 00 
30 00 
18 00 
60 00 
5 25 

$2,250 00 

2,245 00 

1,311 96 

1,271 30 

1,595 97 

1,066 60 

995 00 

650 00 

760 34 

927 00 

303 00 

172 00 

12 00 
53 60 

2,148 06 
257 25 



647 85 



16,019 08 



Summary of Farm Account. 



To live stock, as per in- 
ventory 1897, 

tools and carriages, as 
per inventory 1897, 

produce on hand Oct 
1, 1897, . 

blacksmithing 

dressing, . 

farm tools, 

grain, 

hay caps, . 



Dr. 



$3,051 00 


2,183 00 


2,946 00 


254 93 


152 63 


213 40 


1,455 86 


35 00 



To live stock, . 
labor, . 
plants, 
phosphate, 
plum trees, 
repairing farm tools, 
seeds, . 

veterinary services, 
Balance, . 



$27,677 50 

$782 50 

2,470 82 

24 62 

35 20 

10 00 

20 83 

130 56 

28 50 

2,824 52 

$16,619 37 



110 INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct, 



Summary of Farm Account — Concluded. 



Or. 



By apples, 
asparagus, . 
beans, string, 
beans, shell, 
blackberries, 
beet greens, 
bedding, 
crab apples, 
cucumbers, 
corn, sweet, 
cabbages, . 
chicken, 
eg£S, . 

fodder, green, 
lettuce, 
milk, . 
onions, 
peas, . 
plums, 



Apples, . 
Asparagus, 
String beans, 
Shell beans, 
Blackberries, 
Beet greens, 
Crab apples, 
Cucumbers, 
Sweet corn, 
Cabbages, 
Chicken, . 
Eggs, 
Green fodder, 



$37 50 


19 42 


47 00 


28 50 


3 70 


6 00 


168 00 


6 00 


60 00 


99 00 


50 00 


22 08 


79 78 


154 00 


12 00 


2,543 39 


21 60 


22 00 


12 00 



By pork, . . . . $564 63 

rhubarb, ... 12 00 

squash, summer, . 15 00 

strawberries, . . 40 30 

tomatoes, . . . 71 75 
keeping horse for 

school, . . . 150 00 

income of farm, . . 1,185 65 
produce on hand as per 

inventory 1898, . 5,733 07 
live stock, as per in- 
ventory 1898, . . 3,006 50 
tools and carriages, as 

per inventory 1898, 2,271 00 
miscellaneous, as per 

inventory 1898, . 177 50 



$37 50 


19 42 


47 00 


28 50 


3 70 


6 00 


6 00 


60 00 


99 00 


50 00 


22 08 


79 78 


154 00 





$16,619 37 


Balance for farm, 


. f 2,824 52 


ONSUMED. 

Lettuce, . 


$12 00 


Milk, 


2,543 39 


Onions, . 


21 60 


Peas, 


22 00 


Plums, 


12 00 


Pork, 


564 63 


Rhubarb, . 


12 00 


Summer squash, 


15 00 


Strawberries, . 


. 40 30 


Tomatoes, 


71 75 



$3,927 65 



Produce sold and Receipts sent to State Treasurer. 

Cattle and calves, $227 13 

Pigs and shoats, 200 00 

Hay, 758 52 

$1,185 65 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



ill 



Pay-roll of the Persons employed at the State Industrial School for 
Girls during the Year ending Sept. 30, 1898. 



NAMES. 


Occupation. 


Time. 


Amount 
Paid 


L. L. Brackett, 


Superintendent, 


12 months, 


$1,200 00 


N. C. Brackett, 


Steward, 


12 months, 


650 04 


L. D. Mayhew, 


Matron, 


8 months 9 days, 


250 88 


L. E. Hazelton, 


" 


2 months, 


58 32 


C. L. Everingham, . 


" ..... 


11 months, 


334 95 


A. M.T. Eno, . 


«« 


11 mouths 12 days, 


347 71 


M. E. King, 


" ..... 


9 months 12 days, 


285 21 


M. Middlemiss, 


" 


2 months 8 d;»> s, 


65 56 


E.B. Eames, . 


«• 


8 months 7 days, 


253 21 


H. A. Frazer, . 


«.« .»'..'. 


7 months, 


204 12 


J. C Trask, . 


" ..... 


5 months, 


156 25 


F. E. Rastall, . 


Substitute matron, . 


1 month 6 days, 


34 45 


B. E. Kneeland, 


<< i< 


1 mouth, 


29 16 


M. Middlemiss, 


Supervisor of schools and gen- 








eral assistant, 


2 months, 


58 32 


L. H. Small, . 


Supervisor of schools and gen- 








eral assistant, 


2 months 25 days, 


72 76 


A. R. Westman, 


Supervisor of schools and gen- 








eral assistant, 


5 months 19 days, 


164 00 


L. E. Holder, . 


Vacancy officer, 


11 months 14 days, 


348 98 


E. B. Thompson, . 


Clerk 


11 months 25 days, 


361 07 


A. L. Brackett, 


Substitute clerk, 


10 days, 


10 27 


A. Hawley, 


Teacher 


11 months 15 days, 


302 91 


J. C Trask, . 


'* ..... 


6 months 7 days, 


160 39 


G. L. Smith, . 


<< 


10 months 12 days, 


273 46 


E. A. Bartlett,„ 


<< 


11 months 2 days, 


278 35 


H.Allan, .... 


" ..... 


11 months 17 days, 


288 96 


A. R. Westman, 


" ..... 


2 months, 


50 45 


M. K. Weyland, 


" 


6 months 22 days, 


168 06 


E. Warren, 


«« 


1 month 6 days, 


29 93 


F. E. Rastall, . 


Substitute teacher, . 


4 months 25 days, 


120 53 


B. E. Kneeland, 


" "... 


1 month 11 days, 


34 03 


A. L. Brackett, 


Teacher of gymnastics, . 


6 months 17 days, 


218 26 


MTorry 


Housekeeper, .... 


12 months, 


316 64 


M. Voter, .... 


" .... 


9 months 23 days, 


251 06 


L. R. Bean, 


" .... 


11 months 6 days, 


294 53 


M.Trapp, 


(< 


11 months 7 d^ys, 


295 42 


I. N. Bailey, . 


•« .... 


11 months 14 days, 


302 02 


K. E. Wight, . 


** .... 


9 months '22 days, 


259 13 


B. A. Wilson, . 


" • 


10 months 13 days, 


275 07 


L.E.Allbee, . 


Substitute housekeeper, . 


3 months 18 days, 


89 78 


B. Q- Foss, 


<( ii 


3 months 29 days, 


98 81 


M. V. O'Callaghan, . 


Physician, .... 


9 months, 


150 03 


C. P. Fitzgerald, . 


<( 


3 months, 


50 01 


M. Middlemiss, 


Nurse, 


6 days, 


12 00 


E. P. Woodbury, . 


Foreman of farm, . 


11 months 22 days, 


544 20 


E.V.Morse, . 


Laborer, 


6 months, 


160 40 


A. Voter, .... 


«« 


10 days, 


8 21 


G-. K. Wight, . 


<< 


11 months, 


361 61 


A. T. Saunders, 


<i 


5 months 3 days, 


116 50 


F. E. Blanchard, . 


"... 


1 month, 


38 00 


W. A. Smith, . 


c< 


11 months, 


418 00 


E. 0. Maxwell, 


(< 


11 months, 


418 00 


D.H.Bailey, . 


" 


11 months 15 days, 


367 75 


M. Dolphin, 


" ..... 


12 months, 


456 00 


A. L. Smart, 


" ..... 


6 months 17 days, 


248 74 


W. W. Wilson, 


" ..... 


5 months 26 days, 


222 92 


0. V. Edwards, 


Carpenter 


1 month 21 days, 


117 50 




$12,682 92 



112 



OFFICERS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Persons employed at the State Industrial School Sept, 30, 1898. 



NAMES. 


Occupation. 


Yearly Salary. 


L. L. Brackett, 


Superintendent, .... 


$1,200 00 


N. C. Brackett, 




Steward, 




650 00 


L. D. May hew, 




Matron, 




375 00 


C. L. Everingham, 








375 00 


A. M. T. Eno, . 




" . 




375 00 


E. B Eames, . 




" 




375 00 


J. C. Trask, . 








375 00 


H. A. Frazer, . 




" 




350 00 


L. E. Holder, . 




Vacancy officer, . 




375 00 


A. R. Westman, 




Gen'l ass't and supeiw'r 


of schools, 


350 00 


E. B. Thompson, 




Clerk, . 




375 00 


A. Hawley, 




Teacher, 




325 00 


G. L. Smith, . 




" 




325 00 


E. A. Bartlett, . 








300 00 


H. Allan, . 




" 




300 00 


M. R. Weyland, 








300 00 


E. Warren, 








300 00 


A. L. Brackett, 




Teacher of gymnastics 


i • • 


200 00* 


M. Torry, 




Housekeeper, 




325 00 


K. E. Wight, . 




" 




325 00 


I. N. Bailey, . 




" 




325 00 


L. R. Bean, 




" 




325 00 


M. W. Voter, . 




« 




325 00 


M. Trapp, 




" 




325 00 


B. A. Wilson, . 




(C 




325 00 


C. P. Fitzgerald, 




Physician, 




200 00 


E. P. Woodbury, 




Foreman of farm, 




t 565 00 


G. K. Wight, . 




Laborer, 




360 00 


E. V. Morse, . 




» 




325 00 


D. H. Bailey, . 




" 




384 00 










$11,334 00 



* Per six months. 



1898.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 113 



EBPOET OF THE SUPEEVISOR OF THE 
SCHOOLS. 



To the Superintendent of the State Industrial School. 

During the past year a few changes have been introduced in the 
school regime. Hitherto ihe school year has been continuous except 
for a short holiday at Christmas ; now the scholastic year is divided 
into four terms, with a few days' rest at the close of each. 

The programme of each term varies slightly, so as to promote 
interest in the year's routine ; the summer term, from June to Sep- 
tember, is especially different, being devoted principally to " nature 
study,"- — to the study of birds, insects, etc., botany, poems relating 
to nature such as " Hiawatha," and language lessons in connection 
with the subject. 

The girls are very much interested in drawing, in connection with 
the " nature work" with pencil and crayon, but principally with the 
brush and ink. A book of specimens is kept in each school, to which 
each girl has the chance to contribute when her work reaches a cer- 
tain standard of merit. 

In addition to the regular school studies, the girls also receive 
regular lessons in Swedish gymnastics. Vocal music is taught daily 
in each school. 

In the way of profitable recreations, the girls have given some very 
interesting debates at the close of a school term and in connection 
with other entertainments. 

Very respectfully, 

ANNIE R. WESTMAN, 

Supervisor of the Schools, 



114 PHYSICIAN'S REFT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. '98. 



PHYSICIAN'S EBPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

The past year has been remarkably free from epidemics at our 
school. Two girls were transferred to the State Almshouse hospital 
for pregnancy, one for phthisis, two for specific disease and one to 
have an operation performed for a cystic tumor of the breast. A few 
cases of pharyngitis and tonsillitis occurred during the past winter. 
One girl was treated for olitis at the Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston. 

The gymnastic exercises during the winter months seem to yield 
excellent results. The girls respond to the splendid hygienic con- 
ditions in a very short time after entering the school, and at present 
all are in good physical condition. 

Respectfully submitted, 



Worcester, Oct. 13, 1898. 



CLARA P. FITZGERALD, 

Physician. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 18 



FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 

OF THE 

Lyman and Industrial 
Schools 



(Formerly known as Trustees of the State Primary and 
Reform Schools), 



Year ending September 30, 1899. 



BOSTON : 

WRrGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1900. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Trustees' Report on Lyman School, 5 

Trustees' Report on State Industrial School, 15 

Report of Treasurer of Trust Funds, 21 

Report of Superintendent of Lyman School, 29 

Statistics of Lyman School, 32 

Report of Principal of Schools of Lyman School, . . 43 

Report of the Singing Master, 46 

Report of Instructors of Sloyd, Lyman School, 47 

Report of Instructor of Advanced Manual Training, 49 

Report of Instructor in Drawing and Wood Carving, 51 

Report of Instructor of Gymnastics, Lyman School, ...... 53 

Report of Physician, Lyman School, 57 

Report of Manager of Berlin Farmhouse, 59 

Financial Statement, Lyman School, 61 

Report of the Farmer, Lyman School, 74 

Report of the Poultry Department, . 75 

Report of Berlin Farmer, 76 

Farm Account, Lyman School, 77 

Valuation of Property, Lyman School, 80 

Schedule of Salaried Officers, Lyman School, 82 

List of Superintendents, Lyman School, 87 

List of Trustees, Lyman School, 88 

Report of Superintendent of Visitation of Lyman School Probationers, ... 90 

Report of Superintendent of State Industrial School 99 

Statistics of State Industrial School, 102 

i Financial Statement of State Industrial School, 109 

S Supervisor of Schools of State Industrial School, 121 

Report of Physician of State Industrial School, ....... 123 



€0mm0tt£o,ea;Itjj of ]$$iu&m]}n%rttB. 



EEPOET OF TRUSTEES 



Lyman and Industeial Schools. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council, 

The undersigned, trustees of the Lyman and Industrial 
Schools, respectfully present the appended report for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1899, for the two reform schools under their 
control. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. H. WALKER, Westborough, Chairman. 
ELIZABETH G. EVANS, Boston, Secretary. 
H. C. GREELEY, Clinton, Treasurer. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston. 
M. J. SULLIVAN, Chicopee. 
SAMUEL W. McDANIEL, Cambridge. 
EDMUND C. SANFORD, Worcester. 



TRUSTEES' REPORT 

ON 

THE LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS, 

At WESTBOROUGH. 



The problem before those in charge of the Lyman School is 
to take the 120 to 180 boys annually committed to the institu- 
tion, and, after a period of training and control, return them 
again to the community so much improved in character and con- 
duct that they may be safely trusted without unusual restraints. 
The boys come under sentence of the courts for offences of all 
sorts short of those punishable by death or imprisonment for 
life, must be under fifteen years of age when committed, and 
may be retained under supervision until twenty-one. 

The means of reformation at the disposal of the trustees are 
the school at Westborough, with its diversified system of man- 
ual and other training ; the branch school on a farm in Berlin 
for the younger and more susceptible boys ; and the system of 
release on probation by which boys, after a period of observa- 
tion and control at the schools, are gradually restored under 
expert supervision to normal conditions in the community. 

The Berlin branch of the school is situated some seven or 
eight miles from the main school, with which, however, it is 
in telephonic communication. The farm of one hundred acres 
was originally purchased by the State at a cost of $5,500, and 
$3,000 more were expended in refitting and furnishing the 
substantial farm-house for school uses. The officers consist of 
a matron, an assistant matron, and a competent farmer, who, 
with the assistance of the boys, carries on the varied work of 
the farm. 

All boys committed to the care of the trustees are delivered 
at the the main school in Westborough, where they are enrolled, 
and record made of such items as to their physical condition and 



6 TRUSTEES* REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

history as seem desirable. If less than thirteen years old, they 
are, however, at once transferred to the Berlin branch, without 
coming in contact with the older boys of the main school. The 
feeling of the trustees has been that what these younger boys 
need, besides removal from the unhealthy moral surroundings 
in which they had gone wrong, is the control of a firm but 
motherly woman, rather than the rigid discipline necessary in 
the larger institution ; that the boys should learn to obey, to 
tell the truth, to let alone what does not belong to them, with- 
out repression of youthful spirits. The boys of this school 
spend 17^ hours a week in the school-room, studying the ordi- 
nary school branches ; the remainder of the day in farm work 
or in recreation. The number of boys at this school during the 
year has averaged 20, the number received within the year 
has been 41, and the total number dealt with in the four years 
since this branch of the school was started is 161. 

The stay of these little boys at Berlin is often only a few 
months, and rarely as long as a year. When they have become 
reasonably tamed and cleaned, they are usually placed out at 
board, though a few are returned to their parents, while a 
very few prove themselves so refractory as to necessitate trans- 
fer to the main school at Westborough. Whether placed at 
board or with their own people, they are released on probation, 
and are looked after by the regular visitors of the school in co- 
operation with members of the Board of Trustees. 

The price paid for these little boarders is generally $1.50 per 
week, though in some cases, where the boy requires more than 
ordinary care or is physically disabled, a slightly larger sum is 
necessary. 

Boys thus boarded out are not kept in this way indefinitely, 
but are usually allowed to return to their parents on trial, if 
the home conditions are reasonably good, when they are old 
enough to go to work. If the home conditions are not such as 
to justify a trial, a free home is found as soon as the boy 
becomes able to earn his board, and he then becomes self- 
supporting. The trustees feel that the success of this method 
of treating the younger boys has been abundantly justified by 
results, but as no boys of this class have yet reached their 
majority, no final statistics as to its success or failure can yet 
be presented. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

In the main school at Westborough the boys are older, the 
numbers larger and the discipline necessarily more strict. 
The school is organized on the cottage plan, the 280 or more 
boys in the institution being divided into eight groups, each 
under the control of a master and matron, together with a school 
teacher and assistant matron, and each to a large extent sepa- 
rate in its life from all the rest. The cottages stand on high 
land, with a wide outlook, and are surrounded by sufficient 
ground to give the boys a considerable amount of farm work 
on the place. They remain in this school a year and a half to 
two years on the average, and receive a carefully systematized 
training. The institution is distinctively a school, and not a 
prison ; and, aside from such reformatory agents as regular 
living, work in the open air and prompt obedience to orders, 
major importance is attached to the various forms of school 
work for the training of the head and hand. 

Modern studies both in and out of reformatories have shown 
emphatically that good physical condition is one of the most 
important preliminaries and aids to moral improvement. To 
secure this, all the boys receive gymnastic training of a simple 
and effective kind (according to the Swedish system of Ling), 
and show satisfactory improvement as the result of it. Between 
this and the distinctively mental training of the school-room 
stands the manual training, which is used in the form of Sloyd, 
drawing, modelling and carving, wood-turning and blacksmith- 
ing. Two teachers of Sloyd are now employed, and all or 
nearly all of the boys in the institution receive the benefit of it. 
It would be hard to imagine a form of teaching better suited to 
schools of this kind. It gives not only manual skill and mental 
training of a high order, but has the supreme advantage of 
utilizing the native constructive tendencies of the boy, and 
working with rather than across the grain of his interests. In 
the school it serves further to point out those who have suffi- 
cient ability to profit by the wood and iron work of the ad- 
vanced manual training course. The drawing, like the Sloyd, 
is given to all the boys of the school, the modelling and carving 
to such only as show special aptitude for it. In all this manual 
training the point aimed at is much more the all-round training 
of the boy than the fitting him to take up any special trade 
after leaving the school. The question is frequently asked 



8 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

whether it would not be desirable to train boys for special 
trades, seeing how much depends on their being able to earn 
an honest living after leaving the school ; but the answer of 
experience is, that the difficulty of placing a boy in any par- 
ticular trade is so great, and the likelihood that he can follow 
it continuously during the years of his probation is so small, 
that a general training, calculated to make him efficient in any 
hand employment that he may undertake, is very much more 
to his advantage. The short time during which boys are kept 
within the institution is also a serious obstacle to full trade 
teaching ; also the young age at which most of them leave the 
school would prevent many of them from gaining admission to 
the trade unions. The value of such instruction in special 
directions as may be possible without detriment to the general 
training is, however, self-evident ; and in the printing office, in 
the cabinet shop and in the repair and construction of buildings 
not a little has been learned in the way of the special trades rep- 
resented. This list it is expected to extend on the completion 
of the arrangements for centralizing the cooking and laundry 
work and of the workshop now in process of construction. 

The regular class-room work is now carried on in the school- 
rooms of the separate cottages at considerable inconvenience. 
To secure the advantage of grading, it is now necessary that 
some of the boys of each cottage should go, often in small 
groups, to some other cottage in order to be with those of 
equal advancement, an arrangement that is anything but satis- 
factory. This, however, we are happy to report will not be 
necessary many months longer. The new central school build- 
ing, voted by the Legislature two years ago, is now nearing 
completion, and, with the transfer to it of all the now scattered 
school grades, the work in this direction will be materially 
facilitated. That this great brick building, four stories high, 
and covering an area of 8,500 square feet, has been built partly 
as to its brickwork and wholly as to its woodwork by the 
boys, directed and assisted by their masters, speaks for itself 
as to the efficiency developed in the boys by the manual train- 
ing methods of the school. 

The work done by the teachers in these school grades would, 
we believe, compare favorably with that in the best public 
schools of the Commonwealth, though the boys as a whole are 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

backward in their studies and in some cases distinctly deficient 
mentally. One element of reform by education is the furnish- 
ing of new interests to the boys. Few among the better classes 
of society realize how much more difficult their correctness of 
moral deportment would become were their range of interests 
narrowed to that of the average day laborer. This widening 
of interests is just now rinding an example in the study of bird 
and animal life as actually to be seen about the school grounds, 
and the corresponding attention to topics of current news in 
the advanced classes. Of the same general purpose, and serv- 
ing also to relieve the deadly monotony of institution life, is 
the course of illustrated evening lectures upon geographical 
and other topics, given from time to time by the Superintendent 
or by volunteer or paid speakers from without. Such also are 
the creditable Lyman School band, trained under the direction 
of one of the masters, the singing class, carried on by another, 
and the debating and literary society. 

Moral instruction, as experience abundantly testifies, can 
best be given indirectly, and is most effective when received 
unconsciously. The major part of the moral training of the 
Lyman School is thus given and received, but the more overt 
methods are also not neglected. 

It remains to speak of the way in which boys are graduated 
from and dealt with outside the institution. Each boy on enter- 
ing is debited with 5,000 marks, which he is required to work 
off according to a fixed system by good conduct. This he is 
able to do with care in a little under a year, though compara- 
tively few make so good a record. As he approaches the com- 
pletion of this task, the character of his home is investigated 
by one of the regular visitors of the school and also by a 
visitor of the State Board of Charity (this latter report at 
present being required by statute) ; and his name with these 
reports is brought before the trustees for action. If the home 
conditions are good, or even fairly good, the boy is released 
on probation to his parents, still remaining under the super- 
vision of the visitors until twenty-one, and liable to recall to 
the school, or to transfer, should he misbehave seriously, to the 
Massachusetts Reformatory at Concord. Over 50 per cent, of 
the boys released on probation are thus placed with their 
parents. When the home of the boy is found unsuitable, 



10 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

another home is found for him, generally in the family of a 
small farmer, the same preliminary investigation and subse- 
quent oversight being provided. In such homes the boys work 
for their board and clothes till eighteen, from which time they 
are free to seek their own employment, on condition of main- 
taining a good record and keeping the school informed of their 
whereabouts. At this time, also, the employer pays to the 
institution $50 on their account, which is placed to the boy's 
credit in the savings bank. There was collected by the visitors 
this year $1,057 on behalf of 43 boys. 

This portion of the work is of the very greatest importance, 
covering, as it does, the period when the restraints of the school 
are removed, and the lad is taking his place once more in the 
labor and among the temptations of ordinary life. Rare in- 
sight, judgment and tact are necessary in fitting the boy into 
this oew home, and in settling the small cases of friction that 
arise from time to time. At present three excellently qualified 
paid visitors are engaged in the work, and special visits are also 
made by the trustees. The report of the Superintendent of 
Visitation, on page 90, gives fuller details as to this branch of 
the work. 

By such methods as these, the managers of the school attempt 
to reform and restore to the community the boys committed to 
their charge. So far as they are able to measure success in 
figures, they succeeded this year in the cases of 61 per cent, 
of those who, on the attainment of their majority, passed out 
of the care of the school.* This percentage is given because 
it is the reply to a question often asked. But, since figures 
are often misleading, not only because of the lack of any 
definite criterion of reformation (boys now doing well may 
fall, and boys now classed as unpromising may, and frequently 
do, take a new start and become and remain satisfactory), 
but also because of the difference in the way in which matters 
are figured in different institutions, attention is called to the 
tables on pages 33 and 34, giving various classifications as to 
the conduct and condition of probationers. 

Worthy of special mention during the past year has been the 
construction of the new manual training and laundry building, 

* Of the total number outside the school, 74 per cent, were doing well on September 
30, but this figure is considered misleading, as it includes boys who may have been on 
trial perhaps only a few days. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

voted by the last Legislature, now so far advanced as probably 
to be ready for use next spring ; and the advancement of the 
inside work upon the new central school-house, which it is 
hoped will be ready for occupancy about the same time. The 
great advantage which the latter will be to the school work has 
already been noticed, and the new shop and laundry are hardly 
less of a gain to the departments that will occupy them. The 
advanced manual training, at present carried on in a building 
already past the point where repairs are economical, will be con- 
veniently and comfortably housed, with room for other branches 
not now regularly included in the courses ; and the laundry- 
work, at present carried on in eight separate laundries, and 
employing more than a score of boys in work neither instruc- 
tive nor likely to be of use to them outside the institution, will 
be largely done by machinery, under the charge of a much 
smaller number of workers and at reduced expense. Other 
changes made possible by the new laundry building will allow 
the doing of a large part of the cooking in a central kitchen 
with similar advantage. 

In referring to these new buildings the trustees cannot refrain 
from mentioning the painstaking and efficient supervision exer- 
cised throughout their construction by Superintendent Chapin. 
Especially in the case of the new school-house his efforts have 
secured to the State a much better building than could other- 
wise have been constructed for the money, though, they regret 
to say, at the cost of dangerous overwork to himself. 

The central laundry and kitchen are apparent departures from 
the so-called " cottage plan," but are not so in reality, no more 
so than the cobbling of all shoes at one shop or the issuing of 
all stores from a single storeroom. The essence of the cottage 
system is the dividing of the boys into small groups, in which 
close personal contact of master and pupil is possible ; it is, in 
a word, the "individualization" of the boy, and whether the 
cooking and washing are done in the house or outside of it is of 
no consequence whatever.* The very strongest emphasis is laid 
by both science and experience on the treatment of each boy as 
a case by himself. Every observant parent knows that no two 
children can be treated alike even in the home circle, and much 

* Such is not the case in a girls' reform school. There training in housework is an 
important branch of education. See report of State Industrial School for Girls, page 15. 



12 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

less can boys of wholly different parentage and experience. 
This essence of the cottage system the trustees believe in as 
heartily as ever, and would oppose with all their power any- 
thing tending toward a return to a lump treatment of the boys 
under their care. No master should have more boys than he 
can study and know individually and intimately. Moral train- 
ing is too delicate and difficult an operation to be successful if 
carried on by wholesale, or in the dark. 

The school is to be congratulated upon having secured during 
the past year the co-operation of several distinguished physi- 
cians as a permanent Board of Consultation, to act with the reg- 
ular physician of the school in advising the trustees upon the 
frequently arising questions of hygiene and medical practice. 
The Advisory Physicians at present are Dr. Orville F. Rogers, 
Dr. Richard C. Cabot and Dr. James S. Stone. 

Matters now earnestly engaging the attention of the trustees, 
upon which action will soon have to be taken, are several of 
them matters of hygiene. The drainage system of the school, 
owing to the difficulty of its management without expert super- 
vision and also to the character of the soil, is in a decidedly un- 
satisfactory condition, and, while not at the moment a direct 
menace to health, may at any time become so. The trustees 
have taken advice on the matter from the officers of the State 
Board of Health, and expect soon to have a definite plan of 
improvement to recommend. The crowded condition of the 
sleeping-halls in some of the cottages makes proper ventilation 
an absolute impossibility, and has been condemned by the ad- 
visory physicians of the institution. Plans are under con- 
sideration for such betterment of these halls as is possible, 
but no real remedy for the worst of them seems possible except 
by decreasing the number of boys sleeping in them. 

An appropriation for two new cottages was asked last year, 
as well as the new shop above mentioned, but the cottages 
were refused. The need, however, continues, and is empha- 
sized as time passes. Crowded dormatories are a danger to 
health such as the wards of the State ought not to be sub- 
jected to, but the crowded state of the cottages in other 
respects is a much more serious hindrance to the real work of 
the school, the opportunities of moral contagion being thereby 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 13 

multiplied and the discipline of the families made more dif- 
ficult. It is not easy to make the evil of overcrowding clear 
to those inexperienced in the work of such schools ; but in the 
opinion of the trustees it is one of the gravest from which the 
institution suffers, and one of the easiest to be removed, requir- 
ing, as it does, a simple increase in material facilities. Accord- 
ingly, the request for the new cottages will be renewed. 

A further appropriation will also be needed to complete the 
changes made necessary by the consolidation of the laundry and 
kitchen work. 

The Lyman School opened the year with 296 inmates (in- 
cluding Westborough and Berlin) and closed with 289. The 
whole number of individuals within the year aggregated 515, 
while the average number was 295. The number committed 
was 168, returned from their homes or other places 8, and 23 
were returned as runaways. The number placed out on proba- 
tion was 227, of whom 100 went to their own people, 79 to be 
self-supporting in places, and 48 were boarded. There were 9 
transferred to the Massachusetts Keformatory, 10 were trans- 
ferred to other institutions or discharged, and 2 enlisted.* 

The total number of boys whose names were upon the books 
September 30 as under twenty-one years of age is 1,087. Of 
these, 289 were in the school, 589 were in their own homes or 
with others and subject to visitation, while 209 were beyond 
practical control, having enlisted in the United States army or 
navy, or being out of the State, subject to other institutions, 
whereabouts unknown, discharged or dead. 

The appropriations for running the school the past year were : 
for salaries, $28,000 ; for current expenses, $38,265, — a total 
of $66,265 for running the institution; to be expended in 
behalf of probationers, for visitation, $7,000, for boarding, 
$4,500, for tuition fees to towns, $350. The expenditure 
in behalf of the institution from Oct. 1, 1898, to Sept. 30, 
1899, was $67,838.80. The expenditure in behalf of proba- 
tioners was $11,793.56; u e., for visitation, $7,139.44; for 
board, $4,247.62 ; and $406.50 for schooling. The per capita 

* There were also 33 runaways from the school, of whom 23 had been returned on 
September 30. 



14 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

cost of the institution was $4.39, and $510.67 was turned 
into the State treasury, making a net per capita of $4.36. 
Page 72 gives an itemized per capita table of the daily expenses 
of the institution. The per capita cost of visitation was about 
21 cents a week. The whole sum spent in behalf of the boys 
connected with the school, either as inmates, probationers or 
boarders, was $79,632.36, or a per capita cost approximately 
of $1.63 a week. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 15 



TRUSTEES' REPORT 

OF THE 

STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, 

At LANCASTER. 



The girls of the State Industrial School may be divided into 
two classes : first, those one sees at the various family houses 
or about the grounds when one visits the institution ; and, 
second, the far larger number who are scattered throughout the 
State, having passed through the training of the school to the 
more critical period of probation. These probationers are 
really the most important division of the school's work, being 
that by which its value as a reformatory institution must stand 
or fail. With this thought in mind, its methods are arranged 
throughout with a view to developing in the girls an all-round 
ability to discharge the duties which are likely to devolve 
upon them in after life, whether as wage earners or as wives 
and mothers. 

In many ways the methods of the State Industrial School for 
Girls are an interesting contrast to those of the Lyman School 
for Boys at Westborough, — this not because of accidental 
causes, but because the problems presented in the two insti- 
tutions are entirely different. While both schools are on the 
family plan, the girls are classified in the various households on 
the basis of their previous experiences in evil, and members of 
one family are separated from those of another in work, school 
and play. This is believed to be an important precaution where 
some of the inmates have been guilty of the most serious 
breaches of good morals, while others have been only in danger 
from bad influences or associations. 

Most of the girls come to the school from wretched homes, 
and are ignorant of everything useful. From the character of 
the faults into which they have fallen, and from the too frequent 



16 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

lack of parental control (which may have been in a large part 
responsible for the child's undoing), it is unsafe in the great 
majority of cases to return the girls to their old surroundings 
when they leave the school on probation ; hence they must be 
fitted to go out, for a while at least, as helpers in plain country 
households, where there is steady demand for their labor and 
comparative freedom from temptation. But for such a life the 
conditions of most of our modern institutions, with their com- 
fortable labor-saving devices, — steam heat, washing machinery, 
electric lights, etc., — would be the worst possible preparation. 
The kerosene lamps, portable wooden wash tubs, cold bed rooms 
and entries of the Industrial School are the result, not of any 
lack of generosity on the part of the State or lack of enterprise 
on the part of the trustees, but of a belief that to accomplish 
the work in hand at Lancaster such things have a distinct 
educational value. 

The housework of the various families is so planned that, by 
shifting the workers as efficiency is attained in any one branch, 
all the girls are thoroughly trained in all departments. Of 
course this arrangement makes enormous demands upon the 
housekeepers, who are always in the position of employing 
inexperienced help ; but the result in the girls is highly appre- 
ciated by their employers when they go out to their places. 
No money-making pursuits are followed in the institution, 
since, to make such profitable, continuous employment in a 
narrow line is necessary, and the educational value of such work 
is proportionally low. In the winter, classes are conducted in 
gymnastics ; while in the summer the girls do a good deal of 
work on the farm, always under the direction of a woman of- 
ficer, which out-door work is excellent for their health and no 
less excellent for their spirits. Throughout the year great effort 
is made to interest the girls in books and nature study, and, 
with notable success, in singing. A cheerful and wholesome 
spirit and a most honorable ambition to excel in their homely 
tasks is the prevalent note in the institution. Indeed, with the 
majority of the girls it is safe to say that they are really happy 
in the school, and look back to it, when they have left, with 
affection and gratitude. 

The majority of the girls who come to the school are fifteen 
or thereabouts when committed, seventeen years being the age 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 17 

limit. A few come who are under thirteen. Many of these 
younger ones have been previously under the care of the 
State Board of Charity, and have shown themselves intract- 
able in family life ; but, after teaching them the first rudiments 
of obedience in the school, it is often practicable to board 
them out again. While 13 girls under fourteen were received 
within the year, there are rarely more than two or three of 
them in the school at the same time, and thus the need for 
training for such children is easily met by the Industrial School. 
Under the system of classification it is not found that its in- 
fluences are in any way harmful to the younger or better class 
of girls who come. Seven little girJs were placed out at board 
within the year, and the whole number at board is 17. 

For the older girls it is usually a matter of a year or eighteen 
months before they complete the course of industrial training 
and are ready for release on probation. Probationers are for 
the most part visited by local volunteers (women), organized 
under the State Board of Charity, and directed by its efficient 
agents, Miss Jacobs and Miss Beale. The co-operation of the 
volunteer visitors allows a frequency and sometimes even an 
intimacy of intercourse between a girl and her visitor which 
would be impossible were a few paid agents attempting to cover 
the whole State. 

The girls remain in the care of the school throughout the 
whole of their minority unless they receive an honorable dis- 
charge for good conduct, or are returned to parents as being 
unfit subjects for the school. Probationers are liable to recall 
for bad conduct, or, in extreme cases, to transfer to the Massa- 
chusetts Reformatory for Women. Of the 316 girls outside of 
the school but still in its custody, 159 at the close of the year 
were in places, 105 with their own people or married, 29 where- 
abouts unknown, and 23 were in other institutions. There 
were $2,746.47 saved within the year by probationers in places, 
and deposited to their credit in a savings bank. There were 
61 probationers returned to the school within the year for more 
or less unsatisfactory conduct and 40 for change of place and 
other causes. 

On page 104 a table will be found, giving an analysis on the 
basis of conduct for the whole number of girls who have been 
in the care of the school for one year or more. Table III. on 



18 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

page 103 shows the conduct of the girls attaining their majority 
within the year. It is gratifying to note that, after a long 
period of probation, extending in some cases over five, six or 
seven years, 62 per cent, can be classed as doing well when 
they attain their majority, while 15 per cent, were classed as 
defective, ill through no fault of their own, or dead, 5 per cent, 
as conduct unknown, and only 17 per cent, as known to have 
done badly. 

The question of returning the girls to their own homes is one 
which, in many cases, can be readily decided, because many of 
the homes are so objectionable that the only safety for the girl 
is in keeping her away as long as possible, i. e., as long as the 
State has custody over her, in the hope that she may either 
form ties with better friends than her parents have ever been 
to her, or that she may gain good principles and self-control 
enough to withstand evil influences when she is free to go 
where she will. Even where the parents are well intentioned, 
they are apt to screen the faults of their children, thus making 
their home a less safe place for the girl just leaving the school 
than the family of some well-chosen, intelligent employer, who 
will continue something of the watchful care and consideration 
to which the girl has become accustomed in the school. 

But, while the dangers from allowing too much freedom are 
less evident than those of keeping a girl too close, the latter 
may prove quite as serious in a sudden reaction, when, at 
twenty-one, all restraint ceases. It is a recognized fact that, 
unless engaged to be married or established in some unusually 
congenial family, the girls, as they attain majority, quit the 
places which have been found for them, and, as a matter of 
course, return to their parents or pass out of knowledge. To 
be sure, many of these are heard from, later, earning an honest 
living or respectably married ; a few visit the school, and one 
has lately expressed the wish that she and her husband could 
build a little house upon the school grounds, and bring up their 
children as she was brought up there ! Such as these are, how- 
ever, the exception, not the rule ; and the question has of late 
forced itself upon the trustees whether it would not be well 
more often to take the risk of placing girls in their homes, when 
fairly good, a year or two before they, attain majority, and 
while watchfulness and friendship, with the control of the 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT-— No. 18. 19 

school in the background, might prove effective. The home 
which was properly declared to be unsafe for the restless girl 
of fourteen or fifteen may have become comparatively safe for 
the girl of seventeen or eighteen, who has been acquiring good 
habits and aims in the interval. However poor in its interior 
or locality, such a home may be rich in affection, such as the 
girl needs. 

To judge wisely as to the fitness of the home and to watch 
over the girl when placed on probation with her own people is 
doubtless a most difficult task, and one in which the trustees 
invite the co-operation of the State Board's Visitors, believing 
that here comes the crucial test of the whole work, viz., whether 
it tends to secure a lasting benefit extending beyond the fixed 
term of the girl's minority. 

The increasing numbers in the school and the consequent in- 
crease of family houses has long been a source of greatest anx- 
iety to both superintendent and trustees. When the present 
superintendent took charge, in 1885, there were only some 60 
odd girls in the school ; and the very great success of her admin- 
istration has been due to the degree with which her rare person- 
ality has been felt by inmates and officers. Numbers have been 
so small that she has come in contact with each girl, and a 
degree of individual treatment has obtained such as is rarely 
found in any institution. As numbers have grown, however, 
this close touch has become increasingly difficult, so much so 
that the unique character of the school is seriously endangered. 
The disadvantages of a large institution, — the degree to which 
the superintendent must be an administrator first and foremost 
and a personal influence only so far as he or she can, and the 
comparative rigidity of organization, — are to some degree off- 
set in a school like that at Westborough where methods of 
industrial training, too expensive to be practicable when num- 
bers are few, become possible when shared by large numbers ; 
but for reasons fully discussed in last year's report, such meth- 
ods of training are not likely to be ever thought desirable for 
the special work in hand at Lancaster ; and, if the advantage to 
be found in smaller numbers is lost, the best thing about the 
school is gone, and nothing gained as an offset. Realizing 
this fact, the trustees a year ago recommended that, instead 



20 TRUSTEES' REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

of further enlarging the present school, another school, under 
more or less separate management, should be established 
in some other locality. This plan, however, did not meet 
with the approval of the Legislature, and a seventh house 
upon the grounds was the only alternative. This house is 
now nearing its completion, and when occupied will afford 
relief to the now overcrowded households. For this year, then, 
the question of further enlargement of the Industrial School 
need not be considered ; but it should be realized that the plant 
at Lancaster is already larger than the experienced superin- 
tendent, and all others who know the school well, believe wise ; 
and when provision for growing numbers is again needed, it 
is hoped that some plan may be adopted to meet the need 
elsewhere. 

The appropriation for the new house was $18,000, this to 
include the furniture and make the house ready for occupation. 
The trustees had estimated that for the new house, including 
fittings and a relocation of the sewer bed (situated in close 
proximity to the building site), $20,000 would be needed; 
and to keep within the appropriation, it was necessary to re- 
model the plan on which the last two houses were built, and to 
postpone any change in the sewer bed. The house, it is ex- 
pected, will be made ready for occupation within the $18,000 
appropriated ; but a few hundred dollars additional may be 
asked to complete the equipment and to move the sewer bed, 
should this be found necessary. 

The school opened the year with 167 inmates and closed with 
163. 

The appropriation for the past year was $34,375, of which 
$14,250 was for salaries and $20,125 for current expenses. 
The appropriation for boarding out and other expenses in 
behalf of probationers was $2,500. The actual expenditure, 
from Sept. 30, 1898, to Sept. 30, 1899, was $32,530. This, 
with an average number of 164 in the school, gives a per capita 
of $3.81. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



21 



TEUST FUNDS OF LYMAN AND INDUS- 
TRIAL SCHOOLS. 



TREASURER'S ACCOUNT. 

State Reform School, Lyman Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Lyman Fund. 



1898. 

Oct. 1. 



Nov. 


30. 


Dec. 


23 


1899. 


Jan. 


7 




17. 


April 


3. 


June 


30 


July 


15. 


Sept. 


30 



1898. 

Oct. 1. 



29. 



Nov. 10. 



Dr. 

Balance from former account, 

Dividend Citizens' National Bank, . 
E. C. Sanford, unexpended appropriation for ap- 
paratus, 

Clinton Savings Bank, 

State tax refunded, . 



Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Fitchburg Railroad, . 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Citizens' National Bank, . 
T. F. Chapin, overpaid for music, . 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Fitchburg Railroad, . 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 

Cr. 

Ernest Belman, carving lessons, 
Lord & Burnam Company, 
Wm. J. Wilcox, extra compensation, 
Alliston Greene, extra compensation, 
Boston & Albany Railroad, freight, . 
A. D. Handy, entertainment, . , 
Sunday services, Berlin, . 

Geo. H. Felt 

A. D. Handy, ..... 

Alliston Greene, extra, 

Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 

Dame, Stoddard & Kendall, 

Dr. W. H. Starratt, .... 



Amount carried forward, 



$225 15 


120 00 


1 41 


1,195 04 


86 60 


286 00 


184 00 


286 00 


120 00 


3 60 


286 00 


184 00 


286 00 


$3,263 80 


$12 00 


159 84 


8 33 


16 66 


2 64 


6 10 


26 00 


232 10 


2 24 


16 66 


8 23 


15 00 


92 30 



$598 10 



22 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



Amount brought forward , 



|598 10 



1898. 

Nov. 10. 
30. 

Dec. 12. 



29. 

1899. 

Jan. 21. 



Feb. 13. 

25. 
Mar. 2. 

7. 

April 3. 



8. 
12. 

May 11. 



25. 
29. 

June 14. 



Alexander Quackenboss, M.D., 

Elizabeth Merriam, entertainment, 

Concert, . 

Christmas, 

Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 

Alliston Greene, extra, 

Hon. A. G. Rowe, entertainment, 

Geo. F. Blake, Jr., & Co., . 

A. D. Handy, . 

Wm. J. Wilcox, 

Alliston Greene, 

Sunday services, Berlin, . 

S. W. Skate Manufacturing Co 

Mary F. Wilcox, 

Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 

Alliston Greene, 

Anna M. Bergman, entertainment 

C. L. D. Yonkin, entertainment, 

Geo. E. K. Boyce, books, . 

A. D. Handy, entertainment, . 

Isabel L. Johnson, entertainment, 

Matthew B. Lamb, sheet music, 

Band music, 

Prizes, natural history, 

James Stanton, gymnastics 

Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 

Alliston Greene, extra, 

Alliston Greene, extra, 

Wm. J. Wilcox, 

A. D. Handy, stereopticon supplies, 

Sunday services, Berlin, . 

A. S. Roe, lecture, . 

F. E. Corey, entertainment, 

Alexander Quackenboss, . 

H. P. Mosher, M.D., . 

Dame, Stoddard & Kendall, 

J. L. Hammett Company, . 

Alliston Greene, extra, 

Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 

Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 

Alliston Greene, extra, 

Gavin Spence, extra, 

Geo. H. Felt, school-house attic 

Brown, Durrell & Co., flags, 



Amount carried forward, 



1899.] 


PUBLIC DOCUMENT - 


-No. 18. 


23 


Amount brought forward, $1,376 68 


1899. 




June 14. 


Mrs. H. E. Holt, singing, . .... . 9 08 




Damrell & Upham, books, 








3 00 




King, Clark Co., balls and bats, 








29 00 




0. M. Robinson, lettering drum, 








2 25 




0. Kimball, sheet music, . 








5 20 


27. 


Hon. A. S. Roe, entertainment, 








10 00 




Elizabeth G. Evans, books for Berli 


a, 






20 00 


30. 


Win. J. Wilcox, extra, 








8 33 




Alliston Greene, extra, 












16 66 


July 10. 


R. S. VanBuskirk, 
Birds of All Nations, 
Codman & Shnrtleff, 
Brown, Durrell & Co., 












6 50 

50 

20 00 

11 97 


19. 


Sunday services, Berlin, 












26 00 


Aug. 7. 


Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 
Alliston Greene, extra, 
Dame, Stoddard & Kenda 
Alexander Quackenboss, 
Matthew B. Lamb, music, 


U, 










8 34 
16 67 

19 60 
26 44 

14 46 


25. 


Wm. J. Wilcox, extra, 
Alliston Greene, extra, 












8 33 
16 67 


Sept. 9. 


Geo. H. Felt, lumber, 












220 69 


18. 


J. Thissell & Son, . 
Geo. H. Felt, . 
C. R. Frost & Co , . 
Chas. Baker Company, 
Pettingell Andrews Co., 
Chandler & Barber, . 
B. C. Hathaway, 
Balance forward, 












250 00 

245 98 

217 52 

179 50 

55 30 

25 90 

10 00 

403 23 



Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$3,263 80 



Lyman School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 
Dr. 
Balance of former account, $35 93 



1898. 

Oct. 1 



1899. 

Jan. 7. 
April 3. 



Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
June 30. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 
Sept. 30. Dividend Boston & Albany Railroad, 



12 00 


12 00 


12 00 


12 00 



$83 93 



24 TREASURERS REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



1899. 

Oct. 1. Balance forward, 



Cr. 



$83 93 



Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved : M. H. "Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



Industrial School, Mary Lamb Fund. 

Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Mary Lamb 

Fund. 



1898. Dr. 

Oct. 1. Balance of former account, 

Dividend Boston National Bank, 

Nov. 15. Boston National Bank stock sold, 

Dec. 23. State tax refunded, . 

28. Boston National Bank stock sold, 

April 3. Boston National Bank stock sold, 



1898. 

Nov. 30. Christmas, 



Cr. 



1899. 

Jan. 2. 
7. 
Feb. 15. 
Mar. 7. 
April 12. 
June 27. 



Clinton Savings Bank, 

People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 

Sewing prizes, .... 

C. Bowman, .... 

People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 

Fourth of July, 

Balance forward, . 



Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$94 14 
26 00 

128 52 

14 88 

1,161 22 

134 88 

$1,559 64 
$50 00 



1,000 00 


200 00 


15 00 


30 00 


200 00 


20 00 


44 64 



$1,559 64 



Industrial School, Fay Fund. 
Henry C. Greeley, Treasurer, in account with Income of Fay Fund. 



1898. Dr. 

Dec. 5. Interest Chelsea Savings Bank, 



$40 38 



1898. 

Dec. 5. Mrs. L. L. Brackett, 



Cr. 



$40 38 



Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved: M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



25 



Inventory of Lyman School Investments. 



Lyman Fund. 

143 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, 
92 shares Fitchburg Railroad stock, . 
40 shares Citizens 1 National Bank, 
4 $1,000 Worcester Street Railroad bonds, 
Deposit Monson Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Ware Savings Bank, 
Deposit Palmer Savings Bank, 
Deposit Hampden Savings Bank, 
Deposit Springfield Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Springfield Institution for Savings, 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Worcester County Institution for Savings 
Deposit Westborough Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Amherst Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Worcester Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Franklin Savings Institution, . 
Deposit Worcester North Savings Institution, 
Deposit Fall River Five Cents Savings Bank, 
Deposit Chelsea Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 



Par Value. 

$14,300 00 
9,200 00 
4,000 00 
4,000 00 
1,442 36 
1,474 16 
1,447 40 
1,428 10 
1,428 10 
1,293 54 
1,409 68 
1,402 49 
1,414 08 
1,412 00 
1,395 84 
1,161 48 
1,161 48 
1,161 69 
1,061 20 
403 23 



Market Value. 

$28,600 00 
6,900 00 
4,800 00 
4,000 00 
1,442 36 
1,474 16 
1,447 40 
1,428 10 
1,428 10 
1,293 54 
1,409 68 
1,402 49 
1,414 08 
1,412 00 
1,395 84 
1,161 48 
1,161 48 
1,161 69 
1,061 20 
403 23 



Sept. 30, 1889. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 


$51,996 83 


$64,796 83 


Mary Lamb Fund. 






6 shares Boston & Albany Railroad stock, . 
Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Chelsea Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 


$600 00 

700 76 

* 424 48 

83 93 


$1,200 00 

700 76 

424 48 

83 93 



Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walkeb. 
E. C. Sanford. 



$1,809 17 $2,409 17 



Inventory op Industrial School Investments. 

Mary Lamb Fund, 

Deposit People's Savings Bank, Worcester, 
Deposit Clinton Savings Bank, . 
Deposit Clinton First National Bank, . 



Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



Par Value. 


Market Value. 


$406 00 


$406 00 


1,030 20 


1,030 20 


44 64 


44 64 



$1,480 84 $1,480 84 



26 TREASURER'S REPORT TRUST FUNDS. [Oct. 



Fay Fund. 

Par Value. Market Value. 

Deposit Chelsea Savings Bank, .... $ 1,020 00 $1,020 00 

Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



Rogers Fund. 
One State of Maine 6 per cent, bond in custody 
of State Treasurer, . . . . . . f 1,000 00 $1,000 00 

Sept. 30, 1899. 
Examined and approved : M. H. Walker. 
E. C. Sanford. 



KEPOKT OF THE OFFICERS 

or THE 

LYMAN SCHOOL FOR BOYS 

AT 

WESTBOROUGH. 

1898-99. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

The school had 296 pupils the first day of last October, and the 
average for the year has not fallen materially below that figure. As 
pointed out in the report of last year, this is nearly 25 per cent, more 
than the buildings were designed to accommodate. The numbers 
have at times reached 313 boys. Such crowding has made the work 
of the school difficult and less effective than it ought to be. At no 
time during the last ten years has there been so urgent need of addi- 
tional cottage accommodations. I therefore renew the recommenda- 
tion that an appropriation to build two additional cottages be asked 
of the next Legislature. 

Good progress has been made on the new school-house, which we 
hope to occupy early in January. It is a substantial and commodious 
building, although very plain. It has been more nearly built by hand 
than often happens in these days of machinery. The boys, under the 
skilful direction of Mr. Wilcox, have accomplished wonders of car- 
pentry. 

The laundry and manual training building, for which appropriation 
was made last winter, is advancing rapidly and will probably be done 
by December 1. The enormous advance in building materials made 
necessary a large modification of the original plan. This apprecia- 
tion in prices is especially noticeable in the advanced cost of machin- 
ery and iron pipe, and has made it impossible to do all that was 
contemplated to be accomplished within the appropriation. 

In the fitting up of the general kitchen, some part of the machinery 
and piping cannot be provided for without another appropriation. I 
recommend that a sum be asked sufficient to complete the changes in 
bakery building and the purchase of the necessary machinery to make 
effective both kitchen and laundry. It will be difficult to use the 
laundry to advantage without the kitchen to help lighten the duties 
of the house matrons. 

The better ventilation of the sleeping-halls is a matter to which 
Dr. Corey calls attention. The means for ventilating are wholly 
inadequate, being, in most cases, only such as windows afford. In 
windy weather, which is the rule on this hill, open windows expose a 
large number to dangerous draughts. Some artificial means of empty- 
ing the air out of these rooms without creating strong draughts of 
air over the sleepers should be devised and put in operation. 



30 SUPT.'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The sewer beds are far from satisfactory in their working. This 
is due to the character of the soil, which is a heavy clay. Sub- 
surface absorption demands a soil which will absorb. A trial ex- 
tending over four years has demonstrated the unfitness of the soil to 
care for the sewage of the school. Sooner or later, to prevent serious 
trouble, some change will have to be made. 

The various departments of school activity have proceeded satis- 
factorily, and the progress made has been good, considering the 
crowded condition of the school. Reports from various teachers, 
submitted herewith, show somewhat in detail what has been under- 
taken and accomplished. At the end of the school year the D or 
lowest grade was reduced by promotions in grades to smaller propor- 
tions than ever before, thus indicating that the dullards and slow 
boys, who make a large percentage of the pupils, had been stimulated 
to unwonted effort. 

Vigorous work has been done in music, under the direction of one 
of the masters, Mr. Hallier, supplemented by the efforts of the 
teachers in the grades. The effort was directed to teaching the 
pupil to gain a mental concept of tones and the reading of simple 
music in different keys without depending upon an instrument to 
suggest intervals. The results have been gratifying, the boys all 
trying, and with rare exception succeeding in singing by note. A 
brief report of the singing master is printed elsewhere. 

The interest in music has been stimulated and aided by the efficient 
band instruction given by Mr. Wilcox. An average of 30 boys have 
practised an hour a day throughout most of the year. A total of 72 
have had the drill during that time. No boy has done less in other 
lines by reason of this practice. It has proved an incentive to more 
zealous efforts in other directions. 

The several departments in manual training have reached a larger 
number of boys this year than in any previous period. The boys in, 
the lower grades have been put into the classes more largely than 
ever before, with marked benefit to the boys, as indicated by the fact 
that nearly every one held his place and did creditable work. 

A class in carving and modelling was formed at the middle of the 
year, under Mrs. Wheelock's direction, which accomplished much, 
and, as an evidence of their achievement, the members have, since 
the class instruction ceased, carved more than one hundred pieces to 
go into the construction of the new school-house, some of them being 
quite elaborate. The hope expressed a year ago that there would be 
" an advance in the line of form study," under a special teacher, has 
been realized. A good measure of interest has been shown and some 
latent talent discovered. It is an important branch of education, and 
needs far more attention than it often receives. 

The class in carpentry has had twenty pupils. The character of 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 31 

the work going into the school-house shows that the instruction has 
been thorough. 

The farm as an element in our training should not be given a 
secondary place. No department of manual training has greater pos- 
sibilities. It requires more thought and planning to lift it out of the 
realm of mere drudgery into that of an interesting training for body 
and mind than any other kind of hand training, but its application is 
wider and benefits more general than any other. We cannot as yet 
lay claim to having made much advance toward working out a course 
of instruction in agriculture ; but the aim has been to find employ- 
ment out of doors, as far as possible, for every boy not under instruc- 
tion elsewhere, or not needed about some indoor work for the carrying 
on of the institution. 

There has been an earnest and good spirit among officers and teach- 
ers which augurs well for the continued prosperity of the school. I 
have never felt more keenly than now how dependent the school is 
upon good, loyal officers for any measure of success. It is impossible 
in a brief report to give their work adequate recognition. The worker 
who has not strong faith in the ultimate fruitage of conscientious 
seed-sowing must lead a discouraged life in such work as this. 

It is not possible to be very certain about how far our plans and 
methods of work have to do with the final results in the boy's life. 
Reasoning from statistics is unsatisfactory, because of the large un- 
known factors. To get a letter from a man who has apparently be- 
come established, saying that w T hat he is he owes to the Lyman School, 
is reassuring. Such testimonies have been received. Table 3 (B), 
when compared with like tables made for the last four years, has a 
hopeful look. There has been a gradual gain of 3 per cent, in the 
number of those " doing well," a gradual reduction of 3 per cent, 
of those sent to penal institutions, also 6 per cent, less of the unknown. 
Make the same comparison for those completing their nineteenth 
year, — the first year when the boy can make his own bargains and 
feels that he is a man and free of interference by officers of the school, 
— and the showing is fully as favorable. For those who complete their 
twenty-first year the gain during four years is even more marked, the 
well-doers increasing each year about 4 per cent., and those sent to 
penal institutions, as well as the "unknown," decreasing in very 
nearly the same ratio. While the record of four years is not conclu- 
sive, it is at least encouraging, and is a strong testimony to the 
efficiency of our faithful visitors. 



Respectfully submitted, 



T. F. CHAPIN, 

Superintendent. 



32 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 1. 

Showing the Number received and released, and the General Condition of 
the School for the Year ending Sept. 30, IS 99. 

Boys in school Sept. 30, 1898, 296 

Received.— Since committed, 168 

Returned from places, 66 

Returned "boarded-out" boys, . . . .11 
Returned Berlin boys, not boarded out, ... 2 

Recommitted, 2 

Runaways recaptured, 23 

Returned for hospital treatment, . . . . 1 
Returned from Tewksbury hospital, ... 2 

275 

Whole number in school during the year, *57 1 

Released. — On probation to parents, 100 

On probation to others, 79 

Boarded out, 48 

Transferred to Massachusetts Reformatory, . . 9 

Runaways, 33 

Discharged, 1 

Enlisted, 2 

Returned to court, .1 

State Almshouse, 3 

Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, . . 4 
George Junior Republic, 2 

282 

Remaining in school Sept. 30, 1899, 289 

Table No. 2. 

Showing the Admissions, Number discharged and Average Number 

for Each Month. 



MONTHS. 


Admitted. 


Discharged. 


Average No. 


October, 


34 


17 


3d2.60 


November, 


30 


40 


304.90 


December, 


12 


16 


3<>3.00 


January, 


17 


12 


303.66 


February, 


18 


17 


301.46 


March, 


23 


29 


303.16 


April, 


23 


25 


299.77 


May, 


19 


33 


280.61 


June, 


18 


18 


283.33 


July, 


30 


22 


290.71 


August, 


20 


21 


288.12 


September, 


31 


32 


285.00 


Totals, 


275 


282 


295.52 



This number represents 515 individuals. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 33 



Table No. 3. 

A. Showing the Status of All Boys under Twenty -one whose Names 

were on the Books of the Lyman School Sept. 30, 1899. 

In the school, 289 

Released from the school, but still subject to its control : — 

With parents (250 known to be self-supporting), . . 308 

With others, 143 

For themselves, 25 

At board, 47 

Have been in penal institutions other than the Massa- 
chusetts Reformatory, 25 

Lost sight of : — 

This year, , ." . . . . . . .18 

Previously, 23 

41 

589 

Still legally in custody, but beyond practical control : — 

Released to go out of the State, 10 

Left the State, 16 

In United States Army, 32 

In United States Navy, 13 

In State Almshouse, 3 

Massachusetts Reformatory : — 

Sent this year, 16 

Sent in former years, 58 

74 

Runaways from the school, 20 

168 

Discharged from the care of the school : — 

Returned to court as over age limit, . . . . . 11 

Discharged as unfit subjects, to parents, .... 4 
Discharged as unfit subjects, to State Board of Lunacy and 

Charity, 2 

Discharged as unfit subject, to the overseers of the poor, . 1 

In Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, ... 9 

Dead. . . 14 

41 

Total, 1,087 

B. Showing Condition by Ages of All Boys Outside the School, but 

subject to its Custody. 
Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation up to Oct. 1, 1899 : — 

Doing well, 556 or 74 per cent. 

^Not doing well, 12 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in some other penal institution, . . 99 or 13 per cent. 

Out of the State, 26 or 3 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . . 61 or 8 per cent. 

Total, 754 



34 STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Table No. 3 — Continued. 
Condition of boys under twenty-one on probation one year or more : — 

Doing well, 402 or 72 per cent. 

Not doing well, 9 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 88 or 16 per cent. 

Out of the State, 25 or 4 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 37 or 6 per cent. 

Total, . 561 

Condition of boys under twenty-one on probation two years or more : — 

Doing well, 396 or 76 per cent. 

Not doing well, . 7 or 1 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 76 or 15 per cent. 

Out of the State, 21 or 4 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . 22 or 4 per cent. 

Total, 522 

Condition of all boys under twenty-one on probation who complete their 
nineteenth year before Oct. 1, 1899 : — 

Doing well, 150 or 65 per cent. 

Not doing well, 5 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 51 or 22 per cent. 

Out of the State, 17 or 7 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . . 9 or 4 per cent. 

Total, . 232 

Condition of all boys under twenty -one on probation who complete their 
twentieth year before Oct. 1, 1899 : — 

Doing well, 72 or 66 per cent. 

Not doing well, 2 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, ... 24 or 22 per cent. 

Out of the State 7 or 6 per cent. 

Whereabouts and conditions unknown, . . . 4 or 4 per cent. 

Total, .109 

Condition of all boys who complete their twenty-first year before Oct. 1, 

1899 : — 

Doing well, 80 or 61 per cent. 

Not doing well, 2 or 2 per cent. 

Have been in other penal institutions, . . . 28 or 22 per cent. 

Out of the State, . 11 or 8 per cent. 

Lost track of : — 

Doing well at last accounts, ... 6 

Not doing well at last accounts, ... 3 

9 or 7 per cent. 

Total 130 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



35 



Table No. 3 — Concluded. 
C. Visitation of Probationers. 
Visits made by agents of the school, . . . . , . 1,544 

Visits made by trustees, 31 

1,575 

Of the 1,575 visits, 692 were made to 435 boys over 18, and 883 to 392 boys 

under 18. 
Whole number of names on the visiting list for the year, . . . 827 

Investigation of homes by agents, 198 

Investigation of places by agents, 65 

$1,057.11 have been collected in behalf of 43 boys. 



Table No. 4. 

Showing the Commitments from the Several Counties for the Past Year 

and previously. 



COUNTIES. 




Past Year. 


Previously. 


Totals. 


Barnstable, 












1 


57 


58 


Berkshire, 












2 


255 


257 


Bristol, . 












14 


684 


698 


Dukes, 












- 


17 


17 


Essex, 












22 


1,150 


1,172 


Franklin, 












2 


55 


57 


Hampden, 












8 


468 


476 


Hampshire, 












3 


90 


93 


Middlesex, 












35 


1,389 


1,424 


Nantucket, 












- 


17 


17 


Norfolk, . 












12 


481 


493 


Plymouth, 












3 


147 


150 


Suffolk, . 












37 


1,547 


1,584 


Worcester, 












29 


834 


863 


Totals, 


168 


7,191 


7,359 



36 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 5. 

Showing Nativity of Parents of Boys committed during the Past Ten 

Years. 





2 


* 


2 
x 


X 


is 

X * 


5 

X 


- 


X 

* 


55 


Fathers born in United States, 


7 


10 


12 


7 


15 18 


13 


16 


8 


8 


Mothers boru in United States, 


4 


10 


7 


8 


17 


11 


14 


15 


28 


21 


Fathers foreign born, . 


5 


IS 


5 


10 


9 


7 


8 


12 


25 


18 


Mothers foreign born, .... 


9 


5 


12 


S 


17 


25 


6 


11 


10 


17 


Both parents born in United States. 


22 


20 


22 


24 


IS 31 


27 


23 


31 


27 


Both parents foreign born. 


52 


53 


54 


70 


59 


61 


51 


34 


56 


47 


Unknown, 


11 


7 


23 


20 


32 


34 


34 


24 


45 


44 


One parent nnknown, .... 


- 


8 


16 


19 


20 


25 


23 


32 


33 


36 


Per cent, of American parentage. . 


28 


29 


25 


23 


24 


29 


28 


31 


27 


25 


Per cent, of foreign parentage, 


60 


60 


50 


56 


50 


42 


40 


37 


40 


39 


Per cent, unknown, .... 


12 


11 


25 


21 


26 


29 


32 


32 


33 


36 



Showing Nativity of Boys committed during the Past Ten Years. 



Born in the United States. 


77 


86 


105 


110 


110 


130 


115 


103 


146 


130 


Foreign born, 


14 


23 


19 


36 


32 


35 


29 


20 


33 


37 


Unknown, 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


- 


1 


5 


1 



Table No. 6. 

Showing by what Authority the Commitments have been made the Past 

Year. 



COMMITMENT; 



Past Year. 



Bv district court 


76 


municipal court, ........ 


32 


police court, ......... 


39 


superior court, 


3 


trial justices, 


5 


State Board of Charity, 


13 


Total, 


168 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



37 



Table No. 7. 
Showing Age of Boys when committed. 



AGE. 



Committed 

during 
Past Year. 



Committed 
previously. 



Totals. 



Six, . 
Seven, 



Eight, 



Nine, 

Ten, 

Eleven, . 

Twelve, . 

Thirteen, . . < 

Fourteen, 

Fifteen, . 

Sixteen, . 

Seventeen, 

Eighteen and over, . 

Unknown, 

Totals, . 



1 

1 
8 
10 
25 
48 
71 
4 



168 



5 

25 

120 

240 

474 

707 

997 

1,337 

1,548 

964 

532 

181 

17 

44 

7,191 



5 

25 

121 

241 

482 

717 

1,022 

1,385 

1,619 

968 

532 

181 

17 

44 



7,359 



Table No. 8. 

Showing the Domestic Condition of the 168 Boys who have been com- 
mitted to the School during the Year.* 

Had parents, 113 

no parents, 5 

father, 23 

mother, 26 

step-father, 4 

step-mother, 7 

intemperate father, 64 

intemperate mother, 4 

both parents intemperate, 11 

parents separated, 12 

attended church, 161 

never attended church, 7 



* These facts are gathered for the most part from the boys' testimony. 



38 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 8 — Concluded. 

Had not attended school within one year, 18 

not attended school within two years, . . . . . . 6 

not attended school within three years, 4 

been arrested before, 101 

been inmates of other institutions, 38 

used intoxicating liquor, . 10 

used tobacco (mostly cigarettes) , 114 

Were employed in the mill or otherwise when arrested, ... 47 

Were attending school, . . .59 

Were idle, 62 

Could not read or write, 10 

Parents owning residence, . . . 19 

Members of the family had been arrested, 48 

Table No. 9. 

Showing the Length of Time the 249 Boys who have left the Past Year 
have spent in the School since committed. 



3 months or less, . . .17 


2 years 4 months, ... 8 


4 months, . 






. 9 


2 years 5 months, 






8 


5 months, . 








. 9 


2 years 6 months, 






5 


6 months, . 








. 8 


2 years 7 months, 






. 5 


7 months, . 








. 7 


2 years 8 months, 






. 1 


8 months, . 








. 6 


2 years 9 months, 






8 


9 months, . 








. 6 


2 years 10 months, 






2 


10 months, . 








. 7 


2 years 11 months, 






. 3 


11 months, . 








7 


3 years, 






2 


1 year 1 month, 






. 12 


3 years 1 month, 






1 


1 year 2 months, 






. 7 


3 years 2 months, 






- 


1 year 3 months, 






4 


3 years 3 months, 






5 


1 year 4 months, 






4 


3 years 4 months, 






5 


1 year 5 months, 






9 


3 years 5 months, 






1 


1 }^ear 6 months, 






11 


3 years 6 months, 






2 


1 year 7 months, 






10 


3 years 7 months, 






1 


1 year 8 months, 






11 


3 years 8 months, 






1 


1 year 9 months, 






10 


3 years 9 months, 






- 


1 year 10 months, 






3 


3 years 10 months, 






- 


1 year 11 months, . 






8 


3 years 11 months, 






1 


2 years, . 






10 


4 years or more, 






3 


2 years 1 month, 






2 





2 years 2 months, 






6 


Total, . . . . .249 


2 years 3 months, 






4 




Average time spent in the 


institution, 


20.4 months. 


Average time sp 


ent ir 


i the 


instil 


;ution 


of boarded boys, . 


8. 


2 


" 



Average time spent in the institution of probationers not 
boarded, released for the first time, 



20.2 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



39 



Table No. 10. 

Comparative Table, showing Average Numbers of Inmates and Num- 
bers of New Commitments for a Period of Ten Years. 





Average 
Number. 


New Com- 
mitments. 


Returned 

for 

Any Cause. 


Placed on 
Probation. 


Discharged 
Otherwise. 


1889-90, ..... 


186.46 


92 


18 


89 


16 


1890-91, 






. 


183.96 


109 


21 


99 


16 


1891-92, 






. 


203.88 


125 


30 


120 


16 


1892-93, 






. 


226.05 


146 


49 


122 


31 


1893-94, 






. 


228.00 


142 


53 


124 


75 


1894-95, 






. 


246.73 


167 


79 


188 


28 


1895-96, 






. 


264.61 


144 


88 


212 


16 


1896-97, 






. 


261.87 


124 


73 


170 


38 


1897-98, 






. 


279.42 


184 


102 


201 


46 


1898-99, 






• 


295.52 


168 


107 


227 


55 


Average 


for t< 


m ye 


ars, . 
? "JL* &■' 


237.65 


140.1 


62 


155.2 


33.7 



Table No. 11. 
Showing Commitments by Months for Ten Years. 





1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


October, . 


6 


8 


13 


17 


18 


18 


10 


10 


18 


21 


November, 


4 


5 


5 


12 


11 


9 


6 


10 


12 


15 


December, 


15 


2 


4 


13 


9 


7 


11 


9 


10 


9 


January, . 


5 


4 


13 


6 


16 


5 


9 


8 


11 


13 


February, 


3 


6 


7 


5 


8 


10 


7 


9 


12 


8 


March, . 


8 


6 


10 


13 


16 


14 


15 


11 


12 


12 


April, 


8 


17 


5 


6 


9 


18 


10 


11 


15 


14 


May, 


10 


10 


12 


14 


15 


12 


9 


7 


21 


14 


June, 


7 


12 


15 


6 


13 


22 


13 


6 


13 


10 


July, 


5 


15 


17 


10 


4 


20 


23 


9 


22 


22 


August, . 


9 


14 


16 


17 


12 


16 


23 


13 


17 


15 


September, 


12 
92 


10 
109 


8 


27 


11 
142 


16 


8 


21 
124 


21 

184 


15 


Totals, . 


125 


146 


167 


144 


168 



40 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 12. 

Offences with ivhich Boys committed the Past Year have been charged. 

Assault, 3 

Breaking and entering, 41 

Breaking glass, 1 

Burning buildings, 2 

Fraudulent conversion, 1 

Larceny, 59 

Malicious mischief, 6 

Robbery, 1 

Runaway, 1 

Stoning passenger train, 2 

Stubbornness, .41 

Vagrancy, 2 

Unlawfully taking team, 4 

Violating school regulations, 4 



Total, 



168 



Table No. 13. — Some Comparative Statistics. 



A. Showing the Average Age of Boys released on Probation for the 

Past Ten Years. 


1890, 15.10 


1895, 15.49 


1891 15.48 


1896, 15.17 


1892, 15.63 


1897, 15.15 


1893, 14.81 


1898, 15.60 


1894, 14.94 


1899, 15.17 



B. Showing the Average Time spent in the Institution for the Past 

Ten Years. 



1890, . 


18.38 months. 


1895, . 


21.17 months. 


1891, . 


22.60 months. 


1896, . 


18.03 months. 


1892, . 


22.10 months. 


1897, . 


21.00 months. 


1893, . 


19.40 months. 


1898, . 


19.90 months. 


1894, . 


16.95 months. 


1899, . 


20.40 months. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT-— No. 18, 



41 



Table No. 13 — Concluded. 
G. Showing the Average Age of Commitment for the Past Ten Years. 



1890, 13.15 

1891, 13.89 

1892, 13.73 

1893, 13.39 

1894, 13.87 



1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 



13.44 
13.63 
13.31 
13.17 
13.48 



D. Showing the Number of Boys returned to the School for Any 
Cause for Ten Years. 



1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 
1894, 



14 


1895, 


. " . 60 


21 


1896, 


87 


30 


1897, 


73 


35 


1898, 


. 102 


33 


1899, 


. 107 



E. Showing Weekly per Capita Cost of the Institution for Ten Years. 





Gross. 


Net. 




Gross. 


Net. 


1890, . 


4.23 


4.07 


1895, . 


4.46 


4.36 


1891, . 


4.44 


4.31 


1896, . 


4.61 


4.55 


1892, . 


4.75 


4.60 


1897, . 


4.72 


4.66 


1893, . 


4.31 


4.15 


1898, . 


4.52 


4.49 


1894, . 


4.75 


4.67 


1899, . 


4.39 


4.36 



42 



STATISTICS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table No. 14. 
Report of Sewing Boom for Year ending Sept. 30 ', 1899. 



Articles made.' 


Articles repaired. 


Aprons, 127 


Aprons, 38 


Bed covering, 








1 


Blankets, 








16 


Bolster cases, 








8 


Bolster cases, 








1 


Coats, 








2 


Caps, 








23 


Coffee bags, 








4 


Comforters, 








5 


Coverings, 








8 


Coats, 








109 


Dish cloths, 








98 


Curtains, 








4 


Dish towels, 








171 


Drawers, 








176 


Holders, 








14 


Mats, 








1 


Mattresses, 








14 


Mittens, . 








9 


Napkins, 








468 


Night shirts, 








181 


Night shirts, 








278 


Napkins, 








50 


Label strips, 








27 


Pants, 








. 504 


Pants, 








456 


Patterns, 








5 


Pillows, . 








29 


Pillow slips, 








44 


Pillow slips, 








515 


Sheets, . 








73 


Sheets, . 








398 


Shirts, 








373 


Shirts, 








1,187 


Spreads, . 








7 


Spreads, . 








2 


Suspenders, 








46 


Table cloths, 








7 


Table cloths, 








37 


Towels, . 








304 


Towels, . 








135 


White aprons, 






3 




White jackets, 






2 














4,123 










1,837 



Average number of boys employed in sewing room, 
Number of different boys employed, . 



6.41 
15 



Table No. 15. 

Laundry Work for the Tear ending Sept. 30, 1899. 

Number of pieces washed, 296,584 

Number of pieces ironed, 207,516 

Number of pieces starched, 9,889 

Average number of boys employed in laundry work, . . . 33.7 

Number of different boys employed, . . . . . . Ill 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 43 



REPORT OF PRINCIPAL OF SCHOOLS. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

Of the number entered (168) during the past year, 10 could neither 
read nor write, while only 4 were prepared to enter the advanced 
grade. At the end of June a larger proportion than ever before of 
the whole number in the school was ready for promotion, which fact 
should lead us to take courage and toil on in faith and hope. 

Our methods in teaching arithmetic and language have been of the 
same practical kind as heretofore. We agree with Pres. G. Stanley 
Hall, that " The vernacular should never be taught, as such, to child- 
ren, except in the most incidental way ; but that conversation and 
writing about subjects concerning which interest is very strongly 
aroused is the best way to secure an effective use of English." 
"We find this especially true as the boys write the results of their 
observations. 

We have continued the use of the vertical penmanship in the lower 
grades with decided success. 

Letter-writing to home friends has been an important exercise at 
the middle of every month. Some boys of the D grade, who can 
write only from a copy, have been allowed to tell their teacher the 
messages they wished to send home, and she has written them as 
they dictated. They then copied the letter neatly ; so the parents 
received it in the writing of their boy. This plan gives the boy a les- 
son in language, spelling and penmanship, while it also affords pleas- 
ure to the parents. This is one of the many exercises which require 
much patience and tact on the part of the teacher. 

Reports of lectures, sermons, etc., have continued to form a part 
of our language work each week, and this method has proved very 
helpful, even to the boys of the lower grades. 

Marked progress in music and drawing has been made under the 
efficient teaching of our special teachers in these lines. 

As formerly, the school has been favored with many an enjoyable 
and instructive entertainment. 

Each school has been provided with the Boston " Evening Tran- 
script," from which the important news of each day have been gleaned 
and talked over. Especial interest has been taken in affairs pertain- 



44 PKINCIPAL'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

ing to the Philippines, Transvaal, our relation to foreign powers, etc. 
Doubtless this has been greatly increased by the fact that so large a 
number of former members of the school were enlisted to maintain 
the honor of the Stars and Stripes. From the " Transcript " likewise 
the bird and floral calendars have been clipped, then mounted in blank 
books for the use of the boys, who often refer to them for informa- 
tion. The paper also furnishes material for many reading lessons in 
some grades. 

Debates, both enjoyable and profitable to the participants, were 
carried on quite regularly by the two A classes. These were con- 
ducted by officers chosen from their own number, and according to 
parliamentary rules, thus giving them practical lessons in civics. 
The subjects commonly discussed were the current topics of the day, 
material for which was gleaned largely from the " Transcript." 

During the year many poems were memorized, especially in con- 
nection with the study of nature and our nation's history. Browning, 
Longfellow, Lowell and Whittier seem to have been the favorite 
poets. 

Prof. Edward Channing has truly said that " No subject lends 
itself better to the discipline of the mind, especially to the develop- 
ment of the critical faculties, than history." And, as it is " a mine 
of golden examples," our boys have studied it in connection with 
these characters and with the works of those who were identified with 
their times. This method of pursuing the study has not only given 
increasing interest in the events of the age, but has also rendered its 
literature far more interesting and perspicuous ; and I doubt not a 
certain ethical impulse has been given which will help to mould noble 
characters. 

To some grades "Perry pictures" of poets, historical characters 
and places were given. These were mounted by the boys in blank 
books furnished for this purpose. Boys of higher grades chose sub- 
jects such as musicians, art, literature, and the desired pictures were 
provided. But in every case a careful study of the picture mounted 
and of the artist was to be made, and its results written in the same 
book, thus making an interesting and valuable scrap-book. This 
work was done only in time gained from regular lessons, and the 
personal possession of the book by the boy was considered a reward. 

The interest in nature study, as it has been presented with the 
natural specimens (procured by the boys themselves in nearly every 
instance) , has increased many fold. The habit of observation has 
been cultivated, and what was at first only the curiosity of the boy has 
been developed naturally into the inquisitiveness of the student. In 
many cases this study has been the first to hold the attention of boys 
who were restless, mischievous and heedless, a constant trial to their 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 45 

teachers, and thus it has proved of disciplinary value in more than 
one sense. Some of these in the spriDg time made bird houses and 
placed them in trees near their cottage, then took delight in watching 
the songsters that took rooms in them. They also furnished the 
winged tenants many a dainty meal till they had reared their nest- 
lings, expecting in return only their cheerful songs. Other boys of 
the same sort now have collections of cocoons, chrysalids, insects and 
larvae of various kinds, which take their attention in spare moments. 

During the year, in addition to plants, frogs, birds, etc., which 
previously were objects of observation, turtles' eggs were found by 
some of the boys and taken into the school-room. Here they were 
closely watched day by day, till the head of the tiny turtle was seen 
bursting forth from the shell, when the delight of the boys was great ; 
but when the perfect creature walked forth with its house upon its 
back their enthusiasm was intense. " What will it eat? " " How can 
we feed it?" " Can we keep it all winter?" and many other questions 
were asked, and every boy was eager to contribute something toward 
the comfort of the " turtle family." I doubt not they can name the 
exact day when each member looked out upon their school-room, as 
they can tell the age of various frogs and toads developed there last 
spring. They have been pleased to name the fastest swimmer Dewey, 
while others are honored with such noted names as Hobson, Sampson, 
etc. 

"We cannot judge to any great extent what use our boys will make 
of the knowledge gained by these lessons from nature's open book ; 
but, in the language of another, " It is enough to justify all the pains 
taken and the time spent, if they acquire the habit of close, method- 
ical and intelligent observation." Yet we have evidence that the 
influence of these lessons does not cease when the boy leaves the 
school. One, who was taken ill after he went to his city home, was 
removed to the country for a short time. In the letters received from 
him while there he did not fail to mention the birds, flowers, etc., 
which he saw, and on his return to the city, with restored health, he 
also carried a "little family of baby turtles, newts and gold-fishes," 
which he had caught. He likewise made a collection of wild flowers, 
which he analyzed, pressed and mounted. Who will say that this 
close communion with nature, and the knowledge of her laws thus 
gained, will not win the boy to a lasting love of the beautiful, the 
wonderful and the true ? We can only sow the seed, and in prayerful 
patience wait for the harvest. 

Respectfully submitted, 

MARY L. PETTIT, 

Principal. 



46 SINGING MASTER LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



KBPOET OF THE SINGING MASTER 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

In September, 1898, the H. E. Holt system of music was intro- 
duced in the schools. Since September 1, I have given forty-six 
lessons to each school. Good work has been done in all the grades. 
In saying this I need make no exceptions, as every one of our schools 
has done hard work. 

All grades are singing two-part music. Three-part work has been 
introduced in five schools, with good success. This change was 
made at the beginning of the fall term, three-part exercises and songs 
being used. The work done under this system has been very good 
and the improvement in tone has been marked. The system does 
much toward cultivating a pure tone for both singing and speaking. 
The higher grades can readily sing three-part choruses, and sing with 
clear, pure tones. A good deal of attention has been and will be paid 
to the tone. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. H. HALLIER. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 47 



REPORT OF THE TEACHERS OF SLOYD. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

During the greater part of the past year the Sloyd room has been' 
occupied by classes eight hours each day. This, together with the 
housework and preparation work, has kept its doors open from morn- 
ing till night. Two teachers have shared this care and have taught 
two classes each, one teaching from seven to eleven o'clock a.m. and 
one from one to five o'clock p.m. During the forenoon 91 boys have 
been in attendance. 

Many of these boys have been below the mental average ability, 
and very simple steps had to be introduced in the exercises. Yet the 
interest was as eager as usual, and marked improvement made, show- 
ing that Sloyd has a hold on the duller, slower minds, as well as on 
those of brighter and quicker perceptions. Much more care, how- 
ever, is necessary to keep step with slow mental growth. More urged 
upon the pupil than he can digest is effort wasted. Again, very, very 
often the teacher needs to be near, to answer questions and to further 
explain some little point that a brighter or more active mind would 
dispose of itself. The pupils not only learn patience and care, but 
help to teach the teachers these qualities. 

The afternoon classes started Oct. 31, 1898, with 15 boys in each 
class. Into these classes were taken boys of the lower grades who 
needed individual attention. While many of these boys were poor 
workers, each tried to do the best he was capable of doing, and all 
showed steady progress. They knew little or nothing of mechanical 
drawing upon entering, but readily learned to make a drawing of each 
model before making the model. 

Each boy was made to feel the responsibility of taking care of the 
bench and tools assigned to him, and also a care in the general ap- 
pearance of the room. The frankness with which they would bring 
any mishap to their teacher, and state the facts of the case, was com- 
mendable. 



BLOYD REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

S] ecial care was taken be teach the boys the rights of others, to be 

economical in getting out material for their work, and to think before 

The making of the models is a small part of their training, 

and is of value only so far as we ;::, in the model, thought, care, 

judgment, honest^, etc., growing in the boy. 



Respectfully submitted, 



AXXA L. TTILCOX. 
AIAET F. WILCOX. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 49 



REPORT OF INSTRUCTOR OF ADVANCED 
MANUAL TRAINING. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

During this past year, the fifth one in advanced manual training, 
46 of our boys have derived the benefit of our courses in wood-turn- 
ing and forging. Our aim has been, as in years past, to teach the 
principles which underlie all trades, rather than any special trade. 
Manual training is becoming part and parcel of this progressive age. 
The work teaches our boys that to do anything well requires thought, 
care, time and patience. While our aim has been the same, our plan 
of work has been somewhat changed. As the boys have been doing 
more this year in Sloyd, we have omitted instruction in the carpentry, 
which has enabled us to devote more time to the wood-turning and 
forging. There have been two classes a day, of 16 boys each, the 
classes in wood-turning on Tuesday and Thursday and the classes in 
forging on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Each boy has four 
hours' work in wood-turning and six hours' work in forging each 
week. Following out this method, it takes the boy about twenty 
weeks to complete the entire course. It also allows 64 boys the 
privilege of our courses, whereas heretofore it has only allowed 32. 
The eight new lathes which we have received have proved a great 
addition to our equipment. They are larger than the old ones, which 
affords opportunity to turn larger pieces of work, thus enabling us to 
do some work for the new school building, which, without them, could 
not have been done. After completing our courses in June we turned 
525 balusters and 275 corner blocks of brown ash, 20 newel post 
heads of oak, — all to be used for the new school building. 

Outside of class work we have also done an almost endless amount 
of sawing, planing and forging for this new building. It is gratify- 
ing to know how much good the work does for some of our boys. I 
have heard from them from time to tim they have gone forth 

from us and are busy along this line of work, making better men and 
better citizens for having received such training. 

During this year the boys have had some difficulty with the base 
ball bats, and the plan was conceived of making them, and we have 



50 MANUAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

made forty-two bats for use on the grounds. Every boy prefers 
these bats which they have made to those that were bought ; they are 
also more durable. 

Outside of the above-mentioned work, we have devoted at least on 
an average one-half hour a day to repairing or making new things in 
use upon the grounds, such as fire tools for boilers, grinding and re- 
pairing lawn mowers, sharpening drills and cold chisels, and many 
and various little things, all of which tend to make our manual train- 
ing of practical value to an institution of this kind, as well as to our 
boys. It is encouraging to note the interested progress in their 
work. 

We trust that in our new building, with its helpful additions and 
surroundings, even greater progress may be made in this year now 
opening. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES D. LITTLEFIELD. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 51 



EEPORT OP INSTRUCTOR IN DRAWING 
AND WOOD CARVING. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

William Morris Hunt says : " Drawing should be considered not 
an accomplishment but a necessity. Any one who can make the letter 
D can learn to draw. Learning to draw is the grammar of a language. 
Anybody can learn the grammar, but whether you have anything to 
say, — that is another thing." 

Arthur W. Dow, the founder and teacher of the synthetic method 
of art instruction, says : " In this new view, art study is the gaining 
of an experience, and art instruction is the guiding of tendencies 
toward appreciation, and the training of mind and hand to create. 
This guidance and training, we believe, can be given by a series of 
exercises, beginning, as in music, with the simplest. In fact, the 
main idea in the system is to help the pupil at the very outset to origi- 
nate a beautiful arrangement, say a few lines harmoniously grouped 
together, and then proceed onward step by step to greater apprecia- 
tion and fuller power of expression. During this course, skill in 
drawing will come as a natural growth, and knowledge of perspective 
and all other requisites will be sought as, the developing artistic fac- 
ulty feels the need of them. In a word, instead of spending most of 
the effort on drawing, and then adding original work, or composition, 
we begin with composition, and find that it will lead to all the rest." 

Believing in the truth and reasonableness of Mr. Dow's system, 
our work in drawing has been mainly along these lines, under the 
three divisions, line relations, contrasting tones of dark and light — 
not light and shade, but quantity of light as opposed to quantity of 
dark, and color. That it appeals to and interests the boys, no one 
can doubt who has visited the schools or examined the work. The 
improvement in the work can also be noted. We have in each of the 
schools two fifty-minute periods per week. The classes range in 
numbers from twenty-eight to forty-three, and we make no attempt 
at individual work. 



52 DRAWING, ETC., LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The wood carving is especially valuable, as it helps to develop 
habits of accuracy, which are carried into other lines of work. There 
is much to be learned in struggling with a tough, knotty place in a 
piece of wood. The application required is not the least part of the 
lesson. 

Our first lesson in the wood carving was given the 16th of Febru- 
ary, with ten boys in attendance. Since the first of September we 
have had but five, — three went home, and two were not capable of 
doing the advanced work required. We began with simple elemen- 
tary exercises, using both clay and wood. Before the summer vaca- 
tion, the boys had carved nearly one hundred corner blocks for doors 
and windows. Since the first of September we have carved nineteen 
newel posts, the four principal ones quite elaborate in design. This 
work is executed for the new school building, and some of it is already 
in position. Two of the boys have become so proficient in the work 
that they have been allowed to work by themselves for three hours a 
day during the last month, and have proved themselves trusty, con- 
scientious workers. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FANNF HORTON WHEELOCK, 

Instructor in Drawing and Wood Carving. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 53 



PHYSICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

A condensed resume" of work undertaken in this department during 
the year is respectfully submitted : — 

Statistics. 

Number of boys in classes Oct. 1, 1898, 243 

Since received, 173 

Since released, 151 

Number in classes Oct. 1, 1899, 265 

Number of different boys having instruction, 416 

Number of different boys who have not been absent, . . . .210 
Number of boys excused for one or more periods because of sickness 

or accident, 98 

Number of boys working in another department, 59 

Punishments, etc., . 49 

Whole number of gymnastic lessons, 742 

Every muscular action is performed according to a definite state of 
the brain. If the brain centres are healthy, and accustomed to per- 
forming their full function, their muscular action will be controlled, 
and there will be a motion expressed in movements ; but, if the re- 
verse is the case, — and you know to what extent this is true in our 
adolescent boys, — muscular activity will be uncontrolled, and many 
movements will be executed without reason. These boys demand 
training of nerve centres more than any one thing, and it has con- 
stantly been my endeavor to arrange exercises calculated to do this. 
Dr. Worcester put this thought in this way : " To arouse such slug- 
gish natures, to train their ears to be quick to hear and their brains 
to be ready to interpret and to transmit commands, and their bodies, 
heads, arms, legs, feet, hands and fingers to be able both in nerve 
and muscle to obey vigorously and promptly, — this is a great use 
of a systematic course of physical training to an institution like the 
Lyman School. But the chief value of the physical training to these 
boys is not in developing big muscles nor even in securing healthful 
and well-developed muscular bodies, but it is in the development of 
the higher nerve and brain centres. In the physical exercises de- 



54 PHYSICAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

manding careful attention and prompt action the nerve centres which 
control the action are being exercised and developed quite as much as 
are the muscles themselves. By such training not only is the control 
of the muscular system by the nervous centres perfected, but the 
habit and even the power of attention and quick controlling thought 
is aroused, as would not be possible by any purely mental exercise. " 
The whole value of the gymnastic training depends upon our atti- 
tude toward this truth. The annual growth of boys has been the 
subject of considerable study. An expert has said truthfully that 
the rate of growth is of more consequence than the present size. The 
subjoined table will prove of value, since it shows the annual rate of 
growth of 30 boys in height, weight and lung capacity : — 




A few isolated cases are especially interesting, since they are not 
in harmony with the normal : — 

Case No. 1. — Committed March, 1898, for incendiarism. The 
tallest, and with two exceptions the heaviest, in the group ; unsound 
mind ; unreliable ; placed in lowest grade, from which he has made 
no advance ; shows abnormalities of palate, tongue and ears ; has 
gained little in height and weight and nothing in lung capacity ; phy- 
sical and mental growth equally retarded. 

Case No. 2. —Committed Feb. 12, 1898, for "bunking out." 
Home surroundings very bad ; drunken family ; boy poorly nour- 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



55 



ished, extremely homely and unattractive ; has advanced in school 
from lowest to next to the highest grade, and has gained in weight 
more than any one of the group ; also in height and lung capacity the 
average amount. He has been a very enthusiastic member of the 
gymnastic class. 

Case No. 9. — A Jew. Committed June 30, 1898, for stealing 
money from a child. A mouth-breather ; rate of growth far below 
the average ; in lung capacity nothing has been gained. Whether 
the nasal trouble has anything to do with this fact is a matter for fur- 
ther study. 

Case JSfo. 14. — Committed Sept. 9, 1898, for running away from 
farmer. Has been in the care of the State since nine years of age. 
Rate of growth also below average ; in lung capacity nothing ; and 
he is also a mouth-breather. His attitude toward gymnastic drill has 
been very poor. 

In general, the greatest increase seems to be centred about the age 
of fourteen. The total increase in every capacity of the first 15 boys 
was 240 cubic inches, and for the last 15, 395. It will also be noticed 
that the greatest increase in weight was made by the last 15, and that 
the table was arranged according to height. 

One other table may well be placed in this report, since it throws 
a little light upon the laws of growth. With it is given Dr. Bow- 
ditch's report of the growth of Boston school boys. The discrepancy 
which appears between the weight of Lyman School and Boston school 
boys may in part be accounted for by the fact that the former were 
weighed without clothing, while the latter wore clothing. A fair 
estimate of the weight of such clothing might be placed at five pounds, 
therefore the figures seem to harmonize quite generally. The yearly 
increase in both groups is about the same. 







Lyman School Boys. 




Boston School 


AGE AT LAST 
BIRTHDAY. 












Weight 


Height 


Lung 

Capacity 

(Cubic Inches). 


Number 

of 

Observations. 


Weight 


Height 




(Pounds). 


(Inches). 


(Pounds). 


(Inches). 


Yr«. Mos. Yrs. Mos. 














13 13 5 


78.18 


55.93 


129.77 


22 


84.84 


57.21 


13 6 13 11 


79.54 


57.09 


137 


35 


_ 


_ 


14 14 5 


85.57 


57.27 


142.31 


54 


94.91 


59.88 


14 6 14 11 


91.11 


59.38 


155.43 


46 


- 


- 


15 15 5 


97.76 


60.23 


166.08 


37 


107.10 


62.30 


15 6 15 11 


100.91 


60.66 


180 


14 


_ 


- 


16 16 5 


113.82 


62.85 


192.14 


14 


121.01 


65.00 



A selected class gave a public exhibition upon the square in West- 
borough one evening in early summer. The boys merited and won 
hearty applause. 



56 PHYSICAL TRAINING LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The three hundred flags which were placed in the hands of the bat- 
talion for the Memorial Day parade in Southborough attracted much 
attention, and were used in an exercise upon the closing day of school. 

Base ball contests were entered into with zest during the summer 
vacation, the trophy being a silver cup, which was won by the Hill- 
side Cottage nine. 

On July 4 sports and games furnished amusement, and the prizes 
offered were well won. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALLISTON GREENE. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 57 



EBPOET OF THE SCHOOL PHYSICIAN. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman School for Boys. 

Efforts to prevent disease involves attention to every little ailment, 
and must be charged with the large number (1,138) of examinations 
of out-patients. The whole number of patients confined in the hos- 
pital one day or more was 168 ; the average time of 146 medical cases 
was 3.44 days ; of 22 surgical cases, 10 days. There has been no 
serious sickness, but 1 case of infectious disease and no death. 

At certain seasons the boys have been much troubled with colds, 
sore throats and catarrhs, which give the largest share of hospital 
cases. The most prominent cause seems to be the practice of venti- 
lating the dormitories by open windows. 

To satisfy myself on this question, I visited the dormitories about 
midnight, and found nearly every window open ; the air was good, 
but more than 40 boys were specially exposed by their position in 
relation to them. 

Another night all windows were closed about ten o'clock, and about 
twelve I went the round with the watchman, to note the effect. The 
air in every hall was noticeably close, and in three it was oppressive. 
The dormitories now lodge about 25 per cent, more boys than they 
were designed to accommodate, and many beds must stand near to 
windows ; therefore it is evident that some boys must be exposed all 
winter, or all must breathe foul air, unless systematic ventilation is 
provided. I am convinced such provision will remove the principal 
cause of catarrh, which is often far-reaching and baneful in its effect 
on the hearing and vocal organs. 

Owing to the recent dry season, the sewer beds are not a source of 
much offence at present, but it is evident that they cannot do the 
work required. It is earnestly desired that a better system may be 
adopted before we are invaded by an epidemic. 

Cases of defective vision and other diseases of the eyes have con- 
tinued to be under the skilful care of Dr. Quackenboss of Boston 
during the year. 



58 PHYSICIAN'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Dr. Mosher of Boston was employed to examine a number of boys 
having chronic disorders of the nose and throat, and on his advice 6 
were operated on at the Massachusetts General Hospital. 

The school is to be congratulated on the appointment of a Consult- 
ing Board of Physicians, whose valuable aid may be invoked, and 
whose counsel will lend strength and dignity to its medical service. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRANCIS E. COREY, 

Physician. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18 



59 



EEPOET OF THE MANAGER OP BERLIN 
FARM-HOUSE. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

This report can vary but little from those of former years. There 
has been the same anxious solicitude for — not the same — but for a 
similar set of wayward boys. Like those of last year, they have been 
younger and smaller than those of previous years. The average age 
must have been considerably less than twelve years. While this 
might seem to indicate that the children have been easier to control 
and more susceptible to good influences, yet, on the other hand, it 
shows that the home influence must have been of a low type, when 
boys of such tender age could have repeatedly broken the laws of 
society. I say repeatedly, for, so far as I can learn, these boys are 
never committed for a first offence. It might be better for them if 
they were. 

During the past year 45 boys have been registered here, but 4 of 
these were boys who, for various reasons, were returned to us for a 
longer or shorter time, and were again placed in families. Three 
boys have been transferred back to Westborough as needing its stricter 
discipline. Four were returned to their own homes and 38 were 
placed in families ; present number is 20. 





d 


d 


d 




d 




d 














GO 






> 


— • 


a 




> 


.2 


d 






a 


c3 




OJ 


a 


03 






Q 


« 




M 


Q 


M 


1898. 








1899. 








October, . 


6 


1 


25 


March, . 


2 


4 


18 


November, 


6 


12 


19 


April, 


4 


1 


21 


1 December, 


2 


2 


19 


May, 


4 


1 


21 










June, 


4 


_ 


21 


1899. 








July, 


6 


5 


22 


1 January, . 


2 


- 


17 


August, . 


7 


4 


25 


1 February, 


1 


2 


16 


September, 


3 


8 


20 



60 FARM-HOUSE REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

The above statement shows an average of only 20 at the close of 
each month, yet at times we have been much crowded, and have felt 
that the best personal work was impossible. 

The average size of boys has been less than at any other time. In 
many cases this seems to have been caused by the use of tobacco, the 
evil influence of which was apparent in impaired mental activity, 
weakened nervous force and a lack of physical development. 

A few consecutive months of life in this health-giving atmosphere, 
with an abundance of wholesome food and regular hours for exercise 
and sleep, soon tell in a boy's appearance. He becomes apparently 
a normal boy, but he finds himself mentally, and often physically, 
where he should have been years before. His close touch with 
nature, in garden and field, has prepared both mind and heart for the 
reception of good seed, and has brought him to the point where he is 
ready to do good work in the school. 

Generally speaking, the health of the school has been good. Several 
boys who had chronic throat trouble were sent to the hospital, where 
their tonsils were removed and a marked improvement followed. 

One little fellow, in trying to save the back of a favorite pig, took 
upon his own arm a blow from the tip cart, which broke a bone. 
Three trips to Dr. Bowers' office in Clinton were made on account of 
this accident. Aside from these instances, a physician's services 
have not been required. Being so far removed from the main school, 
we of course miss the concerts, lectures and entertainments furnished 
there ; but during the past year this loss has been in a measure made 
up to us through the kindness of Rev. S. K. Smith of Marlborough, 
who from time to time has brought to us musicians, elocutionists, 
professional and business men, who have given us pleasant entertain- 
ments free of cost. I am glad to acknowledge our indebtedness to 
Rev. Mr. Smith, who since the opening of this school has shown a 
marked interest in the spiritual and temporal welfare of its members. 

Respectfully submitted, 

EMILY L. WARNER. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



61 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



1898. 



1899. 



October, received from the State Treas 


November, 


ct u u t 


December, 


" 


February, 


it it tt t 


March, 


tt tt it c 


April, 

May, 

June, 


It tt It t 

tt it tt i 


July, 

August, 

September, 


(( tt tt ( 

it cc (( ( 

tt (t tt ( 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury. 
1898. — October, . $5,193 06 



1899. 



November, 

December, 

January, 

February, 

March, . 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, . 

September, 



$5,193 06 


7,721 71 


5,399 32 


4,845 08 


5,182 46 


4,917 40 


6,150 51 


6,756 20 


4,649 22 


5,797 89 


4,389 64 


6,836 31 


$67,838 80 


JRY. 

$5,193 06 


7,721 71 


5,399 32 


4,845 08 


5,182 46 


4,917 40 


6,150 51 


6,756 20 


4,649 22 


5,797 89 


4,389 64 


6,836 31 


$67,838 80 



1898. 
1899. 



Amount drawn from the State Treasury. 
Special Appropriation {Acts of 1898, Chapter 100) for Boarding. 

$846 41 



October, 
January, 



624 93 



$1,471 34 



62 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Special Appropriation (Acts of 1899, Chapter 312) for Boarding 

Deficiency. 
1899. — January, $551 80 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1899, Chapter 55) for Boarding. 

1899.— April, $1,088 58 

July, 1,135 90 

$2,224 48 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1898, Chapter 57) for School-house. 

1898. — October, $1,505 87 

October, . . . . 2,104 14 

November, 1,638 48 

1899. — January, 1,934 38 

March, 2,161 72 

April, 1,752 52 

May, 873 12 

August, . 1,771 37 

$13,741 60 

Special Appropriation (Resolves of 1899, Chapter 47) for Laundry and 

Industrial Building. 

1899. — June, $512 00 

September, 4,802 28 

$5,314 28 
Expenditures. 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the Stale Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1898, Chapter 100) for Boarding. 

1898. — October, $84641 

1899. — January, 624 93 

$1,471 34 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 

(Acts of 1899, Chapter 312) for Boarding Deficiency. 
1899. — January, $551 80 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1899, Chapter 55) for Boarding. 

1899. — April $1,088 58 

1899. — July, 1,135 90 

$2,224 48 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 63 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
{Acts of 1898, Chapter 57) for School-house. 

1898. — October, $ 1,505 87 

October, 2,104 14 

November, 1,638 48 

1899. — January, 1,934 38 

March, % . 2,161 72 

April, 1,752 52 

May, ........... 873 12 

August, 1,771 37 



$13,741 60 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
{Resolves of 1899, Chapter 47) for Laundry and Industrial Building. 

1899.— June, $512 00 

September 4,802 28 



$5,314 28 

Expenditures for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1899. 
Salaries of officers and employees, . . . $26,656 62 
Wages of others temporarily employed, . . 780 62 

$27,437 24 



Provisions and grocery supplies, including : — 

Ammonia, $5 80 

Bath brick and sand, . . . . , 6 55 

Beans, 439 48 

Beeswax, 41 60 

Beef, 1,807 52 

Bon Ami 5 00 

Butter, . . 1,093 00 

Candles, 4 32 

Cedar pails, 2 25 

Cereal coffee, 56 91 

Cheese, 254 81 

Cocoa and chocolate, . . . . 16 86 

Coffee, - 102 25 

Condition powder, 9 00 

Corn flour, 27 50 

Corn meal, 46 99 

Crackers, . . 93 58 

Cranberries, 11 50 

Cream tartar, soda and baking powder, . . 46 10 

Extracts, 52 98 

Fatal food, 5 40 

Pish, 550 04 



Amounts carried forward, .... $4,679 44 $27,437 24 



64 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Amounts brought forward, .... $4,679 44 $27,437 24 

Provisions and grocery supplies, including : — 

Flour, 1,401 75 

Fly paper, 9 07 

Fowl, 160 95 

Fruit and canned goods, . . . . . 490 59 

Gelatine, 8 64 

Honey, 3 85 

Ice 467 90 

Ice cream, . . . . . . . 4 25 

Lamb and mutton, 186 06 

Lard, 214 07 

Macaroni, 7 38 

Maple sugar, 1 44 

Molasses, ........ 348 99 

Nuts and nut foods, 11 63 

Oat meal, 46 36 

Olives and olive oil, 4 00 

Onions, 6 15 

Oysters, 67 70 

Paper bags, 54 45 

Pepper, 8 56 

Pork, ham and bacon, . . . . . 361 24 

Potatoes, . 107 00 

Raisins 24 90 

Rice, 67 73 

Rye flour and meal, 24 00 

Salt, 38 95 

Sand, 2 00 

Sausage, . ■ 65 63 

Shredded wheat 19 00 

Soap and soap powder, 284 92 

Spices, 19 36 

Split peas, . . . . . ... 122 10 

Stove polish, 6 48 

Starch and bluing, 10 65 

Sugar, 787 24 

Sundries, 37 

Tapioca, 5 77 

Tea 69 80 

Tooth picks, 4 00 

Tripe, 11 20 

Vinegar, 6 64 

Vitos and granose, . . . . . . 72 35 

Wheaten flour, 418 90 

Yeast, 166 27 

10,879 73 



Amount carried forward, ..... . $38,316 97 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 65 

Amount brought forward, .... . . $38,316 97 

Furniture, beds and bedding: — 

Agate ware, . $52 27 

Baskets, . 4 50 

Bell, I. 90 

Blankets, 191 90 

Brooms and brushes, 182 88 

Carpet laying, 4 25 

Chairs, 26 66 

Coal hods and ash sifters, . . . . 10 50 

Crockery, 136 81 

Clothes line, . . . . . . . 7 95 

Crumb tray and brush, 1 00 

Curtains and draperies, 4 49 

Cutlery, 7 99 

Desks 11 50 

Electric lamps, . . . . . 38 25 

Flower pots, . . . . . . . 42 

Furniture material, . . . . . 4 97 

Glassware, 6 84 

Ice-cream freezers, 7 50 

Iron ware, 34 77 

Lamp chimneys and wicks, .... 13 33 

Laundry boards, 12 00 

Laundry machinery repairs, .... 10 05 

Linoleum and laying same, .... 137 25 

Mattress repairs, 95 20 

Mirrors, 11 88 

Mosquito netting, . . . . . . 3 25 

Oil cloth, 13 00 

Piano cover, 2 50 

Piano stool 2 00 

Picture wire, 30 

Repair of furniture, 30 00 

Rubber blankets, 40 50 

Rugs and carpets, 68 70 

Screen covering, 1 05 

Sewing machine repairs, 4 92 

Shears, combs and brushes, . . . . 102 98 

Sheeting, 31 89 

Silver plated wire, 69 08 

Stove furniture, ...... 3 77 

Table, 5 85 

Table linen 91 98 

Tin and copper ware, 44 84 

Towels and napkins, 138 61 



Amounts carried forward, . . . . $1,671 28 $38,316 97 



66 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amounts brought forward, . 

Furniture, beds and bedding : — 
Upholstering furniture, . 
Wooden ware, . 



Clothing : — 

Buttons, .... 

Collars, .... 

Collar buttons, . . 

Cotton, .... 

Darning cotton, 

Denim, .... 

Duck coats, 

Elastic, .... 

Extension cases, 

Flannel, .... 

Handkerchiefs, . 

Hats and caps, . 

Indelible ink, . 

Laundry, .... 

Making clothing, 

Mittens, .... 

Neckties, .... 

Needles, thimbles and pins, 

Overalls, .... 

Overcoats, 

Shirts, .... 

Shoe laces, 

Shoes and repairs, . 

Silesia, .... 

Stockings, 

Suits, .... 

Suspenders, 

Tape, . . 

Thread 

Underclothing, 



$1,671 28 $38,316 97 



1,710 32 



20 00 


19 


04 


$101 


41 


6 


16 


1 


28 


155 48 


3 51 


141 


43 


24 00 


1 


38 


81 


80 


479 


12 


91 


92 


217 


94 


13 50 


12 43 


120 00 


65 


27 


57 


19 


3 


65 


31 


35 


501 


00 


17 75 


31 


93 


2,006 


35 


10 60 


214 09 


692 36 


191 


39 


1 


14 


37 


99 


182 


65 



Fuel and lights : — 

Coal, $6,500 12 

Electric lights, 1,752 17 

Kerosene oil, . . . . . . . 52 28 

Wood, 4 50 



School supplies : — 

Arithmetics and algebras, 
Binding books, . 
Blank books, 
Compasses, 



Amounts carried forward, 



5,496 





u r v,; v 


$42 84 




77 60 




20 25 




30 00 





$170 69 $53,832 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — 


No. 18. 


67 


Amounts brought forward, .... $170 69 


$53,832 43 


School supplies : — 




Composition paper, 21 50 




Desk, .... 








25 75 




Dictionaries, 








122 40 




Drawing paper, 








109 12 




Geographies, . 








42 71 




Histories, .... 








48 16 




Ink 








7 80 




Lead pencils, . 








24 60 




Library paper, . 








18 78 




Library paste, . 








1 94 




Manual training supplies, 








479 88 




Miscellaneous books, 








23 06 




Model stand, 








75 




Mucilage and bottles, 








5 95 




Music, .... 








2 57 




Paints and drawing material, . 








49 28 




Pencil erasers, .... 








11 45 




Pens and penholders, 








17 05 




Penmanship paper, . 








5 00 




Pictures, 








5 41 




Readers, 








47 30 




Singing books, .... 








53 55 




Sloyd supplies, .... 








355 71 




Spelling blanks, 








12 50 




Writing books, .... 








26 41 




Writing paper, .... 








10 00 




Institution property : — 




1,699 32 




Horse blankets, $7 15 




Ladders, 9 qq 




Lawn mower, . q qq 




Skates, 

Seeds, plants and fertilizers : — 


75 


24 10 




Fertilizers $543 32 




Flower seeds and bulbs, 9 00 




Garden seed, 62 84 




Grass seed 39 93 




Ground bone, 1 50 




Hellebore, 1 50 


/ 


Horse-radish roots, 7 70 




Manure, 30 00 




Muriate of potash, 40 00 




Plants and shrubs, 121 45 




Seed corn, 10 70 




Seed potatoes, 108 00 








975 94 




Amount carried forward, .... 


$56,531 79 



68 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amount brought forward. 

Grain and meal for stock : — 
Bran, .... 

Corn, .... 

Corn, oats and barley, 
Corn meal, 
Cotton-seed meal, 
Cracked corn, . 
Fine seed, .... 
Gluten, .... 

Grit, 

Ground bone, . 

Hulled oats, 

Linseed meal, . 

Middlings, 

Millet, . 

Mixed feed, 

Naptholeum, . 

Oats, .... 

Oat feed, .... 

Oyster shells, . 

Peat moss, 

Rent of pasture, 

Salt rock, . . . 

Scraps, .... 

Shorts, .... 

Straw, .... 

Wheat, .... 

Ordinary repairs : — 
Barn door roll, . 
Beeswax, .... 
Belting, .... 
Blacksmithing, . 
Boiler and furnace repairs, 

Bolts 

Brackets, .... 
Brass, lead, tin and copper, 
Brick, .... 
Building paper, 
Cement and lime, 
Carbonate of lime, . 
Charcoal, .... 
Clothes dryer, . 
Concrete work, 
Cotton waste, . 
Dry mortar, 

Amounts carried forward, 



. $56,531 79 


$29 20 


5 15 


124 35 


119 49 


233 15 


222 33 


31 25 


350 13 


2 05 


56 


16 00 


27 60 


44 00 


1 75 


280 55 


25 


379 00 


9 75 


5 65 


163 80 


45 00 


6 85 


23 75 


5 20 


75 53 


203 01 

O AftK QK 




$2 00 


2 00 


1 93 


52 45 


52 97 


13 83 


57 


7 16 


4 05 


16 52 


70 55 


12 00 


1 80 


5 08 


84 40 


4 55 


13 50 



$345 36 $58,937 14 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — 



Amounts brought forward^ . 

Ordinary repairs : — 

Electric light and telephone repairs, 

Emery cloth, . 

Fatal food, 

Galvanized iron work, 

Glass, putty and paint, 

Glue, . ... 

Labor, 

Lawn mowers, . 

Linseed oil, 

Liquid disinfectant, . 

Locks, butts, and hooks, 

Lubricating oil, 

Lumber, . 

Nails, brads and screws, 

Paints and brushes, . 

Papering and painting at Berlin, 

Pipe and fittings, 

Powdered borax, 

Putting in radiator at Wayside, 

Repairs to buggies and sleighs, 

Repairs to harness, . 

Repairs to house utensils 

Repairs to musical instruments, 

Repairs to engine, . 

Repairs to Venetian blinds 

Repairs to lawn mowers, 

Rope, 

Rubber tubing, 

Sal soda, . 

Screens, . 

Sewer grates, 

Sewer pumps, 

Shellac, . 

Slate repairs, 

Small tools, 

Stove pipe, 

Stove repairs, 

Tarred paper, 

Turpentine, 

Twine, 

Wall paper, 

Weatherstrip, 

Window guards, 

Wood alcohol 



Amount carried forward, 



No. 18. 


69 


$345 36 


$58,937 14 


104 29 




17 




5 40 




15 34 




3 87 




4 50 




893 53 




6 60 




19 14 




33 25 




69 35 




9 90 




386 13 




94 19 




400 67 




59 21 




362 29 




26 10 




35 00 




127 80 




58 40 




84 09 




5 60 




5 85 




2 55 




2 38 




11 59 




2 16 




14 56 




11 25 




5 10 




108 78 




2 62 




6 82 




127 47 




95 




13 90 




7 63 




223 28 




80 




63 76 




2 04 




2 75 




1 50 






3,767 92 






$62,705 06 



70 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amount brought forward, .... . . $62,705 06 

Transportation and travelling expenses : — 

Express and freight charges, .... $701 78 

Travelling expenses, 786 06 

■ 1,487 84 

Live stock purchases, 464 00 

Farm tools and repairs to same, 1,179 04 

Horse shoeing, 98 83 

News, Sunday-school and waste papers, . . . . 377 76 

Postage, telephone, telegraph and phonograph, . . . 522 16 

Drugs and medical supplies, 235 82 

Printing material, 144 45 

Stationery, 188 84 

Water, . . . 430 00 

Rent, 5 00 

$67,838 80 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



71 






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72 FINANCIAL STATEMENT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 






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1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



73 



Superintendent's Report of Cash 


Transactions — 


Receipt 


J. 






Farm 

Produce 

Sales. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
8ales. 


Labor 

of 
Boys. 


Totals. 


1898. 












October 


Received cash from, . 


$13 64 


$33 06 


$4 00 


$50 70 


November, .... 


(I M H 


22 47 


1 25 


30 35 


54 07 


December, .... 


( (i «< 


16 91 


2 75 


24 92 


44 58 


1899. 












January, 








<l 


1 ( 




1 48 


- 


10 30 


11 78 


February, 








" 


' « 




15 25 


4 04 


90 


20 19 


March, . 








«« 


' ' 




38 64 


16 97 


3 50 


59 11 


April, . 








« 


' « 




25 78 


4 65 


2 80 


33 23 


May, . 








ft 


« ' 




18 28 


4 28 


26 86 


49 42 


June, 








" 


< ( 




24 61 


7 46 


2 35 


34 42 


July, 








" 


' ' 




31 46 


7 84 


- 


39 30 


August, . 








(( 


« ' 




99 56 


- 


- 


99 56 


September, 








" 


' ' 




10 85 


2 46 


1 00 


14 31 


Totals, 


$318 93 


$84 76 


$106 98 


$510 67 



Superintendent's Report of Gash Transactions — Disbursements. 







Farm 
Produce 

Sales. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
Sales. 


Labor 

of 
Boys. 


Totals. 


1898. 












October, .... 


Paid State Treasurer, 


$13 64 


$33 06 


$4 00 


$50 70 


November, .... 


« .< 


22 47 


1 25 


30 35 


54 07 


December 


<< << << 


16 91 


2 75 


24 92 


44 58 


1899. 












January, 




<< <( i< 


1 48 


- 


10 30 


11 78 


February, 








'« " 


15 25 


4 04 


90 


20 19 


March, . 








.« u 


38 64 


16 97 


3 50 


59 11 


April, . 








ft (1 <( 


25 78 


4 65 


2 80 


33 23 


May, 








«. « 


18 28 


4 28 


26 86 


49 42 


June, 








.< .< 


24 61 


7 46 


2 35 


34 42 


July, 








ft ft (1 


31 46 


7 84 


- 


39 30 


August, . 








.« .. 


99 56 


- 


- 


99 56 


September, 








•< << (1 
ft «f It 


10 85 


2 46 


1 00 


14 31 


Totals, 


$318 93 


$84 76 


$106 98 


$510 67 



74 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE FARMER. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The crops this year have been very satisfactory, notwithstanding 
their having suffered severely from our exceptionally dry weather. 

It has been very difficult to get the seed to germinate this year, 
some crops failing entirely to come up, and others being several 
weeks in doing so. This slow and uncertain germination of the seed 
has made it hard to obtain forage for our cattle. The pasturage for 
the young stock has also been very poor. 

The number of cattle in our herd remains about the same as last 
year, all told 69 head. I desire to raise each year enough calves to 
keep the number in our herd good, and at the same time replace un- 
profitable animals. We have some very promising heifers. Our 
herd has produced 226,660 pounds of milk during the past year, or 
an average of 17.1 pounds each per day during the milking period. 

Owing to the encroachments of buildings, etc., we are becoming 
somewhat cramped for tillage land, and it will be difficult to keep our 
large herd of cattle without buying forage, unless perhaps it may be 
done by means of an extensive system of soiling. This year about 9 
acres were planted at halves on the Stone place, on which was raised 
about 550 bushels of potatoes and considerable corn and fodder. 

The grape crop was good and ripened well, but the blackberry crop 
was destroyed by the ice during the winter. A new plantation will 
be set in the spring. 

While new buildings are being constructed it is impossible to make 
any decided improvements on our unimproved land, yet many stones 
are removed every season, and their loss cannot help being appreci- 
ated in time. 

Under Mr. Swift's very able management our poultry has been 
very profitable. 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. S. GRAHAM. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 75 



KEPOKT OF THE POULTRY DEPARTMENT. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

The Lyman School has six double poultry houses, with scratching 
sheds. The sheds are built on the roosting houses, giving many ad- 
vantages, such as out-door exercise, eggs more fertile. 

There have been 1,960 eggs incubated, getting 1,472 strong chicks. 
"With the use of nine "Peep-O-Day" brooders we have raised 1,385 
chicks. Besides there have been produced 31,968 eggs and 2,128 
pounds of poultry. 

The boys are very much interested in the tiny birds from the time 
they are taken from the incubator to the mature bird, when they 
gather the eggs for their cake and pick the chicks for their dinners. 
It furnishes work for a number of boys, cleaning houses and grind- 
ing bone, feeding and watering. 

Respectfully submitted, 

I. T. SWIFT. 



76 FARMER'S EEPOET LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct, 



REPORT OF THE FARMER AT BERLIN 
FARM-HOUSE. 



To the Superintendent of the Lyman School for Boys. 

I herewith present the fourth annual report of the Berlin Farm. 

The past season, while it has had drawbacks, we think will com- 
pare favorably with others, and in some lines we believe an advance 
has been made, especially in bee culture and celery raising. A year 
ago a few swarms of bees were purchased. Being unacquainted with 
their nature, it was practically an experiment, but proved a profitable 
one, not only in the amount of honey secured, but to the boys, who 
have been very interested and have learned much about the habits of 
bees. At present we have twelve strong swarms. The 10th of June 
the boys set out one thousand celery plants, varieties Golden Plume 
and Paris Golden, in the meadow land. Although the season has 
been dry, we have a good supply of well-blanched celery on hand. 
A little earlier two thousand horseradish plants were set out in the 
same meadow, and there is every indication of a good crop of roots 
for grinding another spring. 

This meadow land, I believe, is valuable for gardening, and the 
plans for the coming year are to drain it and put under cultivation 
all that is possible and do it well. 

Potatoes yielded well, three hundred bushels having been raised. 
Onions, turnips, carrots, and all early garden produce we have had 
in abundance, as well as small fruits. The hay crop was about one- 
fourth short, owing to the early drought. As usual, a new straw- 
berry bed has been set out, also pear, plum and cherry trees, and two 
dozen grape vines. 

Cows, swine and poultry have been increased. Surplus milk has 
been used to fatten calves. 

The boys the past year, while many have been small, have shown 
much interest in the farm, especially in their own gardens, the vege- 
tables from which they have been allowed to use as they choose. 

The running water has proved valuable both in the kitchen and in 
the basement for the eight shower baths placed there. 

In conclusion, I wish to thank all for the interest and favors shown 

in the past year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

IRA G. DUDLEY. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 77 



SUMMAEY OF FARM ACCOUNT 

For the Twelve Months ending Sept. 30, 1899. 



Dr. 

Live stock, agricultural implements and farm 

produce on hand, as appraised Sept. 30, 1898, $11,075 45 

Board, 156 00 

Farm tools and repairs, 785 66 

Fertilizers . 614 82 

Grain and meal for stock, 2,131 16 

Horse shoeing, 68 95 

Labor for boys, 789 00 

Live stock purchases, 463 25 

Ordinary repairs, 23 30 

Seeds and plants, 252 88 

Wages, . . . . . . . . 995 16 

Water, 20 00 

$17,375 63 

Net gain for twelve months, 1,854 92 



Cr. 

Apples, $32 24 

Asparagus, 63 56 

Blueberries, 39 70 

Blackberries, 5 40 

Beet greens, 1 50 

Beets, 50 33 

Beans, shell, 14 20 

Beans, string, 13 40 

Beef, 356 23 

Cash for apples, 6 58 

Cash for asparagus, 3 25 

Cash for bull, 42 60 

Cash for calves, 65 75 

Cash for citron, 20 

Cash for eggs, 6 79 

Cash for fowl and chicken, .... 52 58 

Cash for hides, 20 79 

Cash for hot-bed mats, 6 00 

Cash for ice, 9 00 

Cash for milk, 67 91 

Cash for onions, 30 13 

Cash for squash, 1 00 

Amount carried forward, .... $889 14 



$19,230 55 



78 FARMER'S REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Amount brought forward, 

Cash for strawberries 

Cabbage, 

Carrots, 

Celery, 

Corn, . 

Cherries, 

Currants, 

Cucumbers, 

Cauliflower 

Eggs, . 

Grapes, 

Honey, 

Labor for institution, 

Lettuce, 

Melon, 

Milk, . 

Onions, 

Parsnips, 

Potatoes, 

Pumpkins 

Pork, . 

Peas. . 

Plums, 

Pears, . 

Poultry, 

Radishes, 

Rhubarb, 

Raspberries 

Squash, 

Strawberries, 

Tomatoes 

Turnips, 



$889 14 

6 25 
103 47 

25 90 
25 90 
80 22 

2 64 

3 80 
44 73 

2 00 

623 51 

67 71 

7 20 
1,655 75 

30 80 
17 95 

3,778 75 

103 50 

8 50 
415 51 

9 30 
120 54 

31 49 
1 00 
1 88 

411 53 

46 70 

7 85 

17 00 

61 20 

104 16 
50 30 
10 85 



Live stock, agricultural implements and farm produce on 
hand Sept. 30, 1899, 



1899. 



Produce oi 


r the Farm 


on Hand Oct. 


1 


Apples, . 
Beans, 






$61 70 
193 25 


English hay, 
Oats, 




Beets, 






96 75 


Onions, . 




Corn, 






150 00 


Potatoes, . 




Cucumbers, 
Cabbage, . 
Carrots, . 
Celery, 
Ensilage, 






16 80 
55 70 
76 40 
48 00 
720 00 


Parsnips, . 
Pumpkins, 
Squash, . 
Turnips, . 




Fodder, . 






163 30 




Grass seed, 






35 50 







8,767 03 

10,463 52 

f 19,230 55 

|868 50 

105 50 

197 70 

295 50 

26 25 

8 68 

260 30 

75 40 

$3,455 23 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18 



79 



Farm Sales. 



Apples, . 

Asparagus, 

Bull, 

Calves, . 

Citron, 

Eggs, 

Fowl and chicken, 

Hides, 



$6 58 


3 25 


42 60 


65 75 


20 


6 79 


52 58 


20 79 



Hot-bed mats, 
Ice, . 
Milk, 
Onions, . 
Squash, . 
Strawberries, 



$6 00 


9 00 


67 91 


30 13 


1 00 


6 25 



$318 83 



Live Stock. 



Westborough farm 
Bulls (2), 
Cows (41), 
Calves (3), 
Heifers (22), 
Hens (196), 
Pullets (480), 
Roosters (310) 
Hogs (7), 
Horses (6), 
Horse (Bess), 
Horse (Charley), 



$80 00 
2,255 00 

40 00 
440 00 

98 00 
240 00 
155 00 
140 00 
500 00 
100 00 
5 00 

$4,053 00 



Berlin farm : — 
Cows (4), 

Horse, . . . 
Sows (2), 

Pigs (12), . . . 
Hens, pullets and roosters 

(140) 



$160 00 
50 00 
18 00 
36 00 

56 00 

$320 00 
4,053 00 

$4,373 00 



Summary, 

Produce on hand, $3,455 23 

Produce sold, 318 83 

Produce consumed, 8,448 20 

Live stock, 4,373 00 

Agricultural implements, . 2,635 29 



Poultry Account. 
Dr. 
To fowl and feed on hand, as appraised Sept. 

30,1898, 

feed, 

net gain, 

Cr. 



$514 76 
400 51 
882 79- 



! By eggs used, 

fowl and chicken used, 

cash for eggs, ..... 

cash for fowl and chicken, . 

fowl and feed, as appraised Sept. 30, 1899, 



$623 51 


411 53 


6 79 


52 58 


703 65 



|19,230 55 



$1,798 06 



$1,798 06 



80 



SUMMARY LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



SUMMAEY OF PROPERTY OF THE LYMAN 

SCHOOL. 



Real Estate 



Forty-eight acres tillage land, 
Thirty-six acres pasturage, 
Seventy-two acres Wilson land, 
Three-fourths of an acre Brady land, 
Willow Park land, three acres, 
Berlin land, about one hundred acres, 



.$11,200 00 




. 1,900 00 




4,100 00 




. 1,300 00 




. 1,500 00 




2,000 00 






$22,000 00 



Buildings. 

Hay and cow barn, $11,000 00 

Horse barn, 2,600 00 

Wayside Cottage, 5,900 00 

Hillside Cottage, 15,000 00 

Maple Cottage 3,500 00 

Oak, 16,000 00 

Bowlder 17,000 00 

Willow Park 5,000 00 

Theodore Lyman Hall, ...... 38,200 00 

Superintendent's house, 9,500 00 

Chapel, 3,700 00 

Bakery building, 8,000 00 

Armory 500 00 

Berlin house, 2,500 00 

Berlin barn and sheds, 1,000 00 

Piggery building, 600 00 

Scale house 600 00 

Hen houses, ........ 1,125 00 

Ice house, 20 00 

Tool house (Bowlder), ...... 25 00 

New school-house, 25,703 38 

- 167,473 38 

Amount carried forward, $189,473 38 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 81 

Amount brought forward, $189,473 38 

Personal Estate. 

Beds and bedding, . ...... 83,693 32 

Other furniture, ....... 20,811 10 

Carriages, 924 20 

Agricultural implements, 2,635 29 

Dry goods, 766 01 

Drugs and surgical instruments, . . . . 475 05 

Fuel and oil . . 2,788 00 

Library, 3,083 30 

Live stock, 4,373 00 

Mechanical tools and appliances, .... 7,410 77 

Provisions and groceries, . . . . . 1,526 25 

Produce on hand, 3,455 23 

Ready made clothing, 6,991 72 

Raw material, . 1,026 07 

59,959 31 



$249,432 69 



PRESCOTT G. BROWN, 
IRVING A. NOURSE, 

Appraisers. 
A true copy. Attest : T. F. Chapin, Superintendent. 



82 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



LIST OF SALAEIED OFFICBES NOW 
EMPLOYED. 



Theodore F. Chapin, superintendent, 

Mrs. Maria B. Chapin, matron, . 

Walter M. Day, assistant superintendent,* 

Mabel B. Teasdale, amanuensis, 

Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Pierce, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Brackett, charge of family 

Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Hallier, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Wilcox, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Merrill, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. I, T. Swift, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Pettengill, charge of family, 

Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Kimball, charge of family, 

Emily L. Warner, charge of Berlin Farm, 

Mr. and Mrs. Ira G. Dudley, assistants at Berlin, 

Mary L. Pettit, principal, . 

Anna L. Wilcox, teacher of Sloyd, . 

Mary F. Wilcox, teacher of Sloyd, . 

Fannie H. Wheelock, teacher of drawing, 

James D. Littlefield, supervisor of manual training, 

Alliston Greene, teacher of physical drill, 

M. Everett Howard, teacher of printing, 

Emma F. Newton, teacher, 

Marion L. Cole, teacher, . . . 

Flora J. Dyer, teacher, 

Jennie M. Wood, teacher, . . 

Stella M. Osgood, teacher, . 

Mary L. Brown, teacher, . 

Lillian T. Peaslee, teacher, 

Grace A. Hubbard, teacher, 

Edith Howard, nurse, 

Fannie S. Mitchell, seamstress, . 

Mary E. Greeley, assistant matron, . 

Susie E. Wheeler, assistant matron, . 

Sarah E. Goss, assistant matron, 

L. Florence Edmands, assistant matron, 

Mabel G. Moore, assistant matron, . 

Mabel M. King, assistant matron, 

* Board themselves. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 83 

Margaret J. Ord, assistant matron, $250 00 

Lenora S. Day, assistant matron, 250 00 

Lillia Y. Burhoe, assistant matron, 250 00 

Emma L. Burgess, housekeeper superintendent's house, . . 300 00 

Prescott G. Brown, charge of storehouse, 500 00 

Mary E. Brown, charge of bakery, 300 00 

James W. Clark, engineer, 900 00 

A Russell King, carpenter, 500 00 

Charles S. Graham, farmer,* 700 00 

Frank W. Watts, assistant farmer, 300 00 

John T. Perkins, driver, . . . . . . . . 400 00 

Mial M. Thompson, watchman, 400 00 

Francis E. Corey, physician, ....... 300 00 

Advisory Physicians, Unpaid. 
Orville F. Rogers, M.D. Richard C. Cabot, M.D. James S. Stone, M.D. 

* Board themselves. 



84 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



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1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 85 

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85 



OFFICERS LYMAN SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



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W, P. Bowers, 

T. Herbert Ayer, . 

Elliott F. Denham, 

Prescott G. Brown, 

Harry G. Nye, 

John J. Murphy, . 

Ethie Stevenson, . 

Alice M. Etherington, . 

Mr. and Mrs. H. I. Skillings, 

Alice C. Skillings, . 

Everett E. Goodell, 

Lucy A. Tibbett, . 

Nancy Ledger, 

H. Maria Braley, . 

Arthur I. Goodell, . 

A. M. Jones, . 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Mason, 

Caroline 0. Montfort, . 

Cora 0. Dudley, . 

Minnie Burhoe, 

Chaplains, 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



87 



SUPERINTENDENTS. 



Date of 
Appointment. 


NAMES 




Date of 
Retirement. 




1848 


William R. Lincoln, . 










1853. 




1853 


James M. Talcott, . 










1857. 




1857 


William E. Starr, . 










1861 




1861 


Joseph A. Allen, 










1867. 




1867 


Orville K. Hutchinson, 










1868 




1868 


Benjamin Evans, 










May, 1873. 


May, 


1873 


Allen G. Shepherd, . 










Aug., 1878. 


Aug., 


1878 


Luther H. Sheldon, . 










Dec, 1880. 


Dec, 


1880 


Edmund T. Dooley, . 










Oct., 1881. 


Oct., 


1881 


, Joseph A. Allen, 










April, 1885. 


July, 


1885 


Henry E. Swan, 






* 


July, 1888. 


July, 


1888 


, Theodore F. Chapin, 






■ 


Still in office. 



88 



TRUSTEES LYMAN SCHOOL, 



[Oct. 



TRUSTEES 



Names, Residences, Commissions and Retirement of the Trustees of 
the State Reform School, from the Commencement to the present 
Time. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Eesidence. 




Commission. 






Eetirement. 


1847, 


Nahum Fisher,* . 


Westborough, . 


1849 


1847, 


John W. Graves, 


Lowell, . 


1849 


1847, 


Samuel Williston, 


Easthampton, . 


1853 


1847, 


Thomas A. Green,* 


New Bedford, . 


1860 


1847, 


Otis Adams,* 


Grafton, . 


1851 


1847, 


George Denney,* 


Westborough, . 


1851 


1847, 


William P. Andrews,* 


Boston, . 


1851 


1849, 


William Livingston,* . 


Lowell, . 


1851 


1849, 


Russell A. Gibbs,* 


Lanesborough, 


1853 


1851, 


George H. Kuhn, 


Boston, . 


1855 


1851, 


J. B. French,* . 


Lowell, . 


1854 


1851, 


Daniel H. Forbes, 


Westborough, . 


1854 


1851, 


Edward B. Bigelow,* . 


Grafton , . 


1855 


1853, 


J. W.H.Page,* . 


New Bedford, . 


1856 


1853, 


Harvey Dodge, . 


Sutton, 


1867 


1854, 


G. Howland Shaw,* . 


Boston, 


1856 


1854, 


Henry W. Cushman,* . 


Bernardston, . 


1860 


1855, 


Albert H. Nelson,* 


Woburn, . 


1855 


1855, 


Joseph A. Fitch, . 


Hopkinton, 


1858 


1855, 


Parley Hammond, 


Worcester, 


1860 


1856, 


Simon Brown, 


Concord, . 


1860 


1856, 


John A. Fayerweather, 


Westborough, . 


1859 


1857, ■ . 


Josiah H. Temple, 


Framingham, . 


1860 


1858, 


Judson S. Brown, 


Fitchburg, 


1860 


1859, 


Theodore Lyman, 


Brookline, 


1860 


1860, 


George C. Davis,* 


Northborough, 


1873 


1860, 


Carver Hotchkiss, 


Shelburne, 


1863 


1860, 


Julius A. Palmer, 


Boston, . 


1862 


1860, 


Henry Chickering, 


Pittsfield, 


1869 


1860, 


George W. Bentley, . 


Worcester, 


1861 


1860, 


Alden Leland, 


Holliston, 


1864 


1861, 


Pliny Nickerson, 


Boston, . 


1868 


1861, 


Samuel G. Howe,* 


Boston, . 


1863 


1862, 


Benjamin Boynton,* . 


Westborough, . 


1864 


1863, 


J. H. Stephenson, 


Boston, . 


1866 


1863, 


John Ayres, 


Charlestown, . 


1867 



* Deceased. 



1898.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



89 



Names, Residences, etc., oj Trustees — Concluded. 



Date of 






Date of 




NAMES. 


Kesidence. 




Commission. 






Retirement. 


1864, 


A. E. Goodnow, . 


Worcester, 


1874 


1864, 


Isaac Ames, 


Haverhill, 


1865 


1865, 


Jones S. Davis, -. 


Holyoke, . 


1868 


1866, 


Joseph A. Pond,* 


Brighton, 


1867 


1867, 


Stephen G. Deblois, . 


Boston, . 


1878 


1868, 


John Ay res, 


Medford, . 


1874 


1868, 


Harmon Hall, 


Saugus, . 
Bridgewater, . 


1871 


1868, 


L. L. Goodspeed, . 


1872 


1869, 


E. A. Hubbard, . . . 


Springfield, 


1877 


1871, 


Lucius W. Pond, . 


Worcester, 


1875 


1871, 


John W. Olmstead, 


Boston, . 


1873 


1872, 


Moses H. Sargent, 


Newton, . 


1877 


1873, 


A. S. Wood worth, 


Boston, . 


1876 


1873, 


Edwin B. Harvey, 


Westborough, . 


1878 


1874, 


W. H. Baldwin, . 


Boston, 


1876 


1875, 


John L. Cummin gs, . 


Ashburnham, . 


1879 


1876, 


Jackson B. Swett, 


Haverhill, 


1878 


1877, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester 


1879 


1877, 


Milo Hildreth,* . 


Northborough, 


1879 


1878, 


Lyman Belknap,* 


Westborough, . 


1879 


1878, 


Franklin Williams,* . 


Boston, 


1879 


1878, 


Robert Couch, 


Newburyport, . 


1879 


1879, 


John T. Clark, . 


Boston, . 


1879 


1879, 


M. J. Flatley, 


Boston, 


1881 


1879, 


Adelaide A. Calkins, . 


Springfield, 


1880 


1879, 


Lyman Belknap, . 


Westborough, . 


1884 


1879, 


Anne B. Richardson, . 


Lowell, . 


1886 


1879, 


Milo Hildreth.* . 


Northborough, 


1891 


1879, 


George W. Johnson, . 


Brookfield, 


1887 


1879, 


Samuel R. Heywood, . 


Worcester. 


1888 


1880, 


Elizabeth C. Putnam, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1881, 


Thomas Dwight, . 


Boston, . 


1884 


1884, 


M. II. Walker, . 


Westborough, . 


Still in office. 


1884, 


J. J. O'Connor,* . 


Holyoke, . 


1889 


1886, 


Elizabeth G. Evans, . 


Boston, . 


Still in office. 


1887, 


Chas. L. Gardner, 


Palmer, . 


1891 


1888, 


H. C. Greeley, . 


Clinton, . 


Still in office. 


1889, 


M. J. Sullivan, . 


Chicopee, 


" " 


1891, 


Samuel W. McDaniel, 


Cambridge, 


" " 


1891, 


C. P. Worcester, . 


Boston, . 


1897 


1897, 


E. C. Sanford, . 


Worcester, 


Still in office. 



* Deceased. 



90 



VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF 
VISITATION. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

The total number of individuals on the visiting list of the department 
of visitation during the year ending Sept. 30, 1899, was . 

Becoming of age during the year, 110 

Died, v. . . . . . 5 

Returned to school and not relocated, 30 

For serious fault, 19 

Not serious, . . 11 

Discharged, 1 

Making the total number passing out of our care during the 
year, 



821 



Leaving on the visiting list Oct. 1, 1899, 



146 
675 



This visiting list must not be confounded or compared with the total 
number of boys who have left the school and are not yet twenty-one years 
of age, given in Table 3 on page 33, which table includes those who 
have been discharged for one reason or another and are beyond our 
jurisdiction, or who have been transferred from the school to the Mas- 
sachusetts Reformatory at Concord. 

Of the 675 boys above mentioned as on our visiting list, 2 are not 
in the United States, 41 are on the unknown list, 7 have recently run 
away, but are not considered permanently lost sight of, and of 37* 
their employment was unknown at time of writing. The remainder, 
588, are employed as follows : — 



Agent, 1 

Army, 31 

Armory, 2 

Assisting parents, . . .57 

At board, 44 

Barber, 2 

Bell boy, 4 



Bicycle factory, . 
Book bindery, . 
Blacksmith, 


. 4 
. 1 
. 1 


Bootblack, . 


. 3 


Box factory, 
Brass works, 


. 2 
. 1 


Building mover, 


1 



* Of these 15 had been in the Massachusetts Reformatory, under sentence of court and 
whose whereabouts are unknown by this department since their release. Under former 
methods such boys have not been classed as under the care of the visitors. 



1899.] PUBLIC D< 


OCUl 


VIENT — No. 18. 


91 


Carpenter, 4 


Match shop, . 


l 


Cabinet maker, . 






1 


Navy, U. S., 


n 


Carriage shop, . 






2 


Navy yard, . 


l 


Clerk, 






6 


Oiler, 


l 


Chair shop, 






2 


Optical works, . 


l 


Coachman, . 






3 


Other public institutions, . 


23 


Conductor, . 






2 


Painter, 


3 


Cooper, 








Paper mill, . 


2 


Collector, . 








Pedler 


8 


Cornice works, . 








Potter, . 


1 


Comb shop, 








Printer, .... 


4 


Concord Reformatory 






11 


Porter, 


2 


Decorator, . 








Plumber, 


7 


Doorkeeper, 








Piano works, . 


2 


Errand boy, 






16 


Packing house, . 


1 


Express, 






6 


Paver, .... 


1 


Farmers, . 






145 


Rubber works, . 


3 


Foundry, . 






3 


Ropewalk, .... 


2 


Fishermen, 






2 


Sailor, .... 


5 


Glass works, 






1 


Shoe shop, .... 


21 


Hostlers, 






6 


Student, .... 


2 


Invalid, 






5 


Stone cutter, 


1 


Iron works, 






4 


Steward, .... 


1 


Jeweller's shop, 






1 


Screw shop, 


2 


Laborer, 






18 


Soap factory, . . 


2 


Laundry, . 






. 2 


Tanner, .... 


2 


Longshoreman, . 






1 


Teamsters, .... 


3 


Loom works, 






1 


Telegraph messenger, 


2 


Machinist, . 






6 


Upholsterer, 


. 3 


Mattress maker, 






1 


Wall paper factory, . 


1 


Mill (textile), . 






41 


Wood turner, -. 


2 


Milk wagon, 






. 3 


Wood yard, 


. 1 


Miner, 






1 


Wire mill, .... 


. 3 


Moulder, . 






. 1 


Weaver, .... 


. 2 


Market, 






. 3 







A study of the foregoing table shows that about 24.6 per cent, are 
employed on farms ; about 9 per cent, are assisting parents ; about 
8 per cent, are at board ; about 4 per cent, are in other penal institu- 
tions ; about 5.5 per cent, are in the United States Army ; about 7 per 
cent, are in mills ; and the other occupations have but a few names 
each. 

The deportment of the above-mentioned 588 boys, calculated by 
the same standard as last year, shows that 556, or 94.5 percent.,* are 
doing well ; 12, or 2 per cent., doubtfully ; and 20, or 3.5 per cent., 
including those sent to Concord Reformatory, badly. 



* In explanation of this large per cent, doing well, it should be noted that most of the 
boys who do badly fall out of the visiting department by being recalled to the school 
or being transferred by the trustees to the Massachusetts Reformatory. 



C J2 



VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 



1890. 



1898. 



Number of boys placed in their homes when leaving the school, 
Number of boys placed with others when leaving the school, 
Number of boys boarded out when leaving the school, . 

Total number placed out and becoming subjects of visi- 
tation, 



100 
79 
48 



227 



86 
37 



211 



The whole number of boys returned to the school was 81, as against 
89 for the year 1898. Of this number of returns, 26 only were for 
serious fault, the remaining 55 being for relocation and other purposes. 

There have been 1,544 visits made upon these probationers within 
the year, to which number should be added the 31 visits made upon 
the same boys by individual members of your Board, thus bringing 
the whole number of visits received by the boys in this department 
to a total of 1,575. We have made 198 investigations of homes and 
65 investigations of places, and reported thereon in writing to the 
Lyman School. It may be of interest to note that, of the 1,575 
visits paid to probationers, 650 have been made to 434 boys eighteen 
years of /age or over, or an average of about 1.5 visits each. In this 
enumeration are included some boys in the Concord Reformatory 
whom we do not visit at all, and others in the United States Army 
who are beyond our reach. This would bring the actual number of 
visits paid to each boy of this age to 2 or more. There have been 
925 visits r made to 387 boys under eighteen years of age, or an aver- 
age of about 2.5 visits to each boy. 

We have collected and paid over to the Lyman School $1,057 as 
wages for the account of 43 boys.* 

In addition to the visits and investigations before mentioned, we 
have met every week at the Lyman School, either for consultation or 
to meet a committee of your Board, or to interview prospective pro- 
bationers. Nearly one-sixth of our time has been spent in this way, 
and is, of course, not reportable in detail. 

The following table shows the occupation of 110 boys whose names 
are on the visitation list who have become of age during the year just 
closed : — 



Army (U. S.), . 


. 9 


Carpenter, .... 


2 


Baker, 


. 3 


Clerk, .... 


4 


Box shop, . 


. 2 


Core maker, 


1 


Blacksmith, 


. 1 


Expressmen, 


6 


Bootblack, . 


. 1 


Elevator, .... 


1 


Cabinet maker, . 


. 1 


Electrical works, 


% 


* Boys over 18 years of a 


ge usually make 


their own bargains and collect their ) 


yages 



themselves, and the earnings of boys on probation with their parents or relatives are 
never handled by the visiting department. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



93 



Farmer, 








14 


Fireman, . 
Hat shop, . 
Hostler, 
Invalid, 








1 
1 
1 
2 


Laborer, 
Machinist, . 








8 
1 


Mill (textile), 
Milk dealer, 








1 
1 


Moulder, . 








1 


Navy (U. S.), 
Other penal inst 
Porter, 


itutio 


ns, 


* 


1 
2 
1 



Printer, 1 

Photographer, . . t . 1 

Restaurant, .... 3 

Sailor, . . ... 1 

Shoe shop, 3 

Shipper, 2 

Student, 1 

Showman, ..... 1 

Teamster, 1 

Unemployed, .... 1 

Weaver, 2 

Wire mill, . . . . .2 

Occupations unknown, . . 24 

Expressed in percentage, — 9, or 8 per cent., are in the United 
States Army ; 14, or 13 per cent., are farmers ; 8, or 7 per cent., are 
laborers ; 4, or 4 per cent., are clerks ; and the remainder, or 68 per 
cent., are divided among 33 different occupations. 

Of the list of the 110* boys coming of age, 64 boys, or 58 per 
cent., are doing well without question ; 18 boys, or 15 per cent., are 
doing fairly well (honestly self-supporting) ; 2 boys, or 1.8 percent., 
are doing badly ; 2 boys, or 1.8 per cent., are in the Concord Re- 
formatory ; 24, boys or 22 per cent., are unknown. 

Compared with the similar statement in the report of last year, 
attention is immediately attracted to the large increase of boys whose 
whereabouts are unknown ; but this is readily accounted for by the 
addition this year of a list of 14 boys who in previous years had been 
tabulated as having been " in other institutions," and who, therefore, 
were considered as having passed out of the jurisdiction of this de- 
partment. The recent classification of these as subject to visitation 
leaves us, nevertheless, without knowledge of their present standing. 
It is fair to suppose, however, that of this list a considerable number 
may be now doing well. 

Following the custom established last year, we introduce at this 
point a few short histories of certain boys coming of age during the 
year : — 

" X." was committed for larceny at the age of twelve, having 
been previously arrested three times for the same offence, and having 
served one and a half years in another reformatory institution. His 
home was bad, both father and mother being addicted to drink. 
After about two years' stay at the Lyman School, where he was an 
average boy in intelligence and deportment, he was allowed to go to 
his home, which had improved somewhat, on probation. A few 
months' stay at home proved too much for his moral stamina, and he 

* These figures should not be confused with those given in Table 3, page 34, which 
table includes 20 other boys who came of age within the year, but whose names were 
not among those subject to visitation. 



94 VISITATION REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

was returned to the school, and very soon placed on a farm, upon the 
usual conditions. For a few months he did well, but his old propen- 
sity for stealing overcame him, and he left his place with quite a sum 
of his employer's money. He was soon apprehended, and, the money 
being recovered, the farmer took pity upon him and received him 
back into his family. Here he was carefully visited and watched, 
and the reports sent to the school were generally satisfactory. By 
his subsequent good behavior a strong mutual attachment was formed 
between the boy and his employer's family, and he remained there 
until he was eighteen years of age. He then made his home with a 
relative in a large city of the Commonwealth, where he secured an 
humble position with a large corporation. He patiently and faith- 
fully performed his duties, and to-day at twenty-one years of age, 
holds a position of considerable trust, and a salary of $600 a year. 

" Y." was committed at the age of thirteen for breaking, entering 
and larceny. This was his first offence on record, and he spent one 
and a half years in the institution. Being an illegitimate child and 
having no home, he was released to his grandparents, at their request. 
Here he began a new life. Industrious, capable and honest, he not 
only began as a boy to earn his own living, but was the main support 
of his aged grandparents. He was recently appointed to a position 
of responsibility in one of the largest corporations of the State, at a 
good salary, and he is highly esteemed by all his town's people. 

" Z." was thirteen years of age when he was convicted and sent to 
the Lyman School for breaking and entering. He had been arrested 
previously for the same offence, and had a fair home. He spent two 
years in the institution, when he was allowed to go home on proba- 
tion. For a little while he worked in a mill, but within a year he 
was before the court again for the same offence, and was recommitted 
to the Lyman School. He spent another year and a half at the 
school, and when about eighteen years of age was sent to a place 
upon a farm in an adjacent State. His main failing was an ungov- 
ernable temper, and, taking offence at the slightest provocation, or 
what he considered to be a provocation, he would run away from his 
place. It was during one of these escapades that the visitor found 
him and urged him to go back to his place, where the farmer was 
ready to receive him. But he would not, and no threats of any insti- 
tution or persuasions of any kind would avail. As a last resort 
(and the first time the visitor had ever been driven to this expedient), 
he was threatened with corporal punishment upon his return to the 
school, unless he would return to his work. It prevailed. The boy 
went back, finished his time, hired out in the same neighborhood for 
two successive years, earning fair wages and supporting himself well. 
He is classed among those who are honestly self-supporting. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 95 



Financial Statement. 

Expenses. 

Salary of visitors, $3,470 86 

Telephone service, 127 37 

Travelling and stationery, 3,541 21 

$7,139 44 

The same harmony of purpose and action which has heretofore 
characterized the work of this department, both in its own internal 
administration and in its relation to the Lyman School and its officers., 
has prevailed during the year, and the constant interest and abiding 
favor of your Board have constrained us to do our best. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WALTER A. WHEELER, 

Superintendent of Visitation. 



EEPOET OF THE OFFICERS 



STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 



LANCASTER. 



SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT. 



To the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

Since many who are interested in institution work have expressed 
a desire to know more of the special duties of the officers of our 
Industrial School, it may be worth while to give somewhat in detail 
an account of their work. 

We have at present six family cottages, and another is in process 
of building. Each cottage has from 25 to 30 girls, who are cared for 
by a matron, teacher and housekeeper, each person being in charge 
of her particular department and held responsible for the same. In 
selecting the officers, an effort is made to place in each household 
those who will be congenial with one another. 

The matron has charge of the dressmaking and of the making and 
mending of the clothes, knitting of stockings and the care of the 
rooms and halls, teaching and directing the girls in all these depart- 
ments of work. The conducting of devotional exercises held each 
night before going to bed, when the entire family usually are present, 
also devolves upon the matron. If any girl is ill she is the matron's 
special charge,* and is kindly nursed and cared for. The matron must 
maintain firm discipline, but a girl is always sure to find ready sym- 
pathy here. It is true that " there is a wonderful power in sympathy 
to open and display tjie hidden richness of a man's life," and sympa- 
thy, patience and charity are the requisites for making a good matron 
and turning evil to good. 

One who has had no experience in this work cannot realize what a 
slow process it is to remodel character ; nor can one who has not 
worked and struggled to bring right out of wrong understand the 
satisfaction and joy that comes when the effort is rewarded with 
success. 

The teacher shares the responsibility with the matron. She has 
hours for teaching, both in the school-room and sewing-room. When 
she has charge of their recreation she joins in their games and sports. 
Her work is important, and her moral influence depends largely upon 
her personality. The school work is ungraded, since the classification 

* In cases of contagious disease or other serious illness the patient may be moved to 
the isolating hospital and a trained nurse put in temporary charge. 



100 SUPT.'S REPORT INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

must be made from a moral rather than from an educational point of 
view, in order that the least harm possible may come to the more 
innocent. Each teacher has charge of the singing of her school, but 
at least once a week the girls are drilled together in the chapel by an 
excellent musician and experienced director of choruses. Music is a 
great factor for good in the schools. The girl who does not sing is 
the exception, and through music the best that is in her nature can be 
reached and brought out, while it cheers and makes happy many who 
might otherwise be discontented. 

The housekeeper must be equally intelligent and refined, as upon 
her in turn rests great responsibility. Nowhere do matters come up 
which irritate and try the disposition oftener than in the varied duties 
of the kitchen, and the housekeeper needs great tact and judgment to 
maintain order out of what might easily become chaos. The house- 
keeper has entire charge of the kitchen and laundry. She trains the 
girls in the countless kinds of work which every household demands. 
Each girl washes her own clothes, even if she is so small that she has 
to stand on a box to reach into her tub. As a girl learns to do the 
different kinds of work, she is promoted month by month until she 
has finished a regular course of industrial training. A girl is usually 
in the school six months before she can take a place in the kitchen, 
and not then unless her record while in the school warrants it, for it 
is a promotion to begin the kitchen work, and every girl is very proud 
when she can say " I am a ' kitchen girl.' " 

Some one has said, " Routine is a terrible master, but is a servant 
whom we can hardly do without." The routine of the housework 
forms a valuable training to girls who have never regarded method or 
been expected to follow any regular course of life or employment. 

When a girl has finished a training which can make her helpful to 
herself and others, there generally is a place already arranged for her 
in a family. Meanwhile, the matron has anticipated the girl's going 
out, and, with her help, has made her a neat outfit. When she is at 
last in a place she is still under the care of the trustees until she is 
twenty-one, and she is visited by an auxiliary visitor (i. e., a lady 
resident in the neighborhood), who takes an interest in her and helps 
carry on the good work which has been begun in the school. 

In addition to these three house officers, there is a supervisor of 
schools and general assistant to the superintendent, whose duty it is 
to arrange the course of study for each school and supplement the 
teachers' work. She plans amusements and assists in the Sunday- 
school, which is held each Sunday morning, the regular service being 
in the afternoon. She also has the care of the library. And here I 
wish to acknowledge the kindness of Mrs. Nathaniel Thayer, who for 
several years past has remembered each girl in the school with a gift 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 101 

at Christmas time ; also to extend thanks to the W. C. T. U. of 
Clinton and Lancaster, who kindly presented us with a copy of "The 
Life of Frances Willard," which was read aloud, to the great enjoy- 
ment of the school. Other gifts of books from individuals have been 
gratefully received. Aside from these gifts there have been added 
to the library from the Rogers fund about seventy new books. 

Another officer, whose duties are important, although she remains 
at the school but a part of the year, is the one who has charge of the 
girls while they are at work on the farm. It is largely due to her tact 
and influence that the farm work is always a source of enjoyment to 
the girls. This year has formed no exception to the rule, and their 
work has been rewarded by an abundance of fresh fruit and vege- 
tables. 

In the winter season each household receives three gymnastic 
lessons every week. 

During the spring and summer several of our girls who have passed 
from under our care have returned with their families to visit us. It 
is a reward for all our care and watchfulness whenever we know that 
a girl has developed into a good woman and a good citizen. 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. L. BRACKETT. 



102 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



STATISTICS. 



Table I. 



Showing goings from and comings into the School. 

In the school Sept. 30, 1898, 

Since committed, 



Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 
Returned 



from 
from 
from 
from 
from 
from 
from 
from 
from 
from 
from 



probation for change of place, 
probation for unsatisfactory conduct, . 
probation for bad conduct, . 
probation for larceny, .... 
probation for running away from place, 
probation on account of illness, . 
probation on a visit, 
probation with parents, 
boarding, feeble-minded, 
treatment in hospital, . 
almshouse, . 



167 

75 

14 

30 

8 

5 

18 

16 

6 

3 

1 

1 

1 



242 



103 



345 
Released on probation to parents or relatives, .... 21 
Released on probation to other families for wages, . . . 140 
Released on probation to other families at board, ... 7 
Released on probation to other families earning board and 

going to school, 1 

Transferred to a hospital, 9 

Transferred to Reformatory Prison 2 

Married, 1 

Discharged, 1 

182 

Remaining in the school Sept. 30, 1899, 163 

Of the returned girls, 68 were returned once, 13 twice and 3 three times 

within the year. 
Of those who left the school, 137 went out once, 21 twice and 1 three times 

within the year. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



103 



Table II. 

Showing Total Number in Custody of State Industrial School within Year, 
both Inside Institution and Outside. 

In the school Sept. 30, 1898, 167 

Outside the school, and either on probation in other institutions or 
whereabouts unknown, 307 

Total in custody Sept. 30, 1898, 474 

Since committed, .......... 



Attained majority, .58 

Died, 2 

Discharged as unfit subjects, ....... 10 

Discharged for good conduct, . . . . . . .1 



Total who passed out of custody, 
Total in custody Sept. 30, 1899, 
Net increase within the year, 



75 



549 



71 



478 
6 



Table III. 

Showing the Conduct of the Seventy-one Girls who passed out of Custody 

within the Year. 

Married or self-supporting, living respectably, . . 44 or 62 per cent. 
Have been transferred to prison or conduct known to 

be bad, 12 or 17 per cent. 

Conduct unknown, with relatives or at large, . . 4 or 6 per cent. 

Died, ill not through fault or defective, . . . 11 or 15 per cent. 



Table IV. 

Showing Status, Sept. 30, 1899, of all Girls in Custody of the State Industrial 
School, being all those committed to the School who are under Twenty-one. 
On probation with relatives, .... 
On probation in families, earning wages, 
At academy, or other school, self-supporting, 
At board, attending school, .... 
Married but subject to recall for cause, 
Left home or place, whereabouts unknown, 

In the school Sept. 30, 1899, .... 
In other institutions : — 

Hospital, 

Insane asylum, 

School for Feeble-minded, .... 

Reformatory Prison, sent this year, . 

Reformatory Prison, sent prior years, 



67 

135 

4 

17 

38 
29 



290 
163 



25 



Total in custody Sept. 30, 1899, 478 



104 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, 



[Oct. 





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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



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106 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table VI. 

Showing Comparative Numbers and Cost. 





Appropriation 
allowed 

from Jan. 1 to 
Jan. 1. 


Average 

Number in 

School. 


Number of 

Com- 
mitments. 


Number 
at "Work in 
Families. 


Weekly 

Per Capita 

Cost. 


Total Actual 

Cost 
from Sept. 30 
to Sept. 30. 


1866, 






$20,000 


144 


59 


53 


$3 30 


$24,753 


1876, 






28,300 


121 


53 


40 


4 05 


25,683 


1890, 






20,000 


94 


56 


90 


4 08 


20,000 


1891, 






21,000 


89 


46 


98 


4 38 


21,000 


1892, 






20,000 


89 


50 


118 


4 46 


21,329 


1893, 






21,500 


95 


77 


109 


4 02 


19,856 


1894, 






25,385 


117 


78 


111 


3 49 


21,617 


1895, 






27,750 


116 


72 


120 


4 62 


28,801 


1896, 






27,775 


120 


86 


120 


4 17 


26,049 


1897, 






27,775 


138 


100 


156* 


3 93 


28,256 


1898, 






32,525 


159 


102 


163* 


3 79 


31,307 


1899, . 






34,375 


164 


75 


156* 


3 81 


32,530 



* Includes a few at board. 



Table VII. 

Showing Length of Detention of Girls placed out on Probation for 

the First Time. 





Years. 


Months. 


3* had been in the school 


_ 


5 


2* had been in the school 












- 


6 


1 had been in the school 












- 


9 


2f had been in the school 












- 


10 


1 had been in the school 












- 


11 


2 had been in the school 












1 


- 


7 had been in the school 












1 


1 


2 had been in the school 












1 


2 


6 had been in the school 












1 


3 



* Went out to board. 

t One of these was discharged as an unfit subject and went home. 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



107 



Table VII. — Concluded. 





Years. 


Months. 


5 had been in the school 


1 


4 


10 had been in the school 


1 


5 


11 had been in the school 


1 


6 


6 had been in the school 


1 


7 


3 had been in the school 


1 


8 


5 had been in the school 


1 


9 


2 had been in the school . . . 


1 


10 


2 had been in the school 


2 


- 


2 had been in the school . . . . 


2 


1 


2 had been in the school 


2 


2 


1 had been in the school 


2 


3 


1 had been in the school 


2 


4 


1 had been in the school 


2 


9 


1 had been in the school 


3 


1 


1 had been in the school . . .... 


3 


2 


1 had been in the school 


3 


9 


1* had been in the school 


4 


- 



* A peculiar little colored girl, finally boarded. 



Table VIII. 
Showing Technical Causes of Commitment. 



42 for stubbornness. 
13 for larceny. 

8 idle, vagrant and vicious. 

4 habitual absentees. 

3 for night-walking. 



Shoiving Nativity of 
45 born in Massachusetts. 
1 born in Maine. 
4 born in Vermont. 
1 born in Connecticut. 

1 born in New Hampshire. 

2 born in New Jersey. 

1 born in Rhode Island. 

2 born in New York. 



2 for fornication. 
1 for assault. 
1 for drunkenness. 
1 for vagrancy. 



Table IX. 

Girls committed within the Year. 
1 born in North Carolina. 
8 born in Canada. 
1 born in England. 
1 born in Scotland. 
4 born in Ireland. 
1 born in Germany. 
1 born in Russia. 
1 birthplace unknown. 



108 



STATISTICS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Table X. 

Showing Nativity of Parents of Girls committed within the Year. 



21 Americans, both parents. 
3 Americans, one parent. 
16 Irish, both parents. 



2 Irish, one parent. 
28 other foreign countries. 
5 unknown. 



Table XL 

Showing Literacy and Parents Living or Dead of Girls committed 

within the Year. 

5 were orphans. 
13 mother dead. 
20 father dead. 
37 both parents living. 



71 could read and write. 
4 could not read or write. 



Table XII. 

Showing Ages of Girls committed within the Year. 



1 was 10 years of age. 

4 were 11 years of age. 

8 were 12 years of age. 

10 were 13 years of age. 



16 were 14 years of age. 
22 were 15 years of age. 
14 were 16 years of age. 



Table XIII. 

Showing Cash Account of Girls on Probation. 
Cash received to credit of sundry girls from Sept. 30, 1898, 

to Sept. 30, 1899, $2,746 27 

By deposit in savings bank on account of sundry girls, . . 2,746 27 
Cash drawn from savings bank on account of sundry girls 

from Sept. 30, 1898, to Sept. 30, 1899, 2,053 25 

By paid amounts from savings bank, 2,053 25 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



109 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 







82,391 86 






3,063 88 






2,732 64 






1,929 72 






2,387 83 






2,146 60 






2,671 90 






3,233 61 






2,891 59 






2,307 60 






4,358 68 






2,414 34 



1898. — October, received from State Treasurer, 

November, " 
December, " 

1899. — January, " 

February, " 
March, " 

April, " 

May, " 

June, " 

July, 

August, " 
September, " 



$32,530 25 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury. 

1898. — October, $2,391 86 

November, 3,063 88 

December, 2,732 64 

1899. — January 1,929 72 

February, 2,387 83 

March 2,146 60 

April, 2,671 90 

May, . . . . . . . . . . 3,233 61 

June, 2,891 59 

July 2,307 60 

August, 4,358 68 

September, 2,414 34 



$32,530 25 
Amount drawn from State Treasury. 
Special Appropriation {Acts of 1898, Chapter 139) for Boarding. 

1898. — October, $208 42 

November, 30 64 

December, 491 79 



$730 85 



110 FINANCIAL STATEM'T INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct, 



Special Appropriation (Acts of 1899, Chapter 97) for Boarding. 

1899. — February, $41 14 

March, 229 37 

April, 59 50 

May, 42 78 

June, 225 95 

July 134 48 

August, 110 86 

September, 252 78 



$1,096 86 



Special Appropriation (Acts of 1897, Chapter 65) for Concrete Walks 
Grading, Drainage and Water Pipes. 

1898. — December, $117 00 

Special Appropriation (Acts of 1899, Chapter 46) for New Cottage. 

1899. — May, $1,846 14 

June, 1,528 60 

July, . 2,481 53 

August, 2,225 16 

September, 2,919 26 



$11,000 69 
Expenditures. 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1898, Chapter 139) for Boarding. 

1898. — October, $208 42 

November, 30 64 

December, 491 79 



$730 85 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
(Acts of 1899, Chapter 97) for Boarding. 

1899. — February, $41 14 

March, 229 37 

April, 59 50 

May, 42 78 

June 225 95 

July, 134 48 

August, 110 86 

September, 252 78 

$1,096 86 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. Ill 



Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
{Acts of 1897 ', Chapter 65) for Concrete Walks, Grading, Drainage and 
Water Pipes. 

1898. — December, $117 00 

Bills paid as per Vouchers at the State Treasury for Special Appropriation 
{Acts of 1899, Chapter 46) for New Cottage. 

1899. — May, . $1,846 14 

June, 1,528 60 

July, . 2,481 53 

August, 2,225 16 

September, 2,919 26 

$11,000 69 



112 



SUMMARY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



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237 98 


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October, . 
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1899. 

January, . 

February, 

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August, . 

September, 


73 


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113 



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114 INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 



INVENTORY OF PROPERTY. 



State Industrial School for Girls, Lancaster, Mass., Oct. 1, 1899 

Real Estate. 

Chapel, . f 6,500 00 

Hospital, 1,500 00 

Fisher Hall, 16,000 00 

Richardson Hall, 15,000 00 

Rogers Hall, 11,750 00 

Fay Cottage, 12,000 00 

Mary Lamb Cottage, 12,500 00 

Elm Cottage, 4,900 00 

Superintendent's house, 3,800 00 

Store-room, 300 00 

Farm-house and barn, . . . . . 2,000 00 

Large barn, 7,275 00 

Silo, 400 00 

Holden shop, 200 00 

Icehouse . 1,000 00 

Wood-house, 600 00 

Hen house, 200 00 

Piggery, 1,100 00 

Reservoir house No. 1, 100 00 

Reservoir house, land, etc., No. 2, . . . 300 00 

Carriage shed, 150 00 

Water works, land, etc., 7,500 00 

Hose house, hose, etc., 2,000 00 

Store barn, 125 00 

Farm, 176 acres, . , . . . . 10,560 00 

Broderick lot, 12 acres, . . . . . 1,000 00 

Wood lot, 10 acres, 200 00 

Storm windows, 40 00 

Total valuation of real estate, . . . $119,000 00 






Personal Property. 



Produce of farm on hand, 
Valuation of live stock, 



Amount carried forward, . 



$4,937 38 
3,338 50 

$8,275 88 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 

Amount brought forward, . . . f 8,275 88 



115 



Tools and carriages, . 

House furnishings and supplies, 

Miscellaneous, .... 



2,150 00 

14,235 29 

928 50 



$25,589 67 



Worcester, ss. 



A. J. BANCROFT, 
H. F. HOSMER, 

Appraisers. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Oct. 7, 1899. 



Then personally appeared before me the above-named A. J. Bancroft and Henry F. 
Hosraer, and severally made oath that the within statements by them subscribed, are 
true, to their best knowledge and belief. 

Herbert Parker, 

Justice of the Peace. 



Personal Property. 
Produce on Hand Oct. I, 1899. 



Apples, 75 bushels, . 








$15 00 


Beets, table, 325 bushels, . 








162 50 


Beans, 34^ bushels, . 








51 75 


Beans, horticultural, 3 bushels, 








6 00 


Beans, butter, 3 bushels, . 








7 50 


Bedding, 6 tons, 








60 00 


Cabbage, heads, 1,607, 








80 35 


Celery, heads, 433, . 








21 65 


Citron, 30, . 








3 00 


Cucumbers, salted, 3 barrels, 








37 50 


Carrots, 75 bushels, . 








37 50 


Corn, ears, 550 bushels, . 








220 00 


Corn, seed, 2 bushels, 








4 00 


Corn, pop, 40 bushels, 








43 20 


Ensilage, 100 tons, . 








700 00 


English hay, 110 tons, 








1,650 00 


Fodder, corn, 5£ tons, 








50 00 


Gluten, 1,800 pounds, 








18 00 


Hungarian, seed, 1 bushel, 








2 00 


Herds grass, seed, 1 bushel, 








1 50 


Millet, seed, 2 bushels, 








4 00 


Middlings, 1,200 pounds, . 








10 80 


Meal, corn and cob, 2 tons, 








30 00 


1 Meal, corn bolted, 100 pounds, 








2 00 


i Meal, rye, 100 pounds, 








2 00 


i Mangolds, 2 tons, 








20 00 


Manure, cords, 60, . 








360 00 


Onions, 35 bushels, . 

Amount carried forward, . 








26 25 




$3 626,50 



116 



INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. 



[Oct. 



Amount brought forward, . 



Oats, 25 bushels, 
Provender, 800 pounds, 
Pumpkins, 7£ tons, . 
Parsnips, 8 bushels, . , 
Potatoes, 1,600 bushels, 
Pickles, preserves and jellies, . 
Squash, 1,890 pounds, 
Shorts, 600 pounds, . 
Turnips, ruta-bagas, 140 bushels, 
Turnips, English, 25 bushels, . 
Vinegar, 840 gallons, 
Wheat, India, 44 bushels, . 
Wheat, 100 pounds, . 
Watermelons, 600, . 



$3,626 50 


8 75 


6 40 


75 00 


6 00 


640 00 


282 43 


28 35 


4 80 


70 00 


6 25 


126 00 


25 40 


1 50 


30 00 



$4,937 38 



Live Stock. 

Horses, 7, $900 00 

Cows, 28, . 1,540 00 

Bull, 1, 30 00 

Heifers, 2, . 30 00 

Calves, 2, . . 10 00 

Hogs, fat, 18 (6,500 pounds), .... 45500 

Shoats, 17, 136 00 

Breeding sows, 7, 140 00 

Boar, 1, 20 00 

Pigs, 11, 25 00 

Fowls, 105, 52 50 

Tools and carriages, 

Miscellaneous. 

Bags and sacks, ...... $7 75 

Drain pipe, 5 00 

Water pipe (iron) , . . . . . . 9 00 

Flour, barrels, 75, 11 25 

Lumber, 1,000 feet, 16 00 

Engine, 1, 280 00 

Vinegar casks, 30, . . . . . ., 15 00 

Ice tools, 22 50 

Hay caps, 50 00 

Hay scales, 45 00 

Kettle set, 24 00 



3,338 50 
2,150 00 



Amounts carried forward, 



$485 50 $10,425 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 

Amounts brought forward, .... 



117 



Extinguishers, fire, 

Escapes, fire, 

Lamps, street, 

Lawn mowers 

Stoves, 

Oil tank, . 

Hay forks and rope, 

Kerosene oil, gallons, 110 



Richardson Hall, furnishings, . 
Property in Roger's Hall, . 
Property in Fay Cottage, . 
Property in Mary Lamb Cottage, 
Property in Elm Cottage, . 
Superintendent's house, . 
Chapel and library, . 
Provisions and groceries, . 
Dry goods, .... 
Crockery and hardware, . 
Books and stationery, 

Lard, 

Pork, 

Medicine, 

Paint, oil and turpentine, . 
Coal, 361 tons, .... 
Wood, 60 cords, cut, . 



$485 50 $10,425 88 



Total, 



275 00 


16 00 


15 00 


18 00 


30 00 


18 00 


60 00 


11 00 


9°8 50 


$2,245 00 


1,271 30 


1,311 96 


1,595 97 


1,066 60 


995 00 


650 00 


1,177 00 


1,415 20 


266 80 


65 00 


10 50 


24 00 


15 00 


67 75 


1,818 21 


240 00 


11 °35 29 




$25,589 67 



Summary of Farm Account. 
Dr. 



To live stock as per in- 




To labor, 


. |2,544 79 


ventory 1898, 


$3,006 50 


live stock, . 


313 50 


tools and carriages 




mower, 


2 75 


as per inventory 




Paris green, 


14 50 


1898, . 


2,271 00 


phosphate, 


33 00 


produce on hand Oct 




poultry, . 


45 15 


1, 1898, . 


3,912 10 


repair of farm 


tools, 20 77 


blacksmithing, . 


157 87 


seeds and plant 


3, . 179 73 


dressing, . 


253 04 


tools, . 


60 16 


engine, gasoline, 


272 25 








fruit trees, 


33 90 




$14,751 27 


grain, 


1,630 26 







118 INVENTORY INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 



Summary of Farm Account. 
Cr. 



By apples, 


$7 50 


By peas, . 


$16 50 


asparagus, . 


47 30 


pears, 


. . 8 00 


beans, shell, 


33 00 


pork, . 


512 75 


beans, string, . 


53 00 


rhubard, . 


15 00 


beets, . 


19 50 


summer squash, 


. 10 00 


blackberries, 


38 09 


strawberries, 


19 50 


cabbages, . 


15 00 


turnips, 


1 50 


cucumbers, 


51 42 


tomatoes, . 


36 90 


crab apples, 


2 50 


income of farm, 


360 18 


eggs, . 


76 53 


produce on hand as 


grapes, 


3 00 


per inventory 


1899, 4,937 38 


ice, 


250 00 


live stock as per in- 


keeping horse fo-] 


" 


ventory 1899, 


. 3,338 50 


school, . 


150 00 


tools and carriages as 


lettuce, 


10 00 


per inventory 


1899, 2,150 00 


labor, 


62 00 


miscellaneous as per 


milk, . 


. 2,670 16 


inventory 1899, . 504 25 


mplrma 


20 00 
60 00 






muck, 




$15,486 96 


onions, 


7 50 


Balance for farm, . $735 69 




Produce < 


Consumed. 




Apples, . 


$7 50 


Melons, . 


$20 00 


Asparagus, 


47 30 


Onions, . 


7 50 


Beans, shell, . 


33 00 


Peas, 


16 50 


Beans, string, . 


53 00 


Pork, 


512 75 


Beets, 


19 50 


Pears, 


8 00 


Blackberries, . 


38 09 


Rhubarb, . 


15 00 


Cabbages, 


15 00 


Summer squash, 


10 00 


Cucumbers, 


51 42 


Strawberries, . 


19 50 


Crab apples, . 


2 50 


Turnips, . 


1 50 


Eggs, 


76 53 


Tomatoes, 


36 90 


Grapes, . 


3 00 

250 00 

10 00 


Green fodder, . 


248 00 


xce, . • i < 
Lettuce, . 




$4,172 65 


Milk, 


2,670 16 






Produce sold a 


nd Receipts 


sent to State Tr 


EASURER. 


Calves, . 






$33 50 


Hay, . . . . 






207 67 


Milk, . 






4 77 


Pigs, . . . . 






105 00 


Potatoes, . 






9 24 



$360 18 



1899.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18, 



119 



Pay Boll of the Persons employed at the State Industrial School for 
Girls during the Year ending Sept, 30, 1899. 



NAMES. 



Occupation. 



Amount 
Paid. 



L. L. Brackett, 
N. C. Brackett, 
L. D. Mayhew, 
C. L. Everingham, 
A. M. T. Eno, 
J. C. Trask, 
E. B.Eames, 
L. E. Allbee, 
Q. L. Smith, 
E. F. Smith, 
H. T. Spalding, 
A. R. Westman, 

A. L. Brackett, 
L. E. Holder, . 
E. B. Thompson, 
A. Hawley, 
G. L. Smith, . 
E. A. Bartlett, . 
H. Allan, . 
M. R. Weyland, 
E. C. M. Warren, 
E. Mann, . 
L. E. Chickering, 
E.M. Buck, . 
M. H. Hodgdon, 
C. Meeerve, 

A. L. Brackett, 
M. Torry, . 

I. N. Bailey, . 
L. R. Bean, 
M. W. Voter, . 
M. Trapp, 

B. A. Wilson, . 

B. G. Foss, 

K. E. Wight, . 
I. E. Brown, . 

C. H. Cleaves, . 
J. M. Dada, . 
H. L. Gibbs, . 

C. A. Palmer, . 
E. V. Morse, . 
C.P.Fitzgerald, 
E. V. Morse, . 
A. R. Voter, . 
E. P. Woodbury, 
G. K. Wieht, . 
W. W. Wilson, 
W. A. Smith, . 
R. L. Wilson, . 
A. E. Brown, . 
A. L. Saunders, 
A. W. Cleaves, 

D. H. Bailey, . 
M. Dolphin, 

A. L. Smart, . 

E. O. Maxwell, 
O. V. Edwards, 



Superintendent, 

Steward, 

Matron, 



Substitute matron, 

Supervisor of schools 

eral assistant, 
General assistant 
Vacancy officer, 
Clerk, 
Teacher, . 



Substitute teacher, 



Gymnastic teacher, 
Housekeeper, 



and 



Substitute housekeeper, 



Assistant housekeeper, 

Physician, 

Gardener, . 

Assistant gardener, 

Foreman of farm, 

Driver, 

Laborer, 



Carpenter, 



12 months, 
12 months, 
12 months, 
11 months 6 days 
11 months 5 days 
11 months 18 days 
10 months 3 days 
10 months 11 days 

2 months, 

1 month, 

8 days 



10 months 
1 month, 

10 months 
12 months, 

11 months 
9 months 

10 months 

11 months 
11 months 
11 months 

1 month, 

2 months 
1 month 
1 month, 

4 months, 
10 months 

5 months 

10 months 

11 months 
11 months 

11 months 

3 months 

6 months 
5 months 
5 months 
1 month 
3 months 

3 months 

4 months, 

12 months, 

7 months 

12 months, 
11 months 
11 months 
11 months, 
10 months 

5 months 
7 months 
5 months 

5 months 
1 month, 

6 months 

1 month 



24 days 

7 days 

17 days 
10 days 

21 days 
14 days 

9 days 
9 days 

4 days 
4 days 

22 days 



9 days 
19 days 
16 days 

14 days 
13 days 
16 days 

8 days 

15 days 
15 days 
11 days 

5 days 
1 days 
1 days 



12 days 
5 days 

14 days 
16 days 

8 days 

15 days 
28 days 
11 days 
19 days 

21 days 
3 days 
18 days 



$1,200 00 
650 04 
391 64 
364 88 
362 82 
377 55 

327 79 
302 14 

62 50 

28 74 

7 66 

328 50 
31 25 

334 62 
391 64 
328 72 
263 70 

281 64 
302 02 
298 66 

282 39 
25 00 

3 28 
53 28 
43 06 
25 00 

133 32 
291 90 
157 62 
298 61 
325 43 
324 89 
211 23 

81 57 
182 67 
148 75 

134 03 
28 74 
75 45 
75 82 

112 48 
225 03 
211 46 

4 11 
581 60 
405 00 
437 52 
418 00 
388 36 
142 81 
300 86 
139 39 
178 20 

38 00 

254 67 

3 66 

144 00 



$13,523 70 



120 OFFICERS INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. [Oct. 



LIST OF SALARIED OFFICERS NOW 
EMPLOYED. 



L. L. Brackett, superintendent, $1,200 00 

N. C. Brackett, steward, 650 00 

L. D. Mayhew, matron, . 400 00 

C. L. Everingham, matron, 400 00 

A. M. T. Eno, matron, 400 00 

J. C. Trask, matron, 400 00 

E. B. Eames, matron, 400 00 

G. L. Smith, matron, 375 00 

L. E. Holder, vacancy officer, 400 00 

A. R. Westman, supervisor of schools and general assistant, . 375 00 

E. B. Thompson, clerk, . . . . . . . . 400 00 

A. Hawley, teacher, 350 00 

E. A. Bartlett, teacher, 325 00 

H. Allan, teacher, 325 00 

M. R. Weyland, teacher, . 325 00 

E. C. M. Warren, teacher, ........ 300 00 

C. A. Palmer, teacher, . . . . . . . . 300 00 

A. L. Brackett, teacher of gymnastics, *200 00 

M. Torry, housekeeper, . . 350 00 

L. R. Bean, housekeeper, 350 00 

M. W. Voter, housekeeper, 350 00 

M. Trapp, housekeeper, 350 00 

I. E. Brown, housekeeper, 325 00 

C. H. Cleaves, housekeeper, 300 00 

B. G. Foss, housekeeper, 300 00 

C. P. Fitzgerald, physician, 300 00 

E. V. Morse, gardener, 350 00 

E. P. Woodbury, foreman of farm, 590 00 

G. K. Wight, driver, 504 00 

$11,594 00 
* Per 6 months. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 121 



REPORT OF THE SUPERVISOR OF THE 
SCHOOLS. 



To the Superintendent of the State Industrial School. 

Few noticeable changes are to be found in the school routine at 
the close of this year, yet there has been a gradual adoption of new 
methods, where practical, in all branches of the programme, a striv- 
ing to keep pace with the tide of progress, and a conscientious study 
to give the " greatest good to the greatest number " in the limited 
time. 

In the two hours and a half allotted to school work five days of the 
week, it becomes a serious study to determine how to give a pupil 
the most practical education in the average eighteen months' course 
allowed her. The schools are of a necessity ungraded, and many 
classes in each school-room is a result ; that and the constant change 
in the girls' attendance are serious drawbacks. 

A defined course of study is given to each school at the beginning 
of a term, each school covering, as far as possible, the same ground 
in the following three months. Examinations are given occasionally 
in the various schools, and a general examination is given at the 
beginning of each new year in the year's work, each school and each 
pupil being ranked thereby. The girls take pride in their rank, and 
it has been found a great stimulus to study. 

It is said a teacher should be a "walking encyclopaedia;" she 
certainly finds the need of being one here, for I believe that in no 
work is general knowledge so widely needed or given as in these 
schools. Painstaking work is done in the elementary subjects, as 
results show; the nature work and drawing have been gradually 
becoming most interesting. Creditable work has been done with 
brush and ink and with pencil, and some interesting collections of 
leaves, etc., have been made this fall, and the specimen books have 
i a larger number of contributors. 

Debates have been held at intervals during the year, and been 
found most interesting and entertaining. " Roll of honor" parties 
and concerts are given at regular intervals for the well-deserving. 

The musical instruction elevates the girls and is an inspiration in 
tthe school work. Excellent work has been done this year under Miss 



122 REPOKT SUPERVISOR INDUST'L SCHOOL. [Oct. 

Holder, the director. Selections from the best masters have been 
taught, for instance, Gounod's " Send out Thy Light," Dudley Buck's 
anthems, selections from Mendelssohn and others. One of the best 
things was the cantata "Under the Palms," that they gave in 
December. 

Regular instruction in Swedish gymnastics is given during six 
months of the year and is found of great benefit in both health and 
deportment. Three lessons are given to each of the six classes 
during the week. 

The Perry pictures have been found of great value in the school 
studies and we hope for a larger collection this year. 

Very respectfully, 

ANNIE R. WESTMAN, 

Supervisor of the Schools. 



1899.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 123 



PHYSICIAN'S REPORT. 



Jo the Trustees of the Lyman and Industrial Schools. 

With the close of the present year 163 girls are under our care, 
and nearly all are in excellent physical condition. As a rule, the 
girls who enter are fit subjects for the school ; but during the past 
year 2 were committed suffering from incipient phthisis. As soon as 
suitable arrangements could be made, both girls were transferred to 
the Good Samaritan Home, where they died recently. Two other 
girls who were pregnant and 3 with specific diseases when committed 
were transferred, 4 to the Tewksbury Hospital and 1 to the House of 
Mercy, Boston. 

There is a marked improvement in the carriage and general appear- 
ance of the girls since the introduction of a regular course in gym- 
nastics, and there is no question that the exercises increase the physi- 
cal welfare of the girls, besides being an aid to discipline. 

I cannot close this report without a word of commendation for the 
officers, who so untiringly work for the interests of the girls. In the 
many acute ailments during the year not once did the services of a 
trained nurse become imperative, owing to the unselfishness of the 
ladies, who frequently gave up their hours of recreation and sleep to 
devote themselves to their sick charges. 

Very respectfully, 



Worcester, Oct. 13, 1899. 



CLARA P. FITZGERALD, 

Physician. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 18, 



SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 



THE TRUSTEES 



Lyman and Industrial 
Schools. 



(Formerly known as Trustees of the State Primary and 
Reform Schools.) 



Year ending September 30, 1900. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

18 Post Office Square. 

1901. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Trustees' Report on Lyman School, . 5 

Trustees' Report on State Industrial School, 18 

Report of Treasurer of Trust Funds, 26 

Report of Superintendent of Lyman School, . . 33 

Statistics of Lyman School, ..." 37 

Report of Principal of Schools of Lyman School, 48 

Report of Instructors of Sloyd, Lyman School, 51 

Report of Instructor of Advanced Manual Training, 53 

Report of Instructor in Drawing and Wood Carving, 55 

Report of Instructor of Gymnastics, Lyman School, 56 

Report of Physician, Lyman School, 57 

Report of Manager of Berlin Farmhouse, 58 

Financial Statement, Lyman School, 60 

Report of the Farmer, Lyman School, 73 

Report of the Poultry Department 74 

Report of Berlin Farmer, 75 

Farm Account, Lyman School, 76 

Valuation of Property, Lyman School 80 

Schedule of Salaried Officers, Lyman School 82 

List of Superintendents, Lyman School, .87 

List of Trustees, Lyman School 88 

Report of Superintendent of Visitation of Lyman School Probationers, ... 90 

Report of Superintendent of State Industrial School, 99 

Statistics of State Industrial School, 101 

Financial Statement of State Industrial School, 110 

Supervisor of Schools of State Industrial School 122 

Report of Physician of State Industrial School, 123 



&0mmimbxealtf} of lltassarfwaetts. 



EEPORT OF TRUSTEES 



LYMAN AND INDUSTEIAL SCHOOLS. 



lo His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The undersigned, trustees of the Lyman and Industrial 
Schools, respectfully present the appended report for the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1900, for the two reform schools under their 
control. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. H. WALKER, Westborough, Chairman. 
ELIZABETH G. EVANS, Boston, Secretary. 
H. C. GREELEY, Clinton, Treasurer. 
M. J. SULLIVAN, Chicopee. 
SAMUEL W. McDANIEL, Cambridge. 
EDMUND C. SANFORD, Worcester. 
ELIZABETH C. PUTNAM, Boston. 



TRUSTEES' REPORT 

ON 

THE LYMAN SCHOOL FOE BOYS 

At WESTBOROUGH. 



The Lyman School is a State institution to which boys under 
fifteen years of age are committed by the courts for any offence 
not punishable with death or imprisonment for life. 

Of the 173 committed within the year ending Sept. 30, 1900, 
116 had been previously before the courts, 50 had served terms 
in truant schools or other institutions, 116 were committed on 
the complaint of the police for offences against property or 
good order, 5 as truants, and 52 on the complaint of parents 
or guardians under the technical offence of stubbornness, which 
term usually implies disobedience to the extent of consorting 
with lawless comrades and in most cases of stealing or vagrancy. 

Because there is little in the nature of the boys' past offences 
to constitute a reasonable basis of classification within the in- 
stitution, and because little boys and older ones, even if guilty 
of the same offences, are amenable to radically different courses 
of treatment, the line is drawn within the school at the age of 
thirteen, and all under that age are sent as soon as they are re- 
ceived to the Berlin farm, which is situated some seven miles 
away. The Berlin group is so small, the boys themselves are so 
young and the good-will and human kindness of those in charge 
so abundant, that the way of life there is truly more like that 
of a large family than of an institution. Obedience, courtesy 
and truth-speaking seem to be in the air, and all but a very- 
few yield quickly to the cleaning and taming process, and after 
a few months are fit to be placed at board in a farmer's family. 
There they attend the public school of the district, and with 
new companions, and the interests, so absorbing to little boys, 
of cows and horses and pigs and chickens, they conduct them- 
selves as a rule so well that they are not found to be a dis- 



6 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

advantage to the neighborhood.* Those who have fairly 
respectable parents or relatives of their own — and a surpris- 
ing number of Lyman School boys do come of respectable 
people — are allowed to go home on probation after they have 
proved that they can conduct themselves properly ; but for the 
most part it is found advisable to keep them away from their 
homes until they can go to work, a lack of wise parental con- 
trol being a matter of less moment when school days, with the 
consequent long hours of play in the streets, are over. Even 
when they return to their own families, however, they remain 
subject to the control of the school, and are recalled to West- 
borough for bad conduct. The very few who from the first 
are recognized as incapable of cure by these mild methods are 
transferred to Westborough, to receive its more systematic 
training before they are given a trial on probation. 

This method of caring for the younger class of juvenile 
offenders was initiated by the Lyman School in 1895, since 
which time 199 boys have been received at Berlin, of whom 
there are, at the present time : — 

At board, 40 

Self-supporting, with farmers, 22 

In the navy, 2 

With their own people,f . 64 

At Westborough, 41 

Massachusetts Reformatory, 3 

Runaways, whereabouts unknown, 8 

In institutions for defectives, 3 

Returned to State Board of Charity, 1 

184 
At Berlin^ 15 

199 

* When one of these little boarders goes into a new neighborhood, it almost always 
happens that applications for other boys come from first one and then another neighbor. 

A recently received application ran as follows : " One of my neighbors, Mrs. , has 

a boy abont thirteen years of age, by the name of Johnny H , who came from 

your school or farm about a year ago. I saw him in Sunday-school to-day. Every one 
likes Johnny. He is a remarkably bright, interesting boy. I have often heard Mrs. 
's mother say, ' Johnny is the best boy I have ever seen, etc' " 

t The families of 2 of these boys are out of the State, and those of 4 others have 
moved, and their present whereabouts are unknown. 

X One of those at Berlin was returned there from his boarding place, where he mis- 
conducted, because he was still so young that it seemed best to keep him with the little 
boys. 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 7 

Of the 143 boys who, having been in Berlin, are now out- 
side the school in one or another of the above classes, 28 have 
been in Westborough since leaving Berlin, and are now out, 
the most of them, for a second or even a third trial. Classing 
these with the 41 who are now in Westborough, it is seen that, 
up to date, over half the boys who have gone to Berlin have 
known no other discipline in the Lyman School. 

Until a considerable number of the Berlin boys have had 
time to attain their majority, it will be impossible to pass defi- 
nitely upon the success of a method which differs so radically 
from anything yet attempted, so far as the trustees are aware, 
by any similar institution. Certainly where it does succeed it 
is a great achievement that a little boy can have been com- 
mitted to a reform school and grow up with its hand upon him 
to supplement a weak parental authority, and at the same time 
be wholly saved from its associations. For these little Berlin 
boys do not think of themselves as belonging in any way to 
Westborough. They do not know the Westborough boys by 
name or by sight (except as they may have known them for- 
merly in the community), and have none of the sense of 
comradeship which inevitably binds together those who have 
lived together in an institution. The parents of the boys are 
invariably loud in their praises of Berlin, and profess the 
warmest gratitude for the kindness they themselves receive 
there on visiting days, as well as for the kindness with which 
their children have been treated. 

Meanwhile the expense of this system is slight, compared 
with the usual institution training. The average time of deten- 
tion is so short that, although 40* different boys were received 
there during the last year, accommodations for 24 are ample. 
The whole plant at Berlin, buildings, land and furnishing, cost 
only $8,500, and three officers are able to run the establish- 
ment, the washing, bread-baking and all the business of pro- 
viding being carried on at the main institution. Such a plan is 
possible, however, only because it supplements and is supple- 
mented by the main institution at Westborough. 

Of course most boys, and especially older boys, who are 
committed to a reform school, need more than a change of 
surroundings and a gentle hand to win them from their lawless 

* Of these, 38 were new commitments and 2 were returned from places. 



8 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

habits, and tor them a longer period of control and a more sys- 
tematic training are necessary. Thus the population at the 
Westborough branch averages 280, against an average of 19 
at Berlin (with which latter number, however, the 40 boarders 
should be classed) this both because the period of detention at 
the main institution is always for a year and usually for much 
longer, and also because probationers who have misconducted 
themselves are recalled to Westborough in very considerable 
numbers. Of the 299 boys in the Westborough branch on 
Sept. 30, 1900, 51 were returned probationers. 

At Westborough an excellent system of schooling is provi- 
ded, with all its more modern methods, — drawing, modelling, 
singing, gymnastics, sloyd, and more advanced mechanical train- 
ing. The aim kept close in view in all this training is the fitting 
of boys for citizenship and self-support when they shall have 
left the institution, and such modifications of methods as have 
been adopted from time to time have been attempts to approxi- 
mate more nearly to this end. While the boys live in separate 
cottages, of which there are eight on the grounds, they come 
together for lessons in a central school-house and in central 
workshops. This allows a system of thorough grading, and 
secures a degree of efficiency unattainable while education was 
carried on in household groups ; and it is believed that as 
arranged at the Lyman School it does not interfere with the 
more valuable features of the cottage system. For here, in 
the first place, the little boys whom it would be advisable to 
keep wholly apart from association with the older ones have 
been eliminated to start with, and those who remain are so 
much alike in age and in the character of their past experi- 
ence that no harm appears to result from the small degree of 
acquaintance rendered possible from the centralized schooling.* 
Play time, as heretofore, is always passed at the cottage, where 
the boy still eats and sleeps and works when not in class room 
or detailed elsewhere for special work. 

The length of detention at Westborough is determined by a 
marking system, under which a boy by perfect conduct can 
earn his release in nine months, but which, as a matter of fact 
allows few boys to be released in less than fifteen or eighteen 

* With girls, where, as the report of the State Industrial School will explain, there 
is great difference in the character of their offences, an entire separation between the 
inmates of the different cottages is considered of sufficient importance to offset the ad- 
vantages of centralized education. 



1900. J PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 9 

months, while others may be two or more years in the institu- 
tion.* This marking system in its working is far from perfect, 
but it has the merit of leading a boy to understand that his 
release does not rest upon whim or the importunity of his 
friends, but, on the contrary, is dependent on his own con- 
duct. 

Within the past year the school has made a notable departure 
from established methods in attempting to apply within the in- 
stitution the principles of self-government which lie at the basis 
of our political life. This seems a bold step, if not a contra- 
dictory one, in a community which, like a reform school, rests 
on a law which is not its own ; but the great success of self- 
government at the George Junior Eepubiic, and the immense 
moral value of the principle, if it can be made to work, tempted 
the superintendent to recommend the undertaking. As yet the 
experiment is too tentative to allow even a forecast of results, 
while the details of method are experimental from month to 
month, and so cannot properly be set forth in a report. Mean- 
while, the demand upon the ingenuity and discretion of all en- 
gaged is enormous. However the experiment comes out, it 
must be conceded that the superintendent, in facing so difficult 
an undertaking, has shown a courage and progressiveness which 
cannot be too highly commended. 

Under the most favorable circumstances a successful reform 
school is a hard thing to achieve, and many are the visitors 
who come from all parts of the land to see what Massachusetts 
has to teach. Is the cottage system preferable to the congre- 
gate ? are Swedish gymnastics or military drill the better ? and 
shall educational manual training or trade teaching be pre- 
ferred ? | The Lyman School has chosen the first of each of 

* On page 43 will be found a table giving the length of detention of each boy who 
has left the school within the year. 

t This question was discussed at length in the report of 1897, pages 8, 9, from which 
the following may be quoted : " The question often arises why a coarse of general man- 
ual training is preferred at Westborough to definite trade instruction such as is used in 
many reformatory institutions. To this question it must be answered that, considered 
from the educational stand-point alone, a progressive course of manual training has far 
greater value than special trade teaching. Trade teaching, then, which may well follow 
after a more general educational course, should not be allowed to supersede it, espe- 
cially for boys such as those in the Lyman School, who are all under fifteen when they 
enter the institution, who are most of them two to five years behind the pupils of a good 
public school in their studies, and who stay at Westborough often only about a year and 
a half and not often longer than two years. All the education these boys are to receive 
must be crowded into these brief months ; and to learn a trade in this time would necessi- 
tate the neglect of all other manual training. Moreover, most of the boys are too young 



10 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

these alternatives, but it is not upon any of these that the 
chief stress should be laid. To the inquiries often addressed 
to the trustees as to a receipt for success, they would answer, 
"Find a capable superintendent, and, having found him, do 
not tie his hands." Have a policy, of course, but more im- 
portant than the policy is the man. No board, however de- 
voted, can successfully run an institution. Be a superintendent 
never so capable, he cannot succeed if he does not have power 
and responsibility. If he is not fit to exercise power, to have 

when they leave the school to go to work at trades. The unions, where they have influ- 
ence, will not allow a boy under eighteen to be taken at trades. Further, it is shown in 
the manual training classes that, while practically all are capable, in varying degrees, of 
being developed mentally and morally by exercises, and while perhaps two-thirds or 
three-fourths are competent to go into a shop and learn to run a machine, barely ten per 
cent, show sufficient mechanical ability to make it probable that they could ever follow 
a skilled trade with profit. From this fact alone it is evident that the main lines of the 
teaching must be adapted to the ninety per cent, who need general rather than special- 
ized manual training. 

" Meanwhile, under present methods, trade teaching is not entirely neglected. Some 
of the more skilful boys are carried on by special instructions and become good carpen- 
ters or joiners, others gain skill in the shoe shop or the printing office, and a considerable 
number take a responsible part in the construction and repair of the buildings. Within 
the past two years it has happened that seventeen boys on leaving the school obtained 
positions distinctly because of the mechanical training at Westborough. In one case 
an employer, offering three dollars a week to a green hand, paid five dollars a week to 
a Lyman School boy because of his knowledge of the use of tools. 

" In discussing the question as to how far mechanical training may be expected to 
lead Lyman School boys to follow mechanical pursuits when earning their bread, the 
superintendent recently made an interesting analysis of the careers of twenty probation- 
ers who had made more than average mechanical progress in the school. He found 
that of the twenty only eight had obtained employment requiring any mechanical skill, 
and that of these eight, only three seemed likely to stick to work with tools. One of the 
most skiiful had become a canvasser because at that he could earn more money, two 
were mill hands, two expressmen, two clerks, two worked in shoe shops, one was a bar- 
ber, one owned a fishing boat, one had taken to farming and three had had a variety of 
occupations. Eighteen of the twenty had made a fair record in conduct, while two had 
been arrested. 

" In commenting on these facts, the superintendent says : • This is a fair sample of 
present results. What is the interpretation ? First, that any particular form of hand- 
skill is a very uncertain reliance, unless it is mechanical skill of a high order ; second, 
that other forms of labor are frequently better recompensed than work in mechanical 
shops ; third, that the community and class of pursuits most in vogue in it often settle 
the question what the boy shall do for a living. Again, machinery cuts such a figure in 
almost all trades that be who seeks mechanical work must, in the majority of cases, 
learn to manage a machine, which makes, perhaps, only one small part of the finished 
product. What prescience will enable a boy or his master to foresee the circumstances 
that must determine his industrial career, so as to give him the trade instruction which 
will fit him for that?' (The Educational Value of Manual Training, by Theodore F. 
Chapin, The Charities Review, June, 1897.) 

" On the other hand, a general course of manual training makes a boy undoubtedly 
more valuable in any line of work which he may find to do and in proportion as the work 
demands skill." 



1900.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 11 

a free hand in employing and discharging officers,* or in initiat- 
ing and developing such methods as his experience suggests, 
he is not fit to fill his office, and the sooner he demonstrates 
his incapacity the better. While the board trusts him with 
the office, let it give him the chance to succeed. Let it lay on 
him the responsibility for succeeding, and shoulder the respon- 
sibility for so doing. That, at any rate, has been the policy 
of the trustees of the Lyman School, and to that they attribute 
any success which of recent years the institution has attained. 

The critical time for every inmate of an institution is the time 
when he leaves its artificial shelter for the uncontrolled responsi- 
bility of life in the outside world. The Lyman School tries to 
steady its boys during this difficult period by laying emphasis 
on a system of probation. In the first place, the decision 
whether a boy shall go home, or whether he will stand a better 
chance if he goes to work for a farmer, is one demanding deli- 
cate consideration. The question of his own character and in- 
terests as well as the moral standing of his people must be 
weighed, and often the one must be balanced against the other. 
Boys over fifteen who have reached the time of life when new 
cravings, and when, in especial, the social interests develop, 
are much less likely than are younger children to be contented 
on a farm, which fact in some cases makes a city home, even if 
not a very good one, safer than a farm, which the boy would 
detest, and from which he would probably run away. In con- 
sidering the question of probation, the trustees always confer 
at committee meetings with the superintendent and the visitors 
in the employ of the school ; the visitors having previously in- 
vestigated the boy's home, and knowing also what other open- 
ings are practicable, are thus in a position to render invaluable 
assistance in weighing the pros and cons of each case. About 
60 per cent, of the Westborough boys go home at once on leav- 
ing the school. When in their own homes, however, the offices 
of the visitor are pre-eminently important, and many are the 
appeals which come from father or mother for aid in counselling 
or controlling boys who in returning to parental authority have 
slipped back into old habits of disobedience. Still more urgent 

* Under their by-laws, the trustees hold only the right to veto the employment of any 
officer. 



12 TRUSTEES' REPORT LYMAN SCHOOL. [Oct. 

is the need of judicious visitation for those who are placed with 
farmers. Here the employer must be helped both to do the best 
for the boy and to get the best out of him, and often the latter 
must be relocated several times before the round peg is fitted 
into the round hole. Boys who are over fifteen are usually 
placed under an agreement that at the age of eighteen they 
shall receive $50 and a suit of clothes from the farmer; and 
here the offices of the visitor are essential to secure fair deal- 
ing. More than $1,200 was collected under such agreements 
last year, and was put in bank to the boys' credit, to be paid 
over on attainment of majority. Boys over eighteen are 
usually allowed to make their own bargains and find their own 
places. And if they choose then to go home it is not customary 
to prevent it, even though the home conditions are undesirable, 
since boys of that age cannot be treated like children, but must 
be allowed to work out their own characters and take the con- 
sequences. Nevertheless they remain subject to the control 
of the school till they attain majority. Of course relations 
with the older boys must be maintained in a way which shall 
not injure the independence and self-respect of one who is soon 
to enter on man's estate ; but this is not difficult where tact is 
used and friendly relations have been previously established. 
It goes without saying that the visitation of probationers, to be 
successful, requires unusual personal qualifications ; but such 
qualifications the trustees have been fortunate enough to secure 
in the three gentlemen whom they employ. 

On page 90 will be found the report of the superintendent of 
visitation, which should be read by all interested in this line of 
the work. 

On page 39 will be found tables showing the well and ill 
doing of all Lyman School probationers, which tables are 
studied anxiously by the trustees from year to year, they real- 
izing that it is by facts such as these that the usefulness of the 
school must be judged. Figures of this character were first 
compiled in 1893 for the World's Fair, and they then startled 
the trustees by their bad showing. As a consequence, the pres- 
ent system of visitation was organized some two years later, 
and some part of the improved results during recent years may 
be reasonably attributed to this cause. A comparative table, 



1900.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 18. 



13 



showing the conduct of those attaining majority for each year 
since the figures have been gathered, is as follows : — 



1893. 



1896. 



1897. 



1898. 



1899. 



1900. 



Doing well 

Not doing well, 

Have been in other penal institutions,* 
Out of the State, ..... 

Lost track of, 

Doing well at last accounts, . 
Not doing well at last accounts, . 



42* 
23* 



46* 
81* 
35* 

14* 



53* 

2* 
30* 

4* 

11* 



58* 
3* 

31* 
2* 



2£*j 
3|*j 



6* 



4|* 
2|* 



61* 

2* 

22* 

8* 

7* 



6*: 



69* 

2* 

22* 

1* 

6* 



* Many among these have been in a penal institution in former years, and may be now out- 
side again, of whom some, if judged by their present conduct, should be classed with those 
doing well. 

Be it noted that the percentages of those attaining majority 
within the year are chosen as the test figures rather than those 
concerning the whole number of probationers, because in the 
latter are included boys who have been outside the school too 
short a time to allow their careers to become significant. For 
instance, the tables show that last year whereas 74 per cent, of 
the total number of probationers were doing well, only 69 per 
cent, were doing well of those who within the year had attained 
majority. As further illustrating the misleading character of 
figures which are not so taken as to c